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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4399-4404, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263104

ABSTRACT

The role of viruses in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been largely underestimated in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 age. However, during flu seasonal early identification of viral infection in CAP is crucial to guide treatment and in-hospital management. Though recommended, the routine use of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) to detect viral infection has been poorly scaled-up, especially in the emergency department (ED). This study sought to assess the prevalence and associated clinical outcomes of viral infections in patients with CAP during peak flu season. In this retrospective, observational study adults presenting at the ED of our hospital (Rome, Italy) with CAP from January 15th to February 22th, 2019 were enrolled. Each patient was tested on admission with Influenza rapid test and real time multiplex assay. Seventy five consecutive patients were enrolled. 30.7% (n = 23) tested positive for viral infection. Of these, 52.1% (n = 12) were H1N1/FluA. 10 patients had multiple virus co-infections. CAP with viral infection did not differ for any demographic, clinic and laboratory features by the exception of CCI and CURB-65. All intra-ED deaths and mechanical ventilations were recorded among CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with CURB-65 score ≥2, 10 out of 12 cases of H1N1/FluA would have been detected saving up to 40% tests. Viral infection occurred in one-third of CAP during flu seasonal peak 2019. Since not otherwise distinguishable, NPS is so far the only reliable mean to identify CAP with viral infection. Testing only patients with moderate/severe CAP significantly minimize the number of tests.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 24-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147336

ABSTRACT

Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Dysbiosis/therapy , Dysbiosis/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Nutr ; 7: 613928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052491

ABSTRACT

Background: Mounting evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 may impact on host microbiota and gut inflammation, infecting intestinal epithelial cells. This possible link and its implications can be investigated by observing the effects of modulation of the microbial flora in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of mortality, the need of ICU hospitalization and the length of hospitalization in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received the best available therapy (BAT) vs. patients treated with BAT and supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. Methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 200 adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received therapeutic regimens including low molecular weight heparin plus one or more between hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antivirals, and Tocilizumab. Oral bacteriotherapy was used as complementary treatment. Results: Out of the 200 patients, 112 received BAT without oral bacteriotherapy, and 88 BAT with oral bacteriotherapy. Crude mortality was 22%. Eleven percent died in the group of patients treated with BAT plus oral bacteriotherapy vs. 30% subjects in the group of patients managed only with BAT (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the age >65 years, CRP >41.8 mg/L, Platelets <150.000 mmc, and cardiovascular events were associated with the increased risk of mortality. Oral bacteriotherapy was an independent variable associated with a reduced risk for death. Despite large prospective trials are needed, this study highlights a possible role for oral bacteriotherapy in the management of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024582

ABSTRACT

Prevention of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in healthcare workers (HCWs) facing the current COVID-19 pandemic is a challenge worldwide as HCWs are likely to experience acute and chronic, often unpredictable, occupational stressors leading to PTSS. This review aims to analyze the literature to discover which topics have been focused on and what the latest developments are in managing the occupational risk of PTSS in HCWs during the current pandemic. For the purpose of this review, we searched for publications in MEDLINE/Pubmed using selected keywords. The articles were reviewed and categorized into one or more of the following categories based on their subject matter: risk assessment, risk management, occurrence rates. A total of 16 publications matched our inclusion criteria. The topics discussed were: "Risk Assessment", "Occurrence Rates", and "Risk Management". Young age, low work experience, female gender, heavy workload, working in unsafe settings, and lack of training and social support were found to be predictors of PTSS. This review's findings showed the need for urgent interventions aimed at protecting HCWs from the psychological impact of traumatic events related to the pandemic and leading to PTSS; healthcare policies need to consider preventive and management strategies toward PTSS, and the related psychic sequelae, in HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21803, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982498

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Complex immune dysregulation in interferon (IFN) and T cell response has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients as well as in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)/HIV-1 coinfection has been described in only few cases worldwide and no data are available on immunological outcomes in HIV-1-patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, this study aims to compare type I IFN response and T cell activation levels between a SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient and age-matched HIV-1-positive or uninfected women. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1 coinfection, ten HIV-1-positive women and five age-matched-healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. DIAGNOSES: SARS-CoV-2 infection caused severe pneumonia in the second week of illness in HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors. Chest high-resolution computed tomography images of the SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected patient showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. INTERVENTIONS: SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient under darunavir/cobicistat regimen received a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. Analysis of IFNα/ß mRNA levels and CD4 and CD8 T cell (CD38, human leukocyte antigen-DR [HLA-DR], CD38 HLA-DR) frequencies were performed by RT/real-time PCR assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Median relative difference (MRD) was calculated for each immunological variable. For values greater than reference, MRD should be a positive number and for values that are smaller, MRD should be negative. OUTCOMES: The severe pneumonia observed in SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors was reversed by a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. At the end of treatment, on day 7, patient reported resolution of fever, normalization of respiratory rate (14 breaths/min), and improved oxygen arterial pressure with a FiO2 of 30%. MRD values for IFNα/ß and CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and/or HLA-DR found in SARS-CoV-2-/HIV-1-coinfected woman were approximatively equal to 0 when refereed respectively to HIV-1-positive female patients [MRDs IFNα/ß: median -0.2545 (range: -0.5/0.1); T cells: median -0.11 (range: -0.8/1.3)] and ≥ 6 when referred to healthy individuals [MRDs IFNα/ß: median 28.45 (range: 15/41.9); T cells: median 10 (range 6/22)]. LESSONS: These results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-1-positive female patient was associated with increased levels of IFNα/ß-mRNAs and T cell activation compared to healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interferons/blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2210-2220, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893240

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of new therapeutic resources against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a priority in clinical research considering the minimal options currently available. To evaluate the adjuvant use of systemic oxygen-ozone administration in the early control of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PROBIOZOVID is an ongoing, interventional, randomized, prospective, and double-arm trial enrolling patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. From a total of 85 patients screened, 28 were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into ozone-autohemotherapy group (14) and control group (14). The procedure consisted in a daily double-treatment with systemic Oxygen-ozone administration for 7 days. All patients were treated with ad interim best available therapy. The primary outcome was delta in the number of patients requiring orotracheal-intubation despite treatment. Secondary outcome was the difference of mortality between the two groups. Moreover, hematological parameters were compared before and after treatment. No differences in the characteristics between groups were observed at baseline. As a preliminary report we have observed that one patient for each group needed intubation and was transferred to ITU. No deaths were observed at 7-14 days of follow up. Thirty-day mortality was 8.3% for ozone group and 10% for controls. Ozone therapy did not significantly influence inflammation markers, hematology profile, and lymphocyte subpopulations of patients treated. Ozone therapy had an impact on the need for the ventilatory support, although did not reach statistical significance. Finally, no adverse events related to the use of ozone-autohemotherapy were reported. Preliminary results, although not showing statistically significant benefits of ozone on COVID-19, did not report any toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Ozone/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/adverse effects , Ozone/adverse effects , Probiotics/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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