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1.
J Exerc Sci Fit ; 20(4): 349-354, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004216

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: The 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympic was held in 2021, although postponed due to the spread of COVID-19. This event might have an impact on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents, but the national data on PA during the pandemic were not available. Therefore, the goal of the 2022 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth (The 2022 Japan Report Card) is to assess and track levels of health behaviors related to PA, and health outcomes in Japanese children and adolescents, and environments and government strategy for PA just before the pandemic. Methods: The 2022 Japan Report Card consists of health behaviors and outcomes (8 indicators), and influences on health behaviors (4 indicators). Nationally representative data were used to score the indicators. Results: The key five health behaviors and outcomes (Overall PA: B-; Organized Sport: B-; Active Transportation: A-; Physical fitness: B, Weight status: A) were favorable. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep received C- and D- grades, respectively. Active Play could not be graded (INC). In the influences domain, Family and Peers was graded as C-, while School (B+), Community and Environment (B), and Government (B) were favorable. Conclusions: The 2022 Japan Report Card shows that Japanese children and adolescents had favorable levels of overall PA, active transportation to and from school, and weight status, and there was a generally favorable environment for PA and health, though sedentary behavior and sleep were unfavorable. Future nationally representative surveys on active play are needed.

2.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 7C of the vaccination readiness scale measures the 7 psychological components that structure people's vaccination readiness. We aimed to develop the Japanese version of this scale (7C scale Japanese version) and to assess its validity and reliability. METHODS: The full and short versions of 7C scale Japanese were developed based on translation guidelines provided by the ISPOR Task Force. An Internet survey, including 709 participants, was performed to assess the scale's validity and reliability within a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework (men: 38.8%, age range: 20-92 years). Invariance analysis using multiple-group CFA was conducted to test cross-cultural validity between participants in this study and those in the 7C original version study. McDonald's omega and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated to evaluate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, respectively. To clarify the criterion validity, regression analysis, with previous COVID-19 vaccination status as the dependent variable, was performed to calculate pseudo R2. RESULTS: The 7C scale Japanese version exhibited good content validity, structural validity, configural invariance, and criterion validity. The results showed good internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, except for the "calculation" component. CONCLUSIONS: 7C scale Japanese version exhibited acceptable reliability and validity; however, "calculation" may be a less reliable subscale.

3.
J Epidemiol ; 32(7): 345-353, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to investigate how psychological distress levels changed from early to middle phases of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic depending on the living arrangements of individuals. METHODS: An internet-based, longitudinal survey of 2,400 Japanese people was conducted every 5-6 weeks between February 2020 and January 2021. The presence of severe psychological distress (SPD) was measured using the Kessler's psychological distress scale. Living arrangements were classified into two groups (ie, living alone or living with others). Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether changes in SPD status were different depending on living arrangements. RESULTS: Of 2,400 respondents, 446 (18.5%) lived alone. Although the proportion of SPD in both individuals living alone and those living with others increased to the same extent in the early phase of the pandemic, the distress levels decreased after the early phase of the pandemic in the group living with others, compared with the group living alone, for which SPD remained high. The odds ratio (OR) of developing SPD in interaction term with survey phases tended to be higher among those who lived alone than those who lived with others in Phase 6 (OR 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.64) and Phase 7 (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 0.97-3.63). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, those living alone are persistently at a higher risk of SPD compared to those living with others. Effective countermeasures targeting those living alone, such as enhancing online communication or providing psychological therapies, are essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Home Environment , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Pandemics
4.
J Gen Fam Med ; 21(6): 292-293, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898831
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2086773, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895724

ABSTRACT

To reduce vaccine hesitancy, it is important to identify factors that can intervene at the individual or community level. Social capital is a possible factor because it is associated with various vaccine hesitancy, such as for measles and influenza. However, limited studies have explored the association between social capital and vaccination for COVID-19, which is an unprecedented pandemic and infodemic. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the association between social capital and COVID-19 vaccination during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study used quota sampling for an online-based survey. Participants were asked whether they had previously been vaccinated for COVID-19 and their intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster. Social capital was evaluated using three measures (individual-level civic participation, social cohesion, and reciprocity). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the association between social capital and previous COVID-19 vaccination status as well as intention to receive a COVID-19 booster. Participants were 2,313 individuals, of whom 87.2% had received a COVID-19 vaccine; 72.3% intended to obtain a COVID-19 booster. Individuals with any social capital are more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccination than those with none (OR: 1.73, 95%CI: 1.18-2.54; OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.22-2.05; OR: 3.05, 95%CI: 2.15-4.33). These indicators were also associated with the intention to receive a COVID-19 booster. Thus, our results suggest that among the general public, those with individual-level social capital are more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccination than those with none. Social capital may be a factor that can reduce vaccine hesitancy during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Capital , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination
6.
(Manag. Sport Leis.).
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1769079

ABSTRACT

Exercise facilities play an important role in enhancing physical fitness and in supporting an active lifestyle among users. During the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, exercise facilities have been shut as part of the “physical distancing” policies in many countries. Exercise facilities have been considered “high-risk” places for transmission because of their enclosed environment, shared equipment and the close contact between users and staff. In Japan, in response to the COVID-19 clusters developed from the exercise facilities in the early phase of pandemic, the Fitness Industry Association of Japan released guidelines for gym managers, workers, and users in March. This commentary aims to introduce exercise facilities guidelines in Japan. This article provides reference for the rest of the world to reopen exercise facilities safely in the post pandemic period or to prevent future outbreaks of infectious disease.

7.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 152, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although it is globally known that Japan has high prevalence of active school travel among children, there are few international studies on Japanese children's school travel. Moreover, only few studies have focused on the differences in their mode of travel between to-school and from-school. This study examined the associations of neighborhood built, safety, and social environments with walking to/from school among elementary school-aged children in Chiba, Japan. METHODS: We conducted an online survey with 1545 parents of children aged 6-12 years residing in Chiba between 25 and 27 November 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. A neighborhood was defined as the area of a postcode provided by the participants. Each neighborhood environment was assessed based on the built environment (new town designation, walkability, distance to school, population density), social environment (neighborhood cohesion and connection), and safety (CCTVs, a road section for walking alone, safety volunteers). Neighborhood walkability was measured using subscales of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (youth and abbreviated versions) including crime safety and traffic safety. Parents' perceived influence of COVID-19 on school commuting and after-school activities were also included in the model as covariates. Walking to and from school were separately analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions, where new towns and walkability were computed separately as explanatory variables. RESULTS: Four fifths of children walked to and from school daily. Walking to school was positively associated with crime safety, neighborhood connections, and schools sited in new towns. Walking from school had positive associations with traffic safety, neighborhood cohesion, and CCTVs, but negative associations with safety volunteers and after-school activities. The presence of a section for walking alone and perceived influence of COVID-19 had negative associations with walking to and from school. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes such as declining birthrate, decline in public elementary schools, and increasing after-school activities may change parental attitudes toward children's walking to/from school, and subsequently, their mode of school travel over time. To maintain the high prevalence of walking to/from school in Japan, multidisciplinary approaches involving different stakeholders from education, public health, and urban planning are required to overcome sectionalism and support this behavior in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , Parents , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Schools , Social Environment , Transportation , Walking
9.
Prev Med Rep ; 24: 101640, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517434

ABSTRACT

Studies from many countries, including Japan, have reported decreased physical activity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the individual attributes as related to changes in physical activity during the pandemic in Japan have been scarcely investigated. The present study explored the relationships among individual attributes including demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics, work situation changes, perception of anxiety, and changes in walking and sedentary behaviors, during the pandemic in Japan. To obtain data indicating individual circumstances during the first wave of the pandemic in Japan, we conducted a nationwide online survey from May 19 to May 23, 2020 (n = 1,200). To observe changes in walking behavior objectively and retrospectively, we collected data on the number of daily steps as measured by the iPhone's Health application. Path analysis was employed to examine relationships between individual attributes and changes in walking and sedentary behaviors. Decreased physical activity, especially, decreased walking behavior among younger individuals and those living in highest-density neighborhoods were identified. There was increased sedentary behavior among females. Moreover, individuals with higher socioeconomic status (SES) tended to become inactive due to work-from-home/standby-at-home and individuals with lower SES tended to become inactive due to decreased amount of work. Decreased walking behavior and increased sedentary behavior were associated with a perception of strong anxiety related to the pandemic. Our findings would be helpful in considering measures to counteract health risks during the pandemic by taking into account individual backgrounds.

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 3954-3962, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488125

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many recent studies have reported that the confidence of the vaccination and perceived risk were associated with vaccination intent, yet few studies have focused on other psychological factors. This study aimed to clarify the trends in COVID-19 vaccination intent and to identify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent by sex and age in Japan. This was a longitudinal study conducted through an Internet-based survey from January 2021 to April 2021 before and after vaccine distribution in Japan, including 2,655 participants recruited by quota sampling. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated against COVID-19. In the second survey, the participants responded to questions regarding the 5C psychological antecedents: confidence, complacency, constraints (structural and psychological barriers), calculation (engagement in extensive information searching), and collective responsibility (willingness to protect others). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent in the second wave survey. COVID-19 vaccination intent improved from 62.1% to 72.4% after vaccine distribution, but no significant difference was found in young men. Confidence and collective responsibility were positively associated with vaccination intent, and calculation was negatively associated among all generations. COVID-19 vaccination intent may be affected not only by confidence and constraints but also by calculation and collective responsibility, and further research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 405-410, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436356

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, as well as the frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, men: 51.0%, response rate: 89.5%), selected from June 23 to 28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place, after using the toilet, after touching something outside, before eating food, and after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, the participants responded to the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed at all 5 time points was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% of respondents practiced hand hygiene at all times. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. Therefore, the criterion of hand hygiene (≥11 times/day) may be useful in education and evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100125, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the concerns, current implementation status and correct usage, and factors inhibiting implementation and correct use of a COVID-19 contact tracing application among the ordinary citizens in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2013 participants who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between September 8 and 13, 2020. METHODS: Participants completed an online survey that included thoughts and concerns about the application, status of use, and questions about whether the application was being used correctly. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to clarify the association between the use of the app and sociodemographic factors and user concerns. RESULTS: Of the 2013 respondents, 429 (21.3%) participants reported using this application, but only 60.8% of them used it correctly. The percentage of those having some concerns about the application ranged from 45.9% to 75.5%, with the highest percentage being 'doubts about effectiveness of apps for preventing spread of infection'. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed, the main concerns inhibiting application use were insufficient knowledge of how to use it, privacy concerns, doubts about the effectiveness of the app, and concerns about battery consumption and communication costs. Additionally, the prevalence of the application was lower for lower-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that income may create inequalities in the efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 contact tracing applications. Awareness activity strategies to dispel such concerns and support low-income individuals may be needed.

13.
J Gen Fam Med ; 22(5): 246-261, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135109

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a tremendous influence in general public's behaviors; however, changes in the status of regularly scheduled outpatient visits in Japan during COVID-19 pandemic are still unknown. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2020. Participants were recruited by an Internet-based survey company. A total of 659 patients (54% male, average age 60 ± 14 years) who had regularly scheduled outpatient visits prior to the onset of COVID-19 were enrolled. Participants answered four questions ("decrease in medical visit frequency," "inability to take regular medication," "deterioration of a chronic disease," and "utilization of telephone/online medical care") and stated whether they had a fear of acquiring infection at a medical facility. The associations between answers, fear of infection, and socio-demographic factors were examined. Results: Among the participants, 37.8% had decreased their medical visits, 6.8% were unable to take regular medications, 5.6% experienced a deterioration of chronic disease, and 9.1% utilized telephone/online medical care. Fear of being infected by COVID-19 at medical facilities was strongly associated with a reduced frequency of medical visits and lack of regular medications even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and current medical histories. Conclusions: During the first wave of COVID-19, approximately 40% of participants reduced their frequency of medical visits. It is important to continue implementing thorough infection control measures at facilities and educating the public the importance of keeping chronic diseases in good condition, as well as promoting telephone/online medical care.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125918

ABSTRACT

Vaccination could be a key protective measure against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is important to understand the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among the general public. However, there is no study on the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Japan. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy situation in Japan and assess the factors associated with such issues. This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2956 people. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated for COVID-19. In addition, the participants responded to questions regarding sociodemographic factors, attitudes, and beliefs regarding COVID-19 infection and vaccination. The proportion of participants with a high likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine was 62.1%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vaccine acceptance was lower among several sociodemographic groups, such as women, adults aged 20-49 years, and those with a low-income level. Several psychological factors, especially the perceived effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine, and willingness to protect others by getting oneself vaccinated, were associated with vaccine acceptance. Our results indicate that the perceived effectiveness of the vaccine and willingness to protect others may play an important role in the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.

15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12212, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) levels during work time between those who work from home (WFH) and at workplaces (no WFH), and by WFH subgroups. METHODS: This cross-sectional internet-based survey included 1239 workers (mean age [standard deviation], 44.7 [13.7] years; 59.2% men) living in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Time spent sitting (SB), standing (light-intensity PA; LPA), walking, and engaging in heavy labor (moderate-to-vigorous PA; MVPA) during work time was measured using the Work-related Physical Activity Questionnaire. Workers reported weekly WFH percentages (eg, 0% implies no WFH and 100% implies full WFH), and WFH percentages were categorized into no WFH (0% WFH) and WFH (1%-100% WFH) groups. The WFH group was further subcategorized into 1%-25%, 26%-50%, 51%-75%, and 76%-100% subgroups. RESULTS: Overall, 494 workers (39.9%) worked from home. During working hours, SB time was longer in the WFH group than in the no WFH group (mean minutes [% working-time SB]: 335.7 vs 224.7 min [74% vs 50%]). Significantly shorter LPA and MVPA times (%) were reported in the WFH group than in the no WFH group (LPA, 59.6 vs 122.9 min [14% vs 29%]; MVPA, 55.3 vs 91.9 min [13% vs 22%], all P < .001). Among the WFH subgroups, longer SB time and shorter LPA and MVPA times were observed in the highest WFH group (WFH 76%-100%) than in the WFH 1%-25% and 26%-50% subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Workers who telecommuted were less physically active and had longer sedentary during work time than those who worked at the workplaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Teleworking , Workplace , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tokyo
16.
BJPsych Open ; 7(2): e50, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been indicated that the health impact of COVID-19 is potentially greater in individuals from lower socioeconomic status than in the overall population. AIMS: To examine how the spread of COVID-19 has altered the general public's mental health, and whether such changes differ in relation to individual income. METHOD: An online longitudinal survey was conducted at three different time periods during the pandemic. We recruited 1993 people aged 20-70 years, living in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. Participants' mental health was measured with the six-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; the existence of severe psychological distress was ascertained through the cut-off data. Multiple logistic and mixed-model ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed, with income as the independent variable. RESULTS: Of the participants, 985 were male, with a mean age of 50.5 (±15.8) years. Severe psychological distress percentages for each tested period were 9.3%, 11.2% and 10.7% for phases 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Between phases 1 and 2 or phases 2 and 3, the group that earned <£15 000 had significantly higher propensity to develop severe psychological distress than the group that earned ≥£45 000 (odds ratio 2.09, 95% CI 0.95-4.56 between phases 1 and 2; odds ratio 3.00, 95% CI 1.01-9.58 between phases 2 and 3). CONCLUSIONS: Although there has been significant deterioration in mental health among citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic, this was more significant among those with lower income. Therefore, mental health measures that focus on low socioeconomic groups may be necessary.

19.
J Epidemiol ; 30(11): 522-528, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine the changes in psychological distress of the general public from the early to community-transmission phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and to investigate the factors related to these changes. METHODS: An internet-based survey of 2,400 Japanese people was conducted in two phases: early phase (baseline survey: February 25-27, 2020) and community-transmission phase (follow-up survey: April 1-6, 2020). The presence of severe psychological distress (SPD) was measured using the Kessler's Six-scale Psychological Distress Scale. The difference of SPD percentages between the two phases was examined. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with the change of SPD status between the two phases. RESULTS: Surveys for both phases had 2,078 valid respondents (49.3% men; average age, 50.3 years). In the two surveys, individuals with SPD were 9.3% and 11.3%, respectively, demonstrating a significant increase between the two phases (P = 0.005). Significantly higher likelihood to develop SPD were observed among those in lower (ie, 18,600-37,200 United States dollars [USD], odds ratio [OR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-3.46) and the lowest income category (ie, <18,600 USD, OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.16-3.86). Furthermore, those with respiratory diseases were more likely to develop SPD (OR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.51-4.34). CONCLUSIONS: From the early to community-transmission phases of COVID-19, psychological distress increased among the Japanese. Recommendations include implementing mental health measures together with protective measures against COVID-19 infection, prioritizing low-income people and those with underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750677

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks by healthy individuals for prevention has been attracting public attention. However, efficacy depends on proper usage. We set out to determine the prevalence of wearing masks to prevent COVID-19 and compliance with appropriate measures for the correct use of face masks among the general public in Japan where wearing medical masks is a "cultural" normality. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet-based survey completed by 2141 people (50.8% men, aged 20-79 years) who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between 1 April and 6 April 2020. Participants were asked to indicate how often they wore masks for prevention and to what extent they practiced appropriate measures suggested by the World Health Organization. The prevalence of wearing masks was 80.9% and compliance rates with appropriate measures ranged from 38.3% to 83.5%. Only 23.1% complied with all recommendations. Compliance rates were overall low in men and persons with low household incomes. Our results, hence show that many citizens implement inaccurate measures when using face masks. Therefore, providing guidance on correct usage is essential when encouraging the use of face masks to prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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