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J Pharmacol Sci ; 149(3): 81-84, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796436


Ciclesonide (Cic) is approved as an inhalant for asthma and was clinically tested as a candidate therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its active metabolite Cic2 was recently reported to suppress genomic RNA replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In this study, we designed and synthesized a set of ciclesonide-acetal (Cic-acetal) derivatives. Among designated compounds, some Cic-acetal derivatives with a linear alkyl chain exhibited strong viral copy-number reduction activities compared with Cic2. These compounds might serve as lead compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 agents.

Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Acetals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pregnenediones , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/genetics
Exp Ther Med ; 23(4): 274, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706042


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses its S1 spike protein to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on human cells in the first step of cell entry. Tryptanthrin, extracted from leaves of the indigo plant, Polygonum tinctorium, using d-limonene (17.3 µg/ml), is considered to inhibit ACE2-mediated cell entry of another type of coronavirus, HCoV-NL63. The current study examined whether this extract could inhibit the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2. Binding was quantified as cell-bound fluorescence intensity in live cell cultures in which canine kidney MDCK cells overexpressing ACE2 were incubated with fluorescein-labeled S1 spike protein. When indigo extract, together with S1 protein, was added at 8,650x and 17,300x dilutions, fluorescence intensity decreased in a dose- and S1 extract-dependent manner, without affecting cell viability. When 4.0-nM tryptanthrin was added instead of the indigo extract, fluorescence intensity also decreased, but to a lesser degree than with indigo extract. Docking simulation analyses revealed that tryptanthrin readily bound to the receptor-binding domain of the S1 protein, and identified 2- and 7-amino acid sequences as the preferred binding sites. The indigo extract appeared to inhibit S1-ACE2 binding at high dilutions, and evidently contained other inhibitory elements as well as tryptanthrin. This extract may be useful for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

TRENDS IN THE SCIENCES ; 26(10):10_31-10_37, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1698811
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 43: 128052, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196690


Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid used to treat asthma and is currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An active metabolite of ciclesonide, Cic2, was recently reported to repress severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic RNA replication. Herein, we designed and synthesized a few types of ciclesonide analogues. Cic4 (bearing an azide group) and Cic6 (bearing a chloro group) potently decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and had low cytotoxicity compared with Cic2 (bearing a hydroxy group). These compounds are promising as novel therapeutic agents for COVID-19 that show significant antiviral activity.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnenediones/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics