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Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2390, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013777


With COVID-19 still hovering around and threatening the lives of many at-risk patients, an effective, quick, and inexpensive prognostic method is required. Few studies have shown fibrinogen to albumin ratio (FAR) and C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (CAR) to be promising as prognostic markers for COVID-19 disease. However, their implications remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the prognostic role of FAR and CAR in COVID-19 disease. A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed and Embase till April 2022. Inverse variance standardised mean difference (SMD) was calculated to report the overall effect size using random effect models. The generic inverse variance random-effects method was used to pool the area under the curve (AUC) values. All statistical analyses were performed on Revman and MedCalc Software. A total of 23 studies were included. COVID-19 non-survivors had a higher CAR on admission compared with survivors (SMD = 1.79 [1.04, 2.55]; p < 0.00001; I2  = 97%) and patients with a severe COVID-19 infection had a higher CAR on admission than non-severe patients (SMD = 1.21 [0.54, 1.89]; p = 0.0004; I2  = 97%). Similarly, higher mean FAR values on admission were significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality (SMD = 0.55 [0.32, 0.78]; p < 0.00001; I2  = 82%). However, no significant association was found between mean FAR on admission and COVID-19 severity (SMD = 0.54 [-0.09, 1.18]; p = 0.09; I2  = 91%). The pooled AUC values found that CAR had a good discriminatory-power to predict COVID-19 severity (AUC = 0.81 [0.75, 0.86]; p < 0.00001; I2  = 80%) and mortality (AUC = 0.81 [0.74, 0.87]; p < 0.00001; I2  = 86%). FAR had a fair discriminatory-power to predict COVID-19 severity (AUC = 0.73 [0.64, 0.82]; p < 0.00001; I2  = 89%). Overall, CAR was a good predictor of both severity and mortality associated with COVID-19 infection. Similarly, FAR was a satisfactory predictor of COVID-19 mortality but not severity.

C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Humans , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Prognosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Fibrinogen/analysis
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 780872, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902945


Background: Obesity affects the course of critical illnesses. We aimed to estimate the association of obesity with the severity and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Data Sources: A systematic search was conducted from the inception of the COVID-19 pandemic through to 13 October 2021, on databases including Medline (PubMed), Embase, Science Web, and Cochrane Central Controlled Trials Registry. Preprint servers such as BioRxiv, MedRxiv, ChemRxiv, and SSRN were also scanned. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Full-length articles focusing on the association of obesity and outcome in COVID-19 patients were included. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines were used for study selection and data extraction. Our Population of interest were COVID-19 positive patients, obesity is our Intervention/Exposure point, Comparators are Non-obese vs obese patients The chief outcome of the study was the severity of the confirmed COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients in terms of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation/intubation with obesity. All-cause mortality in COVID-19 positive hospitalized patients with obesity was the secondary outcome of the study. Results: In total, 3,140,413 patients from 167 studies were included in the study. Obesity was associated with an increased risk of severe disease (RR=1.52, 95% CI 1.41-1.63, p<0.001, I2 = 97%). Similarly, high mortality was observed in obese patients (RR=1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16, p=0.006, I2 = 97%). In multivariate meta-regression on severity, the covariate of the female gender, pulmonary disease, diabetes, older age, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension was found to be significant and explained R2 = 40% of the between-study heterogeneity for severity. The aforementioned covariates were found to be significant for mortality as well, and these covariates collectively explained R2 = 50% of the between-study variability for mortality. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that obesity is significantly associated with increased severity and higher mortality among COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the inclusion of obesity or its surrogate body mass index in prognostic scores and improvement of guidelines for patient care management is recommended.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial