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1.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 17: 100393, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814915

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe clinical entity associated with pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection with a putative role of the spike protein into the immune system activation. Whether COVID-19 mRNA vaccine can induce this complication in children is unknown. We aimed to assess the risk of hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in children. Methods: We conducted a post-authorization national population-based surveillance using the French enhanced pharmacovigilance surveillance system for COVID-19 vaccines. All cases of suspected hyper-inflammatory syndrome following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12-17-year-old children between June 15th, 2021 and January 1st, 2022, were reported. Cases were reviewed according to WHO criteria for MIS-C. The reporting rate of this syndrome was compared to the MIS-C rate per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2. Findings: Up to January 2022, 8,113,058 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses were administered to 4,079,234 12-17-year-old children. Among them, 12 presented a hyper-inflammatory syndrome with multisystemic involvement. Main clinical features included male predominance (10/12, 83%), cardiac involvement (10/12, 83%), digestive symptoms (10/12, 83%), coagulopathy (7/12, 58%), cytolytic hepatitis (6/12, 50%), and shock (5/12, 42%). 4/12 (33%) required intensive care unit transfer, and 3/12 (25%) hemodynamic support. All cases recovered. In eight cases, no evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was found. The reporting rate was 1.5 (95%CI [0.8; 2.6]) per 1,000,000 doses injected, i.e. 2.9 (95%CI [1.5; 5.1]) per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old vaccinated children. As a comparison, 113 MIS-C (95%CI [95; 135]) occurred per 1,000,000 12-17-year-old children infected by SARS-CoV-2. Interpretation: Very few cases of hyper-inflammatory syndrome with multi-organ involvement occurred following COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in 12-17-year-old children. The low reporting rate of this syndrome, compared to the rate of post-SARS-CoV-2 MIS-C in the same age-group, largely supports the vaccination in a context of an important circulation of SARS-CoV-2. Funding: ESPID Fellowship Award; Grandir-Fonds de Solidarité Pour L'enfance.

2.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732096

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis is now well described in developed countries, COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) has seemed to remain quite rare in Europe. A retrospective study was performed between March 2020 to September 2021 among COVID-19 adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Toulouse Hospital (Southern France). PCR screening on respiratory samples, which target Aspergillus or Mucorales DNA, were performed, and the number of fungal detections was evaluated monthly during the study period. During the 19 months of the study, 44 (20.3%) COVID-19 ICU patients had a positive PCR for Aspergillus, an overall rate in keeping with the incidence of ICU COVID-19 patients. Ten patients (7.1%) had a positive Mucorales PCR over the same period. Surprisingly, 9/10 had a positive Mucor/Rhizopus PCR in August-September 2021, during the fourth Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant wave. Epidemic investigations have identified a probable environmental cause linked to construction works in the vicinity of the ICU (high levels of airborne spores due to the mistaken interruption of preventive humidification and summer temperature). Even if CAM are apparently rare in Europe, a cluster can also develop in industrialised countries when environmental conditions (especially during construction work) are associated with a high number of COVID-19 patients in the ICU.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323171

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of the study was to document cardiovascular clinical findings, cardiac imaging and laboratory markers in children presenting with the novel multisystemic inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Methods: A real-time internet based survey was sent via the member mailing database for Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiologists (AEPC) working groups for Cardiac Imaging and Cardiovascular Intensive Care member. Inclusion criteria was children 0-18 years admitted to hospital between March 1 and June 6, 2020 with diagnosis of an inflammatory syndrome and acute cardiovascular complications. Findings: A total of 286 children from 55 centres from 17 European countries were included. The median age was 8·4 years (IQR 3·8-12·4 years) and 67% were males. Most common cardiovascular complications were shock (40%), cardiac arrhythmias (35%), pericardial effusion (28%) and coronary artery dilatation (24%). Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was present in 52% of patients and 93% had raised cardiac troponin (cTnT). The biochemical markers of inflammation were raised in majority of patients on admission: elevated CRP (99%), ferritin (79%), procalcitonin (96%), NT-proBNP (93%), IL-6 level (88%) and D-dimers (90%). There was a statistically significant correlation between degree of elevation in cardiac and biochemical parameters and need of intensive care support (p <0·05). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 33·6% while IgM antibody was positive in 15·7% and IgG 43·6% cases. Only 1 death was reported· Interpretation: Cardiac involvement is common in children with multi-inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 pandemic. A majority of children have significantly raised levels of NT pro-BNP, ferritin, D-dimers and cardiac troponin in addition to high CRP and procalcitonin levels. Compared to adults, mortality in children with PIMS-TS is extremely rare despite multi-system involvement, very elevated inflammatory markers and need of intensive care support.Funding Statement: There was no external funding source for this studyDeclaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Local institutional approval was obtained, where required, by participating centres as collaborative anonymised data, according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(2): 180-190, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 have emerged as a population at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of IFIs has not yet been assessed in large populations of mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to identify the prevalence, risk factors, and mortality associated with IFIs in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 under intensive care. METHODS: We performed a national, multicentre, observational cohort study in 18 French intensive care units (ICUs). We retrospectively and prospectively enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome, with all demographic and clinical and biological follow-up data anonymised and collected from electronic case report forms. Patients were systematically screened for respiratory fungal microorganisms once or twice a week during the period of mechanical ventilation up to ICU discharge. The primary outcome was the prevalence of IFIs in all eligible participants with a minimum of three microbiological samples screened during ICU admission, with proven or probable (pr/pb) COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) classified according to the recent ECMM/ISHAM definitions. Secondary outcomes were risk factors of pr/pb CAPA, ICU mortality between the pr/pb CAPA and non-pr/pb CAPA groups, and associations of pr/pb CAPA and related variables with ICU mortality, identified by regression models. The MYCOVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04368221. FINDINGS: Between Feb 29 and July 9, 2020, we enrolled 565 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. 509 patients with at least three screening samples were analysed (mean age 59·4 years [SD 12·5], 400 [79%] men). 128 (25%) patients had 138 episodes of pr/pb or possible IFIs. 76 (15%) patients fulfilled the criteria for pr/pb CAPA. According to multivariate analysis, age older than 62 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·34 [95% CI 1·39-3·92], p=0·0013), treatment with dexamethasone and anti-IL-6 (OR 2·71 [1·12-6·56], p=0·027), and long duration of mechanical ventilation (>14 days; OR 2·16 [1·14-4·09], p=0·019) were independently associated with pr/pb CAPA. 38 (7%) patients had one or more other pr/pb IFIs: 32 (6%) had candidaemia, six (1%) had invasive mucormycosis, and one (<1%) had invasive fusariosis. Multivariate analysis of associations with death, adjusted for candidaemia, for the 509 patients identified three significant factors: age older than 62 years (hazard ratio [HR] 1·71 [95% CI 1·26-2·32], p=0·0005), solid organ transplantation (HR 2·46 [1·53-3·95], p=0·0002), and pr/pb CAPA (HR 1·45 [95% CI 1·03-2·03], p=0·033). At time of ICU discharge, survival curves showed that overall ICU mortality was significantly higher in patients with pr/pb CAPA than in those without, at 61·8% (95% CI 50·0-72·8) versus 32·1% (27·7-36·7; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the high prevalence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidaemia and high mortality associated with pr/pb CAPA in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. These findings highlight the need for active surveillance of fungal pathogens in patients with severe COVID-19. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child, Preschool , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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