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1.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 33, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Expression and storage of breastmilk is a strategy that ensures continued breast milk consumption in the event of temporary separation of an infant from the mother. However, many studies show that working mothers are unable to exclusively breastfeed for six months successfully. Working mothers are forced to wean early because of minimal support at the workplace, lack of knowledge on breast milk expression and lack of storage facilities. The 2017 Kenya Health Act mandates employers to provide lactation rooms for facilitation of breast milk expression in support of the lactating mother. This study analyses the knowledge attitude and practice of breast milk expression among working women in Kenya. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study done between December 2018 and February 2019. Study participants were 395 working women with infants aged six months and below, attending well baby clinics in two large public hospitals in Nairobi Kenya. A structured questionnaire with open and closed ended questions was used to establish the knowledge and practice while a Likert scale was used to explore attitudes of the mothers towards expression and storage of breast milk. RESULTS: Overall satisfactory knowledge on breast milk expression and storage was attained by only 34% of working mothers. Eighty four percent positively agreed that expression and storage of breast milk would help them achieve six months of exclusive breastfeeding. Challenges experienced were breast pain and cumbersome nature of expressing milk. Only 41% (161) were expressing breast milk either regularly or occasionally. The most common reason (24.7%) for expressing milk was to enable someone else feed the baby when they were at work. Most mothers (77%) expressed at home as the workplace did not seem to provide adequate equipment to facilitate breastmilk expression and storage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial knowledge gap on expression and storage of breast milk. Working mothers have a good attitude towards attainment of exclusive breast milk feeding through expression of breast milk. The workplace does not have adequate facilities to support expression and storage of breast milk.


Subject(s)
Breast Milk Expression , Breast Feeding , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infant , Kenya , Lactation , Mothers
2.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1830-1844, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489361

ABSTRACT

Despite health gains over the past 30 years, children and adolescents are not reaching their health potential in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition to health systems, social systems, such as schools, communities, families, and digital platforms, can be used to promote health. We did a targeted literature review of how well health and social systems are meeting the needs of children in LMICs using the framework of The Lancet Global Health Commission on high-quality health systems and we reviewed evidence for structural reforms in health and social sectors. We found that quality of services for children is substandard across both health and social systems. Health systems have deficits in care competence (eg, diagnosis and management), system competence (eg, timeliness, continuity, and referral), user experience (eg, respect and usability), service provision for common and serious conditions (eg, cancer, trauma, and mental health), and service offerings for adolescents. Education and social services for child health are limited by low funding and poor coordination with other sectors. Structural reforms are more likely to improve service quality substantially and at scale than are micro-level efforts. Promising approaches include governing for quality (eg, leadership, expert management, and learning systems), redesigning service delivery to maximise outcomes, and empowering families to better care for children and to demand quality care from health and social systems. Additional research is needed on health needs across the life course, health system performance for children and families, and large-scale evaluation of promising health and social programmes.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Health Promotion , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Poverty , Social Work
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 99, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Audit of facility-based care provided to small and sick newborns is a quality improvement initiative that helps to identify the modifiable gaps in newborn care (BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 14: 280, 2014). The aim of this work was to identify literature on modifiable factors in the care of newborns in the newborn units in health facilities in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We also set out to design a measure of the quality of the perinatal and newborn audit process. METHODS: The scoping review was conducted using the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley and refined by Levac et al, (Implement Sci 5:1-9, 2010). We reported our results using the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. We identified seven factors to ensure a successful audit process based on World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendations which we subsequently used to develop a quality of audit process score. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a structured search using PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, POPLINE and African Index Medicus. STUDY SELECTION: Studies published in English between 1965 and December 2019 focusing on the identification of modifiable factors through clinical or mortality audits in newborn care in health facilities from LMICs. DATA EXTRACTION: We extracted data on the study characteristics, modifiable factors and quality of audit process indicators. RESULTS: A total of six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, four were mortality audit studies and two were clinical audit studies that we used to assess the quality of the audit process. None of the studies were well conducted, two were moderately well conducted, and four were poorly conducted. The modifiable factors were divided into three time periods along the continuum of newborn care. The period of newborn unit care had the highest number of modifiable factors, and in each period, the health worker related modifiable factors were the most dominant. CONCLUSION: Based on the significant number of modifiable factors in the newborn unit, a neonatal audit tool is essential to act as a structured guide for auditing newborn unit care in LMICs. The quality of audit process guide is a useful method of ensuring high quality audits in health facilities.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Poverty , Clinical Audit , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Parturition , Pregnancy
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101259, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HCAI) in neonatal units in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are a major cause of mortality. This scoping review aimed to synthesise published literature on infection prevention and care bundles addressing neonatal HCAI in LMICs and to construct a Classification Framework for their components (elements). METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched between January 2001 and July 2020. A mixed-methods approach was applied: qualitative content analysis was used to build a classification framework to categorise bundle elements and the contents of the classification groups were then described quantitatively. FINDINGS: 3619 records were screened, with 44 eligible studies identified. The bundle element Classification Framework created involved: (1) Primary prevention, (2) Detection, (3) Case management, and Implementation (3 + I). The 44 studies included 56 care bundles with 295 elements that were then classified. Primary prevention elements (128, 43%) predominated of which 71 (55%) focused on central line catheters and mechanical ventilators. Only 12 elements (4%) were related to detection. A further 75 (25%) elements addressed case management and 66 (88%) of these aimed at outbreak control. INTERPRETATION: The 3 + I Classification Framework was a feasible approach to reporting and synthesising research for infection-relevant bundled interventions in neonatal units. A shift towards the use in infection prevention and care bundles of primary prevention elements focused on the neonate and on commonly used hospital devices in LMIC (e.g., self-inflating bags, suctioning equipment) would be valuable to reduce HCAI transmission. Detection elements were a major gap. FUNDING: This work was made possible in part by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, ELMA Philanthropies, The Children's Investment Fund Foundation UK, The Lemelson Foundation, and the Ting Tsung and Wei Fong Chao Foundation under agreements to William Marsh Rice University. The project leading to these results has also received the support of a fellowship from the "la Caixa" Foundation (ID 100010434). The fellowship code is LCF/BQ/EU19/11710040. EJAF is an Academic Clinical Fellow whose salary is funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). NES receives a Research Training Program Scholarship (Australian Commonwealth Government).

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050995, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterise adoption and explore specific clinical and patient factors that might influence pulse oximetry and oxygen use in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) over time; to highlight useful considerations for entities working on programmes to improve access to pulse oximetry and oxygen. DESIGN: A multihospital retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: All admissions (n=132 737) to paediatric wards of 18 purposely selected public hospitals in Kenya that joined a Clinical Information Network (CIN) between March 2014 and December 2020. OUTCOMES: Pulse oximetry use and oxygen prescription on admission; we performed growth-curve modelling to investigate the association of patient factors with study outcomes over time while adjusting for hospital factors. RESULTS: Overall, pulse oximetry was used in 48.8% (64 722/132 737) of all admission cases. Use rose on average with each month of participation in the CIN (OR: 1.11, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.18) but patterns of adoption were highly variable across hospitals suggesting important factors at hospital level influence use of pulse oximetry. Of those with pulse oximetry measurement, 7% (4510/64 722) had hypoxaemia (SpO2 <90%). Across the same period, 8.6% (11 428/132 737) had oxygen prescribed but in 87%, pulse oximetry was either not done or the hypoxaemia threshold (SpO2 <90%) was not met. Lower chest-wall indrawing and other respiratory symptoms were associated with pulse oximetry use at admission and were also associated with oxygen prescription in the absence of pulse oximetry or hypoxaemia. CONCLUSION: The adoption of pulse oximetry recommended in international guidelines for assessing children with severe illness has been slow and erratic, reflecting system and organisational weaknesses. Most oxygen orders at admission seem driven by clinical and situational factors other than the presence of hypoxaemia. Programmes aiming to implement pulse oximetry and oxygen systems will likely need a long-term vision to promote adoption, guideline development and adherence and continuously examine impact.


Subject(s)
Oximetry , Oxygen , Child , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Kenya , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among neonates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be prevented through universal access to basic high-quality health services including essential facility-based inpatient care. However, poor routine data undermines data-informed efforts to monitor and promote improvements in the quality of newborn care across hospitals. METHODS: Continuously collected routine patients' data from structured paper record forms for all admissions to newborn units (NBUs) from 16 purposively selected Kenyan public hospitals that are part of a clinical information network were analysed together with data from all paediatric admissions ages 0-13 years from 14 of these hospitals. Data are used to show the proportion of all admissions and deaths in the neonatal age group and examine morbidity and mortality patterns, stratified by birth weight, and their variation across hospitals. FINDINGS: During the 354 hospital months study period, 90 222 patients were admitted to the 14 hospitals contributing NBU and general paediatric ward data. 46% of all the admissions were neonates (aged 0-28 days), but they accounted for 66% of the deaths in the age group 0-13 years. 41 657 inborn neonates were admitted in the NBUs across the 16 hospitals during the study period. 4266/41 657 died giving a crude mortality rate of 10.2% (95% CI 9.97% to 10.55%), with 60% of these deaths occurring on the first-day of admission. Intrapartum-related complications was the single most common diagnosis among the neonates with birth weight of 2000 g or more who died. A threefold variation in mortality across hospitals was observed for birth weight categories 1000-1499 g and 1500-1999 g. INTERPRETATION: The high proportion of neonatal deaths in hospitals may reflect changing patterns of childhood mortality. Majority of newborns died of preventable causes (>95%). Despite availability of high-impact low-cost interventions, hospitals have high and very variable mortality proportions after stratification by birth weight.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Infant Mortality , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): 715-722, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings, acute respiratory infections continue to be the leading cause of death in young children. We conducted postmortem investigations in children <5 years hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of respiratory disease at Kenya's largest referral hospital. METHODS: We collected respiratory and other tissues postmortem to examine pathologic processes using histology, molecular and immunohistochemistry assays. Nasopharyngeal, trachea, bronchi and lung specimens were tested using 21-target respiratory pathogen real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays deployed on Taqman Array Cards. Expert panels reviewed all findings to determine causes of death and associated pathogens. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2015, we investigated 64 pediatric deaths (median age 7 months). Pneumonia was determined as cause of death in 70% (42/52) of cases where death was associated with an infectious disease process. The main etiologies of pneumonia deaths were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 7, 19%), Pneumocystis jirovecii (n = 7, 19%), influenza A (n = 5, 14%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5, 14%)-10% of cases had multi-pathogen involvement. Among the other 10 deaths associated with a nonpneumonia infectious process, 4 did not have an etiology assigned, the others were associated with miliary tuberculosis (2), cerebral thrombosis due to HIV (1), Enterobacteriaceae (1), rotavirus (1), and 1 case of respiratory infection with severe hypokalemia associated with RSV. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of well-established vaccination programs in Kenya, some deaths were still vaccine preventable. Accelerated development of RSV monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, introduction of seasonal influenza vaccination, and maintenance or improved uptake of existing vaccines can contribute to further reductions in childhood mortality.


Subject(s)
Child, Hospitalized , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , Male
9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758014

ABSTRACT

We have worked to develop a Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya as an early form of learning health systems (LHS) focused on paediatric and neonatal care that now spans 22 hospitals. CIN's aim was to examine important outcomes of hospitalisation at scale, identify and ultimately solve practical problems of service delivery, drive improvements in quality and test interventions. By including multiple routine settings in research, we aimed to promote generalisability of findings and demonstrate potential efficiencies derived from LHS. We illustrate the nature and range of research CIN has supported over the past 7 years as a form of LHS. Clinically, this has largely focused on common, serious paediatric illnesses such as pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea with dehydration with recent extensions to neonatal illnesses. CIN also enables examination of the quality of care, for example that provided to children with severe malnutrition and the challenges encountered in routine settings in adopting simple technologies (pulse oximetry) and more advanced diagnostics (eg, Xpert MTB/RIF). Although regular feedback to hospitals has been associated with some improvements in quality data continue to highlight system challenges that undermine provision of basic, quality care (eg, poor access to blood glucose testing and routine microbiology). These challenges include those associated with increased mortality risk (eg, delays in blood transfusion). Using the same data the CIN platform has enabled conduct of randomised trials and supports malaria vaccine and most recently COVID-19 surveillance. Employing LHS principles has meant engaging front-line workers, clinical managers and national stakeholders throughout. Our experience suggests LHS can be developed in low and middle-income countries that efficiently enable contextually appropriate research and contribute to strengthening of health services and research systems.


Subject(s)
Child Health Services/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Research , Quality Improvement , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Developing Countries , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 33: 100733, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is disrupting health services for mothers and newborns, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Preterm newborns are particularly vulnerable. We undertook analyses of the benefits of kangaroo mother care (KMC) on survival among neonates weighing ≤2000 g compared with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquired from infected mothers/caregivers. METHODS: We modelled two scenarios over 12 months. Scenario 1 compared the survival benefits of KMC with universal coverage (99%) and mortality risk due to COVID-19. Scenario 2 estimated incremental deaths from reduced coverage and complete disruption of KMC. Projections were based on the most recent data for 127 LMICs (~90% of global births), with results aggregated into five regions. FINDINGS: Our worst-case scenario (100% transmission) could result in 1,950 neonatal deaths from COVID-19. Conversely, 125,680 neonatal lives could be saved with universal KMC coverage. Hence, the benefit of KMC is 65-fold higher than the mortality risk of COVID-19. If recent evidence of 10% transmission was applied, the ratio would be 630-fold. We estimated a 50% reduction in KMC coverage could result in 12,570 incremental deaths and full disruption could result in 25,140 incremental deaths, representing a 2·3-4·6% increase in neonatal mortality across the 127 countries. INTERPRETATION: The survival benefit of KMC far outweighs the small risk of death due to COVID-19. Preterm newborns are at risk, especially in LMICs where the consequences of disruptions are substantial. Policymakers and healthcare professionals need to protect services and ensure clearer messaging to keep mothers and newborns together, even if the mother is SARS-CoV-2-positive. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Elma Philanthropies; Wellcome Trust; and Joint Global Health Trials scheme of Department of Health and Social Care, Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust.

11.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 265, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274301

ABSTRACT

In low and middle-income countries (LMIC) general hospitals are important for delivering some key acute care services. Neonatal care is emblematic of these acute services as averting deaths requires skilled care over many days from multiple professionals with at least basic equipment. However, hospital care is often of poor quality and large-scale change is needed to improve outcomes. In this manuscript we aim to show how we have drawn upon our understanding of contexts of care in Kenyan general hospital NBUs, and on social and behavioural theories that offer potential mechanisms of change in these settings, to develop an initial programme theory guiding a large scale change intervention to improve neonatal care and outcomes.  Our programme theory is an expression of our assumptions about what actions will be both useful and feasible.  It incorporates a recognition of our strengths and limitations as a research-practitioner partnership to influence change. The steps we employ represent the initial programme theory development phase commonly undertaken in many Realist Evaluations. However, unlike many Realist Evaluations that develop initial programme theories focused on pre-existing interventions or programmes, our programme theory informs the design of a new intervention that we plan to execute. Within this paper we articulate briefly how we propose to operationalise this new intervention. Finally, we outline the quantitative and qualitative research activities that we will use to address specific questions related to the delivery and effects of this new intervention, discussing some of the challenges of such study designs. We intend that this research on the intervention will inform future efforts to revise the programme theory and yield transferable learning.

12.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(4): 326-332, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361068

ABSTRACT

Healthcare systems across the world and especially those in low-resource settings (LRS) are under pressure and one of the first priorities must be to prevent any harm done while trying to deliver care. Health care workers, especially department leaders, need the diagnostic abilities to identify local safety concerns and design actions that benefit their patients. We draw on concepts from the safety sciences that are less well-known than mainstream quality improvement techniques in LRS. We use these to illustrate how to analyse the complex interactions between resources and tools, the organisation of tasks and the norms that may govern behaviours, together with the strengths and vulnerabilities of systems. All interact to influence care and outcomes. To employ these techniques leaders will need to focus on the best attainable standards of care, build trust and shift away from the blame culture that undermines improvement. Health worker education should include development of the technical and relational skills needed to perform these system diagnostic roles. Some safety challenges need leadership from professional associations to provide important resources, peer support and mentorship to sustain safety work.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/trends , Health Personnel/education , Health Services Research/methods , Quality of Health Care/standards , Data Collection/methods , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Leadership , Mothers/psychology , Neonatology/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Quality Improvement
13.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(7): 648-654, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We explored who actually provides most admission care in hospitals offering supervised experiential training to graduating clinicians in a high mortality setting where practices deviate from guideline recommendations. METHODS: We used a large observational data set from 13 Kenyan county hospitals from November 2015 through November 2018 where patients were linked to admitting clinicians. We explored guideline adherence after creating a cumulative correctness of Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (cPAQC) score on a 5-point scale (0-4) in which points represent correct, sequential progress in providing care perfectly adherent to guidelines comprising admission assessment, diagnosis and treatment. At the point where guideline adherence declined the most we dichotomised the cPAQC score and used multilevel logistic regression models to explore whether clinician and patient-level factors influence adherence. RESULTS: There were 1489 clinicians who could be linked to 53 003 patients over a period of 3 years. Patients were rarely admitted by fully qualified clinicians and predominantly by preregistration medical officer interns (MOI, 46%) and diploma level clinical officer interns (COI, 41%) with a median of 28 MOI (range 11-68) and 52 COI (range 5-160) offering care per study hospital. The cPAQC scores suggest that perfect guideline adherence is found in ≤12% of children with malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea with dehydration. MOIs were more adherent to guidelines than COI (adjusted OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.34)) but multimorbidity was significantly associated with lower guideline adherence. CONCLUSION: Over 85% of admissions to hospitals in high mortality settings that offer experiential training in Kenya are conducted by preregistration clinicians. Clinical assessment is good but classifying severity of illness in accordance with guideline recommendations is a challenge. Adherence by MOI with 6 years' training is better than COI with 3 years' training, performance does not seem to improve during their 3 months of paediatric rotations.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care , Child, Preschool , Clinical Competence , Dehydration/complications , Dehydration/epidemiology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Internship and Residency/standards , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/standards , Mortality , Multimorbidity , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020416, 2019 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555441

ABSTRACT

Background: Kenyan paediatric treatment protocols recommend the use of zinc supplement for all children with diarrhoea. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for young children aged 1-5 months and those who are well-nourished. We examine effectiveness of zinc supplementation for children admitted with diarrhoea to Kenya's public hospitals with different nutritional and age categories. This is to determine whether the current policy where zinc is prescribed for all children with diarrhoea is appropriate. Methods: We explore the effect of zinc treatment on time to discharge for children aged 1-5 and 6-59 months and amongst those classified as either severely - moderately under-nourished or well-nourished. To overcome the challenges associated with non-random allocation of treatments and missing data in these observational data, we use propensity score methods and multiple imputation to minimize bias. Results: The analysis included 1645 (1-5 months) and 11 546 (6-59 months) children respectively. The estimated sub-distribution hazard ratios for being discharged in the zinc group vs the non-zinc group were 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 1.46) and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.24) in these respective age categories. Zinc treatment was associated with shorter time to discharge in both well and under-nourished children. Conclusion: Zinc treatment, in general, was associated with shorter time to discharge. In the absence of significant adverse effects, these data support the continued use of zinc for admissions with diarrhoea including those aged 1-5 months and in those who are well-nourished.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public , Zinc/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Infant , Kenya , Male , Nutritional Status , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001715, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544003

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There were almost 1 million deaths in children aged between 5 and 14 years in 2017, and pneumonia accounted for 11%. However, there are no validated guidelines for pneumonia management in older children and data to support their development are limited. We sought to understand risk factors for mortality among children aged 5-14 years hospitalised with pneumonia in district-level health facilities in Kenya. Methods: We did a retrospective cohort study using data collected from an established clinical information network of 13 hospitals. We reviewed records for children aged 5-14 years admitted with pneumonia between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2018. Individual clinical signs were examined for association with inpatient mortality using logistic regression. We used existing WHO criteria (intended for under 5s) to define levels of severity and examined their performance in identifying those at increased risk of death. Results: 1832 children were diagnosed with pneumonia and 145 (7.9%) died. Severe pallor was strongly associated with mortality (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.06, 95% CI 4.72 to 13.75) as were reduced consciousness, mild/moderate pallor, central cyanosis and older age (>9 years) (aOR >2). Comorbidities HIV and severe acute malnutrition were also associated with death (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.84 and aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.21, respectively). The presence of clinical characteristics used by WHO to define severe pneumonia was associated with death in univariate analysis (OR 2.69). However, this combination of clinical characteristics was poor in discriminating those at risk of death (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.68, and area under the curve: 0.62). Conclusion: Children >5 years have high inpatient pneumonia mortality. These findings also suggest that the WHO criteria for classification of severity for children under 5 years do not appear to be a valid tool for risk assessment in this older age group, indicating the urgent need for evidence-based clinical guidelines for this neglected population.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(2): 372-380, 2020 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The malaria prevalence has declined in western Kenya, resulting in the risk of neurological phenotypes in older children. This study investigates the clinical profile of pediatric malaria admissions ahead of the introduction of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine. METHODS: Malaria admissions in children aged 1 month to 15 years were identified from routine, standardized, inpatient clinical surveillance data collected between 2015 and 2018 from 4 hospitals in western Kenya. Malaria phenotypes were defined based on available data. RESULTS: There were 5766 malaria admissions documented. The median age was 36 months (interquartile range, 18-60): 15% were aged between 1-11 months of age, 33% were aged 1-23 months of age, and 70% were aged 1 month to 5 years. At admission, 2340 (40.6%) children had severe malaria: 421/2208 (19.1%) had impaired consciousness, 665/2240 (29.7%) had an inability to drink or breastfeed, 317/2340 (13.6%) had experienced 2 or more convulsions, 1057/2340 (45.2%) had severe anemia, and 441/2239 (19.7%) had severe respiratory distress. Overall, 211 (3.7%) children admitted with malaria died; 163/211 (77% deaths, case fatality rate 7.0%) and 48/211 (23% deaths, case fatality rate 1.4%) met the criteria for severe malaria and nonsevere malaria at admission, respectively. The median age for fatal cases was 33 months (interquartile range, 12-72) and the case fatality rate was highest in those unconscious (44.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Severe malaria in western Kenya is still predominantly seen among the younger pediatric age group and current interventions targeted for those <5 years are appropriate. However, there are increasing numbers of children older than 5 years admitted with malaria, and ongoing hospital surveillance would identify when interventions should target older children.


Subject(s)
Malaria Vaccines , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Vaccination
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 216, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312327

ABSTRACT

Introduction: African studies have reported high rates of loss to follow up (LTFU) among children in HIV care and treatment centres. Factors associated with LTFU may vary across populations. Few studies have been conducted among HIV infected children in care in rural areas of Kenya. Methods: this involved children aged less than 15 years on follow up at Kangundo Level 4 Hospital HIV clinic from January 2010 to December 2015. We obtained sociodemographic and clinical information from patient files and electronic databases. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify factors predictive of LTFU. Results: a total of 261 HIV-infected children were followed up. The mean age was 10.0 years (IQR, 7-13) and median CD4 count of 582cells/ul (IQR 314-984). By December 2015, 171 children (65.5%) remained in active care, 32 (12.3%) transferred out, 13 (5%) died, while 45 (17.2%) were classified as LTFU. Out of the 45 children presumed as LTFU, we traced 44 out of the 45 children (98%) and found that their actual current status was as follows: 33 of the 44 children (75.0%) had dropped out of care (true LTFU). Factors strongly predictive of LTFU included low caregiver level of education (HR 2.3, 1.9-3.9, P = 0.001), WHO stage I and II at enrolment (HR 1.6, 1.4-2.1, P = 0.05). Conclusion: LTFU of HIV infected children was common with an incidence of 32.9 per 1000 child years and occurred early in treatment and risk factors included poverty, low caregiver education, male child and early HIV disease stage.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/therapy , Lost to Follow-Up , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care Facilities , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Kenya , Male , Poverty , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Factors
18.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 152(1): 36-49, 2019 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) with conventional autopsy (CA) in detection of respiratory pathology/pathogens among Kenyan children younger than 5 years who were hospitalized with respiratory disease and died during hospitalization. METHODS: Pulmonary MITS guided by anatomic landmarks was followed by CA. Lung tissues were triaged for histology and molecular testing using TaqMan Array Cards (TACs). MITS and CA results were compared for adequacy and concordance. RESULTS: Adequate pulmonary tissue was obtained by MITS from 54 (84%) of 64 respiratory deaths. Comparing MITS to CA, full histologic diagnostic concordance was present in 23 (36%) cases and partial concordance in 19 (30%), an overall 66% concordance rate. Pathogen detection using TACs had full concordance in 27 (42%) and partial concordance in 24 (38%) cases investigated, an overall 80% concordance rate. CONCLUSIONS: MITS is a viable alternative to CA in respiratory deaths in resource-limited settings, especially if combined with ancillary tests to optimize diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung/pathology , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya , Male , Specimen Handling
20.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 20, 2019 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) revised its clinical guidelines for management of childhood pneumonia in 2013. Significant delays have occurred during previous introductions of new guidelines into routine clinical practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We therefore examined whether providing enhanced audit and feedback as opposed to routine standard feedback might accelerate adoption of the new pneumonia guidelines by clinical teams within hospitals in a low-income setting. METHODS: In this parallel group cluster randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitals were assigned to either enhanced feedback (n = 6 hospitals) or standard feedback (n = 6 hospitals) using restricted randomization. The standard (network) intervention delivered in both trial arms included support to improve collection and quality of patient data, provision of mentorship and team management training for pediatricians, peer-to-peer networking (meetings and social media), and multimodal (print, electronic) bimonthly hospital specific feedback reports on multiple indicators of evidence guideline adherence. In addition to this network intervention, the enhanced feedback group received a monthly hospital-specific feedback sheet targeting pneumonia indicators presented in multiple formats (graphical and text) linked to explicit performance goals and action plans and specific email follow up from a network coordinator. At the start of the trial, all hospitals received a standardized training on the new guidelines and printed booklets containing pneumonia treatment protocols. The primary outcome was the proportion of children admitted with indrawing and/or fast-breathing pneumonia who were correctly classified using new guidelines and received correct antibiotic treatment (oral amoxicillin) in the first 24 h. The secondary outcome was the proportion of correctly classified and treated children for whom clinicians changed treatment from oral amoxicillin to injectable antibiotics. RESULTS: The trial included 2299 childhood pneumonia admissions, 1087 within the hospitals randomized to enhanced feedback intervention, and 1212 to standard feedback. The proportion of children who were correctly classified and treated in the first 24 h during the entire 9-month period was 38.2% (393 out of 1030) and 38.4% (410 out of 1068) in the enhanced feedback and standard feedback groups, respectively (odds ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-3.34; P = 0.855). However, in exploratory analyses, there was evidence of an interaction between type of feedback and duration (in months) since commencement of intervention, suggesting a difference in adoption of pneumonia policy over time in the enhanced compared to standard feedback arm (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced feedback comprising increased frequency, clear messaging aligned with goal setting, and outreach from a coordinator did not lead to a significant overall effect on correct pneumonia classification and treatment during the 9-month trial. There appeared to be a significant effect of time (representing cumulative effect of feedback cycles) on adoption of the new policy in the enhanced feedback compared to standard feedback group. Future studies should plan for longer follow-up periods to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: US National Institutes of Health-ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number) NCT02817971 . Registered September 28, 2016-retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Drug Substitution , Feedback , Female , Health Policy , Hospitalization , Hospitals, County/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Injections , Kenya , Male , Medical Audit , Organizational Policy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Social Networking
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