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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2225118, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971183

ABSTRACT

Importance: In response to an increase in COVID-19 infection rates in Ontario, several systemic treatment (ST) regimens delivered in the adjuvant setting for breast cancer were temporarily permitted for neoadjuvant-intent to defer nonurgent breast cancer surgical procedures. Objective: To examine the use and compare short-term outcomes of neoadjuvant-intent vs adjuvant ST in the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID-19 era. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada. Patients with cancer starting selected ST regimens in the COVID-19 era (March 11, 2020, to September 30, 2020) were compared to those in the pre-COVID-19 era (March 11, 2019, to March 10, 2020). Patients were diagnosed with breast cancer within 6 months of starting systemic therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimates were calculated for the use of neoadjuvant vs adjuvant ST, the likelihood of receiving a surgical procedure, the rate of emergency department visits, hospital admissions, COVID-19 infections, and all-cause mortality between treatment groups over time. Results: Among a total of 10 920 patients included, 7990 (73.2%) started treatment in the pre-COVID-19 era and 7344 (67.3%) received adjuvant ST; the mean (SD) age was 61.6 (13.1) years. Neoadjuvant-intent ST was more common in the COVID-19 era (1404 of 2930 patients [47.9%]) than the pre-COVID-19 era (2172 of 7990 patients [27.2%]), with an odds ratio of 2.46 (95% CI, 2.26-2.69; P < .001). This trend was consistent across a range of ST regimens, but differed according to patient age and geography. The likelihood of receiving surgery following neoadjuvant-intent chemotherapy was similar in the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID-19 era (log-rank P = .06). However, patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant-intent hormonal therapy were significantly more likely to receive surgery in the COVID-19 era (log-rank P < .001). After adjustment, there were no significant changes in the rate of emergency department visits over time between patients receiving neoadjuvant ST, adjuvant ST, or ST only during the ST treatment period or postoperative period. Hospital admissions decreased in the COVID-19 era for patients who received neoadjuvant ST compared with adjuvant ST or ST alone (P for interaction = .01 for both) in either setting. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, patients were more likely to start neoadjuvant ST in the COVID-19 era, which varied across the province and by indication. There was limited evidence to suggest any substantial impact on short-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Ontario/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3466, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960364

ABSTRACT

RNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have proven critical to limiting COVID-19 disease severity and spread. Cellular mechanisms driving antigen-specific responses to these vaccines, however, remain uncertain. Here we identify and characterize antigen-specific cells and antibody responses to the RNA vaccine BNT162b2 using multiple single-cell technologies for in depth analysis of longitudinal samples from a cohort of healthy participants. Mass cytometry and unbiased machine learning pinpoint an expanding, population of antigen-specific memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with characteristics of follicular or peripheral helper cells. B cell receptor sequencing suggest progression from IgM, with apparent cross-reactivity to endemic coronaviruses, to SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG memory B cells and plasmablasts. Responding lymphocyte populations correlate with eventual SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and a participant lacking these cell populations failed to sustain SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and experienced breakthrough infection. These integrated proteomic and genomic platforms identify an antigen-specific cellular basis of RNA vaccine-based immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Proteomics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228855, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801991

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted cancer systems worldwide. Quantifying the changes is critical to informing the delivery of care while the pandemic continues, as well as for system recovery and future pandemic planning. Objective: To quantify change in the delivery of cancer services across the continuum of care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study assessed cancer screening, imaging, diagnostic, treatment, and psychosocial oncological care services delivered in pediatric and adult populations in Ontario, Canada (population 14.7 million), from April 1, 2019, to March 1, 2021. Data were analyzed from May 1 to July 31, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cancer service volumes from the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, defined as April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021, were compared with volumes during a prepandemic period of April 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020. Results: During the first year of the pandemic, there were a total of 4 476 693 cancer care services, compared with 5 644 105 services in the year prior, a difference of 20.7% fewer services of cancer care, representing a potential backlog of 1 167 412 cancer services. While there were less pronounced changes in systemic treatments, emergency and urgent imaging examinations (eg, 1.9% more parenteral systemic treatments) and surgical procedures (eg, 65% more urgent surgical procedures), major reductions were observed for most services beginning in March 2020. Compared with the year prior, during the first pandemic year, cancer screenings were reduced by 42.4% (-1 016 181 screening tests), cancer treatment surgical procedures by 14.1% (-8020 procedures), and radiation treatment visits by 21.0% (-141 629 visits). Biopsies to confirm cancer decreased by up to 41.2% and surgical cancer resections by up to 27.8% during the first pandemic wave. New consultation volumes also decreased, such as for systemic treatment (-8.2%) and radiation treatment (-9.3%). The use of virtual cancer care increased for systemic treatment and radiation treatment and psychosocial oncological care visits, increasing from 0% to 20% of total new or follow-up visits prior to the pandemic up to 78% of total visits in the first pandemic year. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, large reductions in cancer service volumes were observed. While most services recovered to prepandemic levels at the end of the first pandemic year, a substantial care deficit likely accrued. The anticipated downstream morbidity and mortality associated with this deficit underscore the urgent need to address the backlog and recover cancer care and warrant further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Neoplasms , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics
4.
CMAJ ; 194(11): E408-E414, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the declaration of the global pandemic, surgical slowdowns were instituted to conserve health care resources for anticipated surges in patients with COVID-19. The long-term implications on survival of these slowdowns for patients with cancer in Canada is unknown. METHODS: We constructed a microsimulation model based on real-world population data on cancer care from Ontario, Canada, from 2019 and 2020. Our model estimated wait times for cancer surgery over a 6-month period during the pandemic by simulating a slowdown in operating room capacity (60% operating room resources in month 1, 70% in month 2, 85% in months 3-6), as compared with simulated prepandemic conditions with 100% resources. We used incremental differences in simulated wait times to model survival using per-day hazard ratios for risk of death. Primary outcomes included life-years lost per patient and per cancer population. We conducted scenario analyses to evaluate alternative, hypothetical scenarios of different levels of surgical slowdowns on risk of death. RESULTS: The simulated model population comprised 22 799 patients waiting for cancer surgery before the pandemic and 20 177 patients during the pandemic. Mean wait time to surgery prepandemic was 25 days and during the pandemic was 32 days. Excess wait time led to 0.01-0.07 life-years lost per patient across cancer sites, translating to 843 (95% credible interval 646-950) life-years lost among patients with cancer in Ontario. INTERPRETATION: Pandemic-related slowdowns of cancer surgeries were projected to result in decreased long-term survival for many patients with cancer. Measures to preserve surgical resources and health care capacity for affected patients are critical to mitigate unintended consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Time-to-Treatment , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis , Uncertainty , Waiting Lists
5.
Curr Oncol ; 29(3): 1877-1889, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742359

ABSTRACT

Emergency department (ED) use is a concern for surgery patients, physicians and health administrators particularly during a pandemic. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on ED use following cancer-directed surgeries. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cancer-directed surgeries comparing ED use from 7 January 2018 to 14 March 2020 (pre-pandemic) and 15 March 2020 to 27 June 2020 (pandemic) in Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression models were used to (1) determine the association between pandemic vs. pre-pandemic periods and the odds of an ED visit within 30 days after discharge from hospital for surgery and (2) to assess the odds of an ED visit being of high acuity (level 1 and 2 as per the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale). Of our cohort of 499,008 cancer-directed surgeries, 468,879 occurred during the pre-pandemic period and 30,129 occurred during the pandemic period. Even though there was a substantial decrease in the general population ED rates, after covariate adjustment, there was no significant decrease in ED use among surgical patients (OR 1.002, 95% CI 0.957-1.048). However, the adjusted odds of an ED visit being of high acuity was 23% higher among surgeries occurring during the pandemic (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.33). Although ED visits in the general population decreased substantially during the pandemic, the rate of ED visits did not decrease among those receiving cancer-directed surgery. Moreover, those presenting in the ED post-operatively during the pandemic had significantly higher levels of acuity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/surgery , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-9, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resource restrictions were established in many jurisdictions to maintain health system capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disrupted healthcare access likely impacted early cancer detection. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on weekly reported cancer incidence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a population-based study involving individuals diagnosed with cancer from September 25, 2016, to September 26, 2020, in Ontario, Canada. Weekly cancer incidence counts were examined using segmented negative binomial regression models. The weekly estimated backlog during the pandemic was calculated by subtracting the observed volume from the projected/expected volume in that week. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 358,487 adult patients with cancer. At the start of the pandemic, there was an immediate 34.3% decline in the estimated mean cancer incidence volume (relative rate, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.75), followed by a 1% increase in cancer incidence volume in each subsequent week (relative rate, 1.009; 95% CI, 1.001-1.017). Similar trends were found for both screening and nonscreening cancers. The largest immediate declines were seen for melanoma and cervical, endocrinologic, and prostate cancers. For hepatobiliary and lung cancers, there continued to be a weekly decline in incidence during the COVID-19 period. Between March 15 and September 26, 2020, 12,601 fewer individuals were diagnosed with cancer, with an estimated weekly backlog of 450. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that there is a large volume of undetected cancer cases related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Incidence rates have not yet returned to prepandemic levels.

8.
Elife ; 102021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513039

ABSTRACT

For an emerging disease like COVID-19, systems immunology tools may quickly identify and quantitatively characterize cells associated with disease progression or clinical response. With repeated sampling, immune monitoring creates a real-time portrait of the cells reacting to a novel virus before disease-specific knowledge and tools are established. However, single cell analysis tools can struggle to reveal rare cells that are under 0.1% of the population. Here, the machine learning workflow Tracking Responders EXpanding (T-REX) was created to identify changes in both rare and common cells across human immune monitoring settings. T-REX identified cells with highly similar phenotypes that localized to hotspots of significant change during rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Specialized MHCII tetramer reagents that mark rhinovirus-specific CD4+ cells were left out during analysis and then used to test whether T-REX identified biologically significant cells. T-REX identified rhinovirus-specific CD4+ T cells based on phenotypically homogeneous cells expanding by ≥95% following infection. T-REX successfully identified hotspots of virus-specific T cells by comparing infection (day 7) to either pre-infection (day 0) or post-infection (day 28) samples. Plotting the direction and degree of change for each individual donor provided a useful summary view and revealed patterns of immune system behavior across immune monitoring settings. For example, the magnitude and direction of change in some COVID-19 patients was comparable to blast crisis acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing a complete response to chemotherapy. Other COVID-19 patients instead displayed an immune trajectory like that seen in rhinovirus infection or checkpoint inhibitor therapy for melanoma. The T-REX algorithm thus rapidly identifies and characterizes mechanistically significant cells and places emerging diseases into a systems immunology context for comparison to well-studied immune changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Adolescent , Adult , Algorithms , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasms , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
9.
Health Expect ; 24(3): 978-990, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waiting for procedures delayed by COVID-19 may cause anxiety and related adverse consequences. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize research on the mental health impact of waiting and patient-centred mitigation strategies that could be applied in the COVID-19 context. METHODS: Using a scoping review approach, we searched 9 databases for studies on waiting lists and mental health and reported study characteristics, impacts and intervention attributes and outcomes. RESULTS: We included 51 studies that focussed on organ transplant (60.8%), surgery (21.6%) or cancer management (13.7%). Most patients and caregivers reported anxiety, depression and poor quality of life, which deteriorated with increasing wait time. The impact of waiting on mental health was greater among women and new immigrants, and those of younger age, lower socio-economic status, or with less-positive coping ability. Six studies evaluated educational strategies to develop coping skills: 2 reduced depression (2 did not), 1 reduced anxiety (2 did not) and 2 improved quality of life (2 did not). In contrast, patients desired acknowledgement of concerns, peer support, and periodic communication about wait-list position, prioritization criteria and anticipated procedure date. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed patient-centred strategies to alleviate the mental health impact of waiting for procedures. Ongoing research should explore how to optimize the impact of those strategies for diverse patients and caregivers, particularly in the COVID-19 context. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Six patients and four caregivers waiting for COVID-19-delayed procedures helped to establish eligibility criteria, plan data extraction and review a draft and final report.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , Patient-Centered Care , Waiting Lists , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
11.
CMAJ ; 193(2): E63-E73, 2021 01 11.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110107

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: Pour limiter la propagation de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), de nombreux pays ont décidé de réduire le nombre d'interventions chirurgicales non urgentes, ce qui a créé des retards en chirurgie partout dans le monde. Notre objectif était d'évaluer l'ampleur du retard pour ce type d'interventions en Ontario, au Canada, ainsi que le temps et les ressources nécessaires pour y remédier. MÉTHODES: Nous avons consulté 6 bases de données administratives décrivant la population ontarienne et canadienne pour dégager la distribution du volume chirurgical et de la cadence des salles d'opération pour chaque type d'interventions et chaque région, et connaître la durée d'occupation d'un lit d'hôpital et d'un lit de soins intensifs. Les données utilisées concernent l'ensemble ou une partie de la période du 1er janvier 2017 au 13 juin 2020. Nous avons estimé l'ampleur du retard accumulé et prédit le temps nécessaire pour le reprendre dans un scénario avec capacité d'appoint de + 10 % (ajout d'un jour à 50 % de la capacité par semaine) à l'aide de modèles de séries chronologiques, de modèles de files d'attente et d'une analyse de sensibilité probabiliste. RÉSULTATS: Entre le 15 mars et le 13 juin 2020, le retard en chirurgie à l'échelle de l'Ontario s'est accru de 148 364 opérations (intervalle de prévision à 95 % 124 508­174 589) au total, et en moyenne de 11 413 opérations par semaine. Pour reprendre le retard accumulé, il faudra environ 84 semaines (intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % 46­145) et une cadence hebdomadaire de 717 patients (IC à 95 % 326­1367), qui elle demande 719 heures passées au bloc opératoire (IC à 95 % 431­1038), 265 lits d'hôpital (IC à 95 % 87­678) et 9 lits de soins intensifs (IC à 95 % 4­20) par semaine. INTERPRÉTATION: L'ampleur du retard en chirurgie dû à la COVID-19 laisse entrevoir de graves conséquences pour la phase de reprise en Ontario. Le cadre qui nous a servi à modéliser la reprise du retard peut être adapté ailleurs, avec des données locales, pour faciliter la planification.

12.
Cytometry A ; 99(1): 11-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086332

ABSTRACT

Cytometry is playing a crucial role in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. In this commentary-written by a variety of stakeholders in the cytometry, immunology, and infectious disease communities-we review cytometry's role in the COVID-19 response and discuss workflow issues critical to planning and executing effective research in this emerging field. We discuss sample procurement and processing, biosafety, technology options, data sharing, and the translation of research findings into clinical environments. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/trends , Flow Cytometry/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Translational Research, Biomedical/trends , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Translational Research, Biomedical/methods
13.
Canadian Medical Association. Journal ; 192(44):E1347-E1356, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-911399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), jurisdictions worldwide ramped down nonemergent surgeries, creating a global surgical backlog. We sought to estimate the size of the nonemergent surgical backlog during COVID-19 in Ontario, Canada, and the time and resources required to clear the backlog. METHODS: We used 6 Ontario or Canadian population administrative sources to obtain data covering part or all of the period between Jan. 1, 2017, and June 13, 2020, on historical volumes and operating room throughput distributions by surgery type and region, and lengths of stay in ward and intensive care unit (ICU) beds. We used time series forecasting, queuing models and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the size of the backlog and clearance time for a +10% (+1 day per week at 50% capacity) surge scenario. RESULTS: Between Mar. 15 and June 13, 2020, the estimated backlog in Ontario was 148364 surgeries (95% prediction interval 124 508-174 589), an average weekly increase of 11413 surgeries. Estimated backlog clearance time is 84 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 46-145), with an estimated weekly throughput of 717 patients (95% CI 326-1367) requiring 719 operating room hours (95% CI 431-1038), 265 ward beds (95% CI 87-678) and 9 ICU beds (95% CI 4-20) per week. INTERPRETATION: The magnitude of the surgical backlog from COVID-19 raises serious implications for the recovery phase in Ontario. Our framework for modelling surgical backlog recovery can be adapted to other jurisdictions, using local data to assist with planning.

14.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900745

ABSTRACT

For an emerging disease like COVID-19, systems immunology tools may quickly identify and quantitatively characterize cells associated with disease progression or clinical response. With repeated sampling, immune monitoring creates a real-time portrait of the cells reacting to a novel virus before disease specific knowledge and tools are established. However, single cell analysis tools can struggle to reveal rare cells that are under 0.1% of the population. Here, the machine learning workflow Tracking Responders Expanding (T-REX) was created to identify changes in both very rare and common cells in diverse human immune monitoring settings. T-REX identified cells that were highly similar in phenotype and localized to hotspots of significant change during rhinovirus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. Specialized reagents used to detect the rhinovirus-specific CD4+ cells, MHCII tetramers, were not used during unsupervised analysis and instead 'left out' to serve as a test of whether T-REX identified biologically significant cells. In the rhinovirus challenge study, T-REX identified virus-specific CD4+ T cells based on these cells being a distinct phenotype that expanded by ≥95% following infection. T-REX successfully identified hotspots containing virus-specific T cells using pairs of samples comparing Day 7 of infection to samples taken either prior to infection (Day 0) or after clearing the infection (Day 28). Mapping pairwise comparisons in samples according to both the direction and degree of change provided a framework to compare systems level immune changes during infectious disease or therapy response. This revealed that the magnitude and direction of systemic immune change in some COVID-19 patients was comparable to that of blast crisis acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing induction chemotherapy and characterized the identity of the immune cells that changed the most. Other COVID-19 patients instead matched an immune trajectory like that of individuals with rhinovirus infection or melanoma patients receiving checkpoint inhibitor therapy. T-REX analysis of paired blood samples provides an approach to rapidly identify and characterize mechanistically significant cells and to place emerging diseases into a systems immunology context.

15.
CMAJ ; 192(44): E1347-E1356, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), jurisdictions worldwide ramped down nonemergent surgeries, creating a global surgical backlog. We sought to estimate the size of the nonemergent surgical backlog during COVID-19 in Ontario, Canada, and the time and resources required to clear the backlog. METHODS: We used 6 Ontario or Canadian population administrative sources to obtain data covering part or all of the period between Jan. 1, 2017, and June 13, 2020, on historical volumes and operating room throughput distributions by surgery type and region, and lengths of stay in ward and intensive care unit (ICU) beds. We used time series forecasting, queuing models and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the size of the backlog and clearance time for a +10% (+1 day per week at 50% capacity) surge scenario. RESULTS: Between Mar. 15 and June 13, 2020, the estimated backlog in Ontario was 148 364 surgeries (95% prediction interval 124 508-174 589), an average weekly increase of 11 413 surgeries. Estimated backlog clearance time is 84 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI] 46-145), with an estimated weekly throughput of 717 patients (95% CI 326-1367) requiring 719 operating room hours (95% CI 431-1038), 265 ward beds (95% CI 87-678) and 9 ICU beds (95% CI 4-20) per week. INTERPRETATION: The magnitude of the surgical backlog from COVID-19 raises serious implications for the recovery phase in Ontario. Our framework for modelling surgical backlog recovery can be adapted to other jurisdictions, using local data to assist with planning.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Neoplasms/surgery , Organ Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Ontario , Operating Rooms/supply & distribution , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
16.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 70-75, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733649

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OSCC) patients treated with non-surgical approach i.e. definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: All OSCC patients treated radically with IMRT (without primary surgery) between 2005-2014 were reviewed in a prospectively collected database. OSCC patients treated with definitive RT received concurrent chemotherapy except for early stage patients or those who declined or were unfit for chemotherapy. The 5-year local, and regional, distant control rates, disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and late toxicity were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 1316 OSCC patients treated with curative-intent; 108 patients (8%) received non-operative management due to: medical inoperability (n = 14, 13%), surgical unresectability (n = 8, 7%), patient declined surgery (n = 15, 14%), attempted preservation of oral structure/function in view of required extensive surgery (n = 53, 49%) or extensive oropharyngeal involvement (n = 18, 17%). Sixty-eight (63%) were cT3-4, 38 (35%) were cN2-3, and 38 (35%) received concurrent chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year local, regional, distant control rate, disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were 78%, 92%, 90%, 42%, 50%, and 76% respectively. Patients with cN2-3 had higher rate of 5-year distant metastasis (24% vs 3%, p = 0.001), with detrimental impact on DFS (p = 0.03) and OS (p < 0.02) on multivariable analysis. Grade ≥ 3 late toxicity was reported in 9% of patients (most common: grade 3 osteoradionecrosis in 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-operative management of OSCC resulted in a meaningful rate of locoregional control, and could be an alternative curative approach when primary surgery would be declined, unsuitable or unacceptably delayed.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Mouth Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 59, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705369

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been significant changes and challenges in the management of oncology patients. One of the major strategies to reduce transmission of the virus between patients and healthcare workers is deferral of follow-up visits. However, deferral may not be possible in total laryngectomy patients. Urgent procedures may be necessary to prevent complications related to ill-fitting tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) voice prostheses, such as aspiration or loss of voicing. In this paper, we describe the Princess Margaret Cancer Center's approach to managing this unique patient population.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Laryngeal Neoplasms/surgery , Laryngectomy/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Laryngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Laryngectomy/methods , Larynx, Artificial , Male , Ontario , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment
18.
Cancer ; 126(22): 4895-4904, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to surgical care for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) is limited and unpredictable. Determining which patients should be prioritized is inherently subjective and difficult to assess. The authors have proposed an algorithm to fairly and consistently triage patients and mitigate the risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: Two separate expert panels, a consensus panel (11 participants) and a validation panel (15 participants), were constructed among international HNC surgeons. Using a modified Delphi process and RAND Corporation/University of California at Los Angeles methodology with 4 consensus rounds and 2 meetings, groupings of high-priority, intermediate-priority, and low-priority indications for surgery were established and subdivided. A point-based scoring algorithm was developed, the Surgical Prioritization and Ranking Tool and Navigation Aid for Head and Neck Cancer (SPARTAN-HN). Agreement was measured during consensus and for algorithm scoring using the Krippendorff alpha. Rankings from the algorithm were compared with expert rankings of 12 case vignettes using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: A total of 62 indications for surgical priority were rated. Weights for each indication ranged from -4 to +4 (scale range; -17 to 20). The response rate for the validation exercise was 100%. The SPARTAN-HN demonstrated excellent agreement and correlation with expert rankings (Krippendorff alpha, .91 [95% CI, 0.88-0.93]; and rho, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.45-0.95]). CONCLUSIONS: The SPARTAN-HN surgical prioritization algorithm consistently stratifies patients requiring HNC surgical care in the COVID-19 era. Formal evaluation and implementation are required. LAY SUMMARY: Many countries have enacted strict rules regarding the use of hospital resources during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Facing delays in surgery, patients may experience worse functional outcomes, stage migration, and eventual inoperability. Treatment prioritization tools have shown benefit in helping to triage patients equitably with minimal provider cognitive burden. The current study sought to develop what to the authors' knowledge is the first cancer-specific surgical prioritization tool for use in the COVID-19 era, the Surgical Prioritization and Ranking Tool and Navigation Aid for Head and Neck Cancer (SPARTAN-HN). This algorithm consistently stratifies patients requiring head and neck cancer surgery in the COVID-19 era and provides evidence for the initial uptake of the SPARTAN-HN.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Health Resources , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgeons
20.
Cancer ; 126(15): 3426-3437, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify a subgroup of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) who might be suitable for hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT-hypo) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HNSCC cases (oropharynx/larynx/hypopharynx) treated with definitive RT-hypo (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks), moderately accelerated radiotherapy (RT-acc) alone (70 Gy in 35 fractions over 6 weeks), or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) during 2005-2017 were included. Locoregional control (LRC) and distant control (DC) after RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT were compared for various subgroups. RESULTS: The study identified 994 human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases (with 61, 254, and 679 receiving RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT, respectively) and 1045 HPV- HNSCC cases (with 263, 451, and 331 receiving RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT, respectively). The CCRT cohort had higher T/N categories, whereas the radiotherapy-alone patients were older. The median follow-up was 4.6 years. RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT produced comparable 3-year LRC and DC for HPV+ T1-2N0-N2a disease (seventh edition of the TNM system [TNM-7]; LRC, 94%, 100%, and 94%; P = .769; DC, 94%, 100%, and 94%; P = .272), T1-T2N2b disease (LRC, 90%, 94%, and 97%; P = .445; DC, 100%, 96%, and 95%; P = .697), and T1-2N2c/T3N0-N2c disease (LRC, 89%, 93%, and 95%; P = .494; DC, 89%, 90%, and 87%; P = .838). Although LRC was also similar for T4/N3 disease (78%, 84%, and 88%; P = .677), DC was significantly lower with RT-hypo or RT-acc versus CCRT (67%, 65%, and 87%; P = .005). For HPV- HNSCC, 3-year LRC and DC were similar with RT-hypo, RT-acc, and CCRT in stages I and II (LRC, 85%, 89%, and 100%; P = .320; DC, 99%, 98%, and 100%; P = .446); however, RT-hypo and RT-acc had significantly lower LRC in stage III (76%, 69%, and 91%; P = .006), whereas DC rates were similar (92%, 85%, and 90%; P = .410). Lower LRC in stage III predominated in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma receiving RT-acc (62%) but not RT-hypo (80%) or CCRT (92%; RT-hypo vs CCRT: P = .270; RT-acc vs CCRT: P = .004). CCRT had numerically higher LRC in comparison with RT-hypo or RT-acc in stage IV (73%, 65%, and 66%; P = .336). CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that RT-hypo be considered in place of CCRT for HPV+ T1-T3N0-N2c (TNM-7) HNSCCs, HPV- T1-T2N0 HNSCCs, and select stage III HNSCCs during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiation Dose Hypofractionation , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/radiotherapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/mortality , Head and Neck Neoplasms/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Risk Factors , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/mortality , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/virology , Treatment Outcome
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