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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814525

ABSTRACT

Although messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines are substantially effective toward severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, patients with hematological malignancies are still prone to the virus. Herein, we report a fatal case of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection in a patient with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with remission by bendamustine–rituximab (BR) therapy completed a year ago. The serological study revealed impaired responsiveness toward vaccines and prolonged high viral load after infection. BR therapy seemingly induced an immune escape. Prevention and treatment strategies for such vulnerable patients should be clarified immediately.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742173

ABSTRACT

To determine virus shedding duration, we examined clinical samples collected from the upper respiratory tracts of persons infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant in Japan during November 29-December 18, 2021. Vaccinees with mild or asymptomatic infection shed infectious virus 6-9 days after onset or diagnosis, even after symptom resolution.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740823

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, the World Health Organization designated a new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, Omicron (PANGO lineage B.1.1.529). We report on first two cases of breakthrough COVID-19 caused by Omicron in Japan among international travelers returning from the country with undetected infection. The spread of infection by Omicron were considered.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 13-17, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739800

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial use (AU) trends in Japan in 2020 and explored its potential effects on appropriate AU. Using nationwide antimicrobial sales data, we examined the annual and monthly trends in AU from 2016-2020 according to the AWaRe classification (Access and Watch categories) and administration route (oral and injectable). To analyze the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on AU, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were used to predict AU in 2020 (based on the trends from 2016-2019) under the assumption that the pandemic did not occur. We observed a substantial reduction in AU in 2020 compared with preceding years. In addition, the reductions in AU for total antimicrobials and Watch category antimicrobials were greater than predicted regardless of administration route. These results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic contributed to the observed reductions in AU, but it is also possible that the changes reflect recent efforts to improve AU. Continued AU surveillance and research are needed to optimize prescribing practices through appropriate antimicrobial stewardship.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 18-20, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739799

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with a history of 2 previous COVID-19 infections, who received 2 doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. We are not aware of any previous study regarding antibody tendency after 2 infections and 2 vaccinations. We evaluated his IgG titer of antispike protein and neutralizing activity from the first infection before and after 2 doses of vaccine. Both antispike IgG titer and neutralizing activity showed a tendency to decline almost 1 year after initial infection; they rapidly increased after the first vaccination, and they remained high after the second vaccination. Although this is a single case report, it seems to have generalizability because the findings are consistent with previous reports regarding single infections or 3 doses of vaccination. Our findings suggest that a single booster shot may provide sufficient protection and aid the understanding of immunologic responses of vaccination in patients with COVID-19 with history of re-infection.

6.
CEN Case Rep ; 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734073

ABSTRACT

Hemodialysis patients are vulnerable to severe and lethal COVID-19, and their protective immunity against COVID-19 is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we report a case of COVID-19 reinfection in a hemodialysis patient 81 days after the first episode and discuss the role of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 infection. A hemodialysis patient developed asymptomatic COVID-19 due to an outbreak in a hospital on October 29th, 2020. As he was hospitalized and did not develop any symptoms, he was discharged on November 9th. On January 18th, he presented with symptomatic COVID-19 due to close household contact. Then, he developed respiratory failure and was transferred to National Center for Global Health and Medicine if he would need intensive care. He recovered with oxygen inhalation, favipiravir, and steroid treatment, and was discharged on February 12th. To evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during two hospital stays, we measured immunoglobulin (Ig) G specific for S1 subunit of Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 (IgG-S1) , IgG specific for the full-length S protein (anti-Spike IgG) and neutralizing antibodies. No seroconversion occurred 5 days after initial infection, the seroconversion of IgG-S1 was observed 10 days after the second infection. Similar to IgG-S1 antibody titer results, anti-Spike IgG and neutralizing antibodies increased from 12 days after the second infection. In conclusion, we experienced a case of COVID-19 reinfection in a hemodialysis patient 81 days after the first episode and showed the kinetics and role of antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are needed to understand SARS-CoV-2 reinfection risk in hemodialysis patients and its clinical significance.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705478

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rapid, simple, and accurate methods are required to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the QIAstat-Dx Respiratory SARS-CoV-2 Panel (QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2), a rapid multiplex PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) that were obtained from patients with COVID-19 who were diagnosed at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine were used in this study. When the NPS samples were found to be negative for SARS-CoV-2 after treatment, they were used as negative samples. We evaluated the performance of the QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 comparing SARS-CoV-2 detection with the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan-recommended real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method (NIID-RT-PCR). RESULTS: In total, 45 NPS samples were analyzed. The proportion of overall agreement between QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 and NIID-RT-PCR on 45 samples was 91.0% with a sensitivity of 84.0% (21/25), specificity at 100% (20/20), negative predictive value at 83.3% (20/24), and positive predictive value at 100% (21/21). There were no patients with co-infections with pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 showed a high agreement in comparison with the NIID-RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The QIAstat-SARS-CoV-2 also provided a rapid and accurate diagnosis for COVID-19, even when the concurrent detection of other respiratory pathogens was desired, and therefore, has the potential to direct appropriate therapy and infection control precautions.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 870-872, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686418

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old man in Japan experienced respiratory failure after receiving the first dose of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation and corticosteroids. Serologic test results suggested previous COVID-19; therefore, he received a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome. COVID-19 vaccination could be a trigger for this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1676815

ABSTRACT

There have been several reports of breakthrough infections, which are defined as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections among individuals who had received at least two doses of vaccine at least 14 days before the onset of infection, but data on the antibody titers, including SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody activity, and the clinical course of individuals with breakthrough infections are limited. We encountered a case of breakthrough infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in a 31-year-old female healthcare worker (the index case, Case 1) and a secondary case (Case 2) in her unvaccinated 33-year-old husband. We studied the role of the anti-spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibody activity in the two case patients. Case 1 had high anti-spike IgG detected on day 3 of the illness, with low neutralizing antibody activity. The neutralizing antibody activity started to increase on day 5 of the illness. In Case 2 both the anti-spike IgG and the neutralizing antibody activity remained low from days 4–11 of illness, and the anti-spike IgG gradually increased from day 9. In Case 1, the fever broke within 4 days of onset, coinciding with the rise in neutralizing antibodies, whereas the fever took 7 days to resolve in Case 2. SARS-CoV-2 infection can occur even in vaccinated individuals, but vaccination may contribute to milder clinical symptoms because neutralizing antibodies are induced earlier in vaccinated individuals than in unvaccinated individuals.

10.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To alleviate the overflow of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in hospitals, less invasive and simple criteria are required to triage the patients. We evaluated the relationship between COVID-19 severity and fatty liver on plain computed tomography (CT) scan performed on admission. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we considered all COVID-19 patients at a large tertiary care hospital between January 31 and August 31, 2020. COVID-19 severity was categorized into severe (moderate and severe) and non-severe (asymptomatic and mild) groups, based on the Japanese National COVID-19 guidelines. Fatty liver was detected on plain CT scan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 222 patients (median age: 52 years), 3.2%, 58.1%, 20.7%, and 18.0% presented with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, respectively. Although 59.9% had no fatty liver on plain CT, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver occurred in 13.1%, 18.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. Age and presence of fatty liver were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that fatty liver on plain CT scan on admission can become a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This finding may help clinicians to easily triage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 111-116, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether anticoagulation therapy improves outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan given their lower risk of thrombosis compared with Western cohorts. METHODS: The efficacy of anticoagulation therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was evaluated using a nationwide registry: the COVID-19 Registry Japan. The inverse probability of weight treatment method was used to adjust for baseline confounders in the anticoagulation and non-anticoagulation groups. RESULTS: Of the 1748 patients included, anticoagulants were used in 367 patients (treatment group). The patients in the anticoagulant group were older, predominantly male, and often presented with obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and elevated D-dimer levels. Twenty-nine-day mortality was 7.6% in the whole cohort (treatment group, 11.2%; no treatment group, 6.6%), 6% in patients who were not treated with steroids (treatment group, 12.3%; no treatment group, 5.2%), and 11.2% in patients treated with steroids (treatment group, 10.5%; no treatment group, 11.8%). Mortality in the whole cohort was similar between the treatment and no treatment groups (P=0.99), and an insignificant decreasing trend in mortality was observed in patients treated with steroids (P=0.075). CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulants may be beneficial in Asians, in whom comorbidities and risk of thrombosis may differ from other ethnic groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(1): 36-40, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650209

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stool samples of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and this virus can be transmitted via the oral-fecal route. However, there are only few reports on the viral load in the stool samples. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stool samples of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using pepper mild mottle virus as a control, which has been proposed as a potential marker of human feces contamination in the environmental water bodies. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the stool samples of four patients (31%), and among them, three exhibited symptoms of diarrhea. One patient who suffered from long-term diarrhea (22 days) exhibited highest level of viral RNA in the stool sample (8.28 log10 copies/g). However, we could not harvest SARS-CoV-2 from the stool sample of any patient, even after culturing with VeroE6/TMPRESS2 cells for four weeks. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in the stool samples of patients with COVID-19 suffering from diarrhea. However, further studies elucidating the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the stool samples and symptoms of diarrhea in large cohorts and upon adjusting other causative factors and virus infectivity are still warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Humans , Pilot Projects , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296101

ABSTRACT

Summary There are several recommendations for the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, the selection of appropriate PPE for the current situation remains controversial. We measured serum antibody titers for SARS-CoV-2 in 10 participants who were engaged in the operation of charter flights for the evacuation of Japanese residents from Hubei Province. All participants wore PPE in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. A total of 17 samples were tested, and all were seronegative. Hence, we conclude that the current PPE recommendation is effective to protect healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
J-IDEO ; 5(5):742-748, 2021.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-1486892
15.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 41-46, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to global outbreaks of infectious diseases, the need for support from organizations such as the World Health Organization Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) is increasing. Identifying the obstacles and support needs for applicants could increase GOARN deployments from Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved a web-based, self-administered questionnaire survey targeting Japanese participants in the GOARN Tier 1.5 training workshop, held in Tokyo in December 2019. RESULTS: All 47 Japanese participants in the workshop responded to the survey. Most responders were male and in their 30s and 40s. Participants specialized in case management (42.6%), infection prevention and control (25.6%), epidemiology and surveillance (19.1%). Only two participants (4.6%) had experienced a GOARN deployment. Their motivations for joining the GOARN training workshop were "Desire to be part of an international emerging infectious disease response team" (44.6%), "Interest in making an international contribution" (19.1%), and "Interest in working for the Japanese government in the field of international infectious diseases" (14.9%). Obstacles to GOARN deployments were "Making time for deployments" (45.7%) and "Lack of required professional skills and knowledge" (40.4%). The support needs for GOARN deployments constituted "Periodic simulation training" (51.1%), "Financial support during deployments" (44.7%), and "Technical support for deployments" (40.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the obstacles and support needs of Japanese candidates for GOARN deployment. Making time and upskilling for GOARN deployment were the main obstacles. More practical training (like GOARN Tier 2.0) with other supports are needed. The national framework is desirable to realize these supports.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Workforce
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113: 55-57, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442402

ABSTRACT

We report a case of varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in an immunocompetent patient. A final diagnosis was made based on identification of VZV via positive polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid along with characteristic symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiff neck. This phenomenon has been reported elsewhere; this is the 13th such case reported worldwide and the 7th case in immunocompetent patients, indicating the need for careful monitoring after COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , COVID-19 Vaccines , Herpes Zoster/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 3, Human/genetics , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Glob Health Med ; 3(4): 236-239, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417546

ABSTRACT

We investigated possible sources of newly infected patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) after the fourth wave in order to explore unknown sources. Retrospective chart review on all the confirmed patients with COVID-19 admitted to the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM) in Tokyo, Japan was conducted from May 22 through June 29, 2021. Among the 22 participants, 14 (64%) had a history of known high-risk infection behaviors. Of those, 12 reported that their activities involved eating and drinking. In addition, there were 24 high-risk situations, of those, 21 (88%) were related to indoor dining, and masks were not worn in 22 situations (92%). New source of infection has not been identified. In situations with a high known risk of infection, many cases were related to eating and drinking, and insufficient use of masks was evident. Raising risk awareness on infection prevention and control of COVID-19 is urgently needed.

20.
J-IDEO ; 5(3):448-453, 2021.
Article in Japanese | Ichushi | ID: covidwho-1329452
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