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1.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12329, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between frequency of working from home and low back pain (LBP), considering the quality of work environment. METHODS: The study was based on a cross-sectional internet-based survey. Of 33 302 respondents, data from 12 774 desk workers were retained for analysis. We used a 0-10 numerical rating scale to assess LBP. Work environment was assessed using five subjective questions. Mixed-effects logistic regression nested by city level was used to analyze the relationship between frequency of working from home and LBP, stratified by work environment condition. RESULTS: The prevalence of LBP was 21.0%. Among those reporting a poor work environment, as opposed to almost never working from home, the multivariate odds ratio (OR) of LBP were as follows: working from home less than 1 day per week: OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.89-1.76, p = .190; 2-3 days per week: OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.16-2.16, p = .004; and 4 or more days per week: OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.38-2.40, p < .001. By contrast, among those reporting a good work environment, the OR of LBP did not increase as the frequency of working from home increased. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between LBP and frequency of working from home was found to vary with the quality of the work environment; more specifically, LBP was associated with frequency of teleworking in a poor work environment. This study suggests that employers should give more support to their employees in promoting a good work environment to prevent LBP. (Words: 240/250).


Subject(s)
Low Back Pain , Occupational Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking
2.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779803
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332245

ABSTRACT

Objective We examined the association between presenteeism and risk of job resignations and unemployment among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A prospective study of 27,036 Internet monitors was conducted, starting in December 2020, with 18,560 (68.7%) participating in the follow-up by December 2021. The Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun) was used to measure the degree of work function impairment. Results The group with the highest WFun scores had higher odds ratios (ORs) for both retirement and unemployment for health reasons than the group with the lowest WFun scores. ORs were 2.97 (95%CI: 2.46-3.59, p<0. 001) and 1.80 (95%CI: 1.64-1.98, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Workers with work functioning impairment were at increased risk of resignation or unemployment. Management strategies for workers with work functioning impairment are needed to reduce their disadvantages in employment.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331764

ABSTRACT

Background: The Go To Travel campaign in Japan was launched to subsidize travel and accommodation costs for tourists through vouchers that could be used at domestic destinations. We examined the relationship between using Go To Travel and infection prevention behaviors. Methods: : We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,637 workers who responded to a large-scale questionnaire survey about COVID-19 under the pandemic in Japan. We undertook logistic regression analysis. Results: : Among the 26,637 participants, 7,959 (30%) used Go To Travel. Compared with non-Go To Travel users, we observed statistically significant differences in multivariate analysis with Go To travel users for the following: gargling (odds ratio [OR], 0.91;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–0.97;P = .001);room ventilation (OR, 0.94;95% CI, 0.88–0.99;P = .017);and washing hands (OR, 0.94;95% CI, 0.89–1.00;P = .036). Conclusions: : We observed the tendency for Go To Travel users not to implement some infection prevention behaviors. It is necessary to continue the encouragement of applying infection prevention behaviors: implementing such travel support policies as Go To Travel during COVID-19 could spread the risk of infection. Trial registration: Not applicable

5.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12319, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Association between employment contract (temporary vs. permanent) and suicidal ideation (persistent suicidal ideation [i.e., with onset before COVID-19] or newly developed under COVID-19 pandemic) was examined using a nationally representative cross-sectional study in Japan. METHODS: An Internet survey was conducted from August to September 2020. The participants' inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: (i) 20-65 years old, (ii) employees (excluding self-employed, students, retired, housewives, and unemployed). The associations of suicidal ideation with the employees' factors were analyzed using the multinomial logistic regression model, adjusting for covariates (sex, age, marital status, education, company size, industries, and a history of psychiatric disease). RESULTS: Of total 12 249 participants, 72.4% were permanent and 27.6% were temporary employees. The prevalence was 8.5% for persistent suicidal ideation and 3.2% for newly developed suicidal ideation in the COVID-19 pandemic. Temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.36 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.16-1.59]; P < .001), but not associated with newly developed suicidal ideation (aOR = 1.10 [0.85-1.42]; P = .457) after adjusting the covariates. Sensitivity analysis showed temporary employment was significantly associated with persistent suicidal ideation only in women. Newly developed suicidal ideation was significantly higher among participants of a young age, employees in drinking/eating/hotel business industry, and those having a history of psychiatric disease than among the counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Working on a temporary employment contract was associated with persistent suicidal ideation under conditions of COVID-19 outbreaks in Japan. However, the result showed no significant difference in newly developed suicidal ideation. Further longitudinal study will be needed to examine the risk of being employed on an unstable occupational contract in the prolonged pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment/psychology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327657

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, non-married people are at high risk of loneliness. With social interactions restricted, it is important for non-married people to acquire a new romantic partner for their mental health and quality of life. We hypothesized that infection control efforts in the workplace influence people's social interactions, including romantic activities. Methods: We conducted an internet-based prospective cohort study from December 2020 (baseline) to December 2021, using self-administered questionnaires. Briefly, 27,036 workers completed the questionnaires at baseline, and when followed up after one year, 18,560 (68.7%) participated. A total of 6,486 non-married individuals with no romantic relationship at baseline were included in the analysis. At baseline they were asked about the implementation of infection control measures in the workplace, and at follow-up they were asked about activities they performed with a view to romantic relationships during the period from baseline to follow-up. Results: Compared to workers in workplaces with no infection control measures, the OR associated with romance-related activities for those in workplaces with seven or more infection control measures was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.45-2.48, p<0.001), and the OR associated with having a new romantic partner was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.66, p=0.004). Conclusions: Under the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of infection control measures in the workplace and the expressed satisfaction with those measures promoted romantic relationships among non-married, single individuals.

7.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12313, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism among workers in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using data obtained from an internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response "I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled." The fraction of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A fractional logit model was used for analysis to treat bounded data. RESULTS: Of the 27 036 participants, 17 526 (65%) were workers who did not require routine medical care, 8451 (31%) were using medical care as scheduled, and 1059 (4%) experienced interrupted medical care. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of sickness presenteeism was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.04-3.89) than those who did not require routine medical care. In terms of symptoms, the highest aOR was observed among workers with mental health symptoms (aOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 5.04-6.20). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Presenteeism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(1): e1-e7, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work; 1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared with maintaining employment during the pandemic; and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared with stability. CONCLUSION: The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Presenteeism , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050068, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583113

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused medical care delays and avoidance around the globe. However, little is known about the relationship between disrupted care and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate whether disrupted care during the COVID-19 state of emergency was associated with health status and productivity loss. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide, cross-sectional, Internet-based, self-administered survey. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis on data from 14 545 participants to investigate the associations among variables related to disrupted care, health status and the Work Functioning Impairment Scale, with a cut-off of 21 points. RESULTS: Participants who experienced exacerbation of underlying disease (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.84; 95% CI 2.28 to 3.53) or any type of disrupted care were more likely to show low productivity at work. Experiencing disruptions in routine and non-routine clinical settings (aOR 4.64; 95% CI 3.64 to 5.92 and aOR 6.29; 95% CI 4.74 to 8.34, respectively), and running out of drugs (aOR 6.13; 95% CI 4.60 to 8.18) were strongly associated with exacerbation of underlying disease. CONCLUSIONS: Workers who experienced disrupted care were much more likely to show productivity loss. Exacerbation of underlying disease is one possible pathway through which disrupted care could affect productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Our study provides evidence of the importance of early diagnosis and continuous treatment of non-COVID-19 patients to enable them to remain healthy and continue to work during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Presenteeism , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(2-3): 191-198, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571671

ABSTRACT

Although multilayered strategies including preventive behaviors should be adopted to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, evidence on the effectiveness of preventive behaviors against COVID-19 remains limited. This Internet-based prospective cohort study collected baseline data in November 2020 and follow-up data in February 2021, during the third wave of the epidemic in Japan. Among the 19 941 included participants, the percentages reporting that they always used a face mask, practiced hand washing/disinfection, gargling, and ensuring proper room ventilation were 85.4%, 36.0%, 51.1%, and 44.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that less frequently practicing hand washing/disinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20), gargling (OR = 1.20), and ensuring proper room ventilation (OR = 1.38) were significantly associated with self-reported COVID-19-like illness (CLI). These results suggest that personal preventive behaviors may be effective in reducing CLI, even when universal masking is practiced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself and others from infection. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven common NPIs (wearing masks, washing hands after the bathroom, disinfecting hands when entering indoors, gargling when returning home, ventilating the room, disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors). RESULTS: A total of 27 036 participants were analyzed. Compared with the region with the lowest infection rate, five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing masks and washing hands after the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.

12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers’ mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33,302 people who participated in the survey, 27,036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures were in place at their workplace (e.g. wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. Results The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, p=0.010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p<0.001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, p<0.001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295643

ABSTRACT

Objective This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism in Japan. Methods An internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Data from 27,036 people were analyzed. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response “I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled.” The number of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used for analysis. Results The incidence rate ratio was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (2.26;95% confidence interval: 2.03–2.52) than those who did not require routine medical care. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295432

ABSTRACT

Background We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women ) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. Results The odds ratio ( OR ) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work;1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared to maintaining employment during the pandemic;and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared to stability. Conclusion The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic .

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542512

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), desk workers in Japan have been encouraged to work from home. Due to rapidly increased working from home, working in environments that are not properly designed and working with poor posture can affect low back pain (LBP). This study aimed to examine the relationship between increased work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic and LBP among Japanese desk workers. Using study data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey 2020 conducted from August to September 2020, 4227 desk workers who did not have LBP before the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed out of 25,482 total respondents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LBP were calculated by multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for covariates such as socioeconomic factors. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 31.3% of desk workers with an increased chance of working from home, and 4.1% had LBP. Desk workers with increased working from home were more likely to have LBP (OR: 2.00 (95% CI, 1.36-2.93)). In this large-scale study, increased work from home was associated with LBP among desk workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, preparing an appropriate work environment for desk workers working from home can improve productivity, leading to positive effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Low Back Pain , Occupational Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teleworking
16.
J Epidemiol ; 31(12): 642-647, 2021 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The job environment has changed a lot during the period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the association between work-related stress and aggravation of pre-existing disease in workers during the first state of COVID-19 emergency in Japan. METHODS: Data were obtained from a large internet survey conducted between August 25 and September 30, 2020 in Japan. Participants who reported that they had a job as well as current history of disease(s) (ie, pre-existing conditions) were included (n = 3,090). Aggravation of pre-existing disease during the state of emergency was self-reported. Work-related stress from April 2020 (since the state of COVID-19 emergency) was assessed according to a job demand-control model. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association. RESULTS: Aggravation of pre-existing diseases was reported by 334 participants (11%). The numbers of participants with high demand and low control were 112 (18%) and 100 (14%), respectively. Compared to medium demand, high demand was significantly associated with aggravation of pre-existing diseases (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.42). Low control compared to medium control was also significantly associated with aggravation of pre-existing diseases (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.92). CONCLUSION: Work-related stress during the first state of COVID-19 emergency was associated with aggravation of pre-existing disease during that period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Preexisting Condition Coverage , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e565-e570, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the physical work environment and work function while working from home (WFH). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from 5760 workers who worked from home at least 1 day a month were analyzed. The physical work environment while WFH was used as an exposure factor. The presence of work functioning impairment was measured using Work Functioning impairment Scale (WFun). Mixed-effects logistic regression was used with the prefecture of residence as a random effect. RESULTS: Work functioning impairment was significantly associated with a "No" response to recommended environments. The highest odds ratio (OR) of work functioning impairment was associated with a "No" response to "There is enough light to do my work" (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73 to 2.35, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Improving work environments may prevent negative health effects and improve productivity while WFH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ind Health ; 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468299

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the association between work-related changes caused by COVID-19 and psychological distress among Japanese workers. The study was conducted from August 25 to September 30, 2020. The participants were 15,454 employees who were registered as panelists with an online survey company. The Kessler psychological distress scale with a 13-point cutoff was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression was performed. Of the respondents, 8.9% were evaluated as having severe psychological distress. Among five examined work-related changes, being laid off and changing jobs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.18-7.05), experiencing temporary workplace closure (aOR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.67-2.25), being forced to visit the workplace for paperwork (aOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.58-2.15), and starting telework from home (aOR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) were associated with increased psychological distress; no significant association was found for participation in work-related online meetings. The impact on psychological distress was greater among men, especially for being laid off and changing jobs because of COVID-19. It is important to assess and reduce negative mental health effects among workers experiencing work-related changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, taking gender differences into account.

19.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12281, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting has become a new way of working that has not only changed individuals' work, but also their health and lifestyle. We examined the relationship between telecommuting frequency and unhealthy dietary habits among Japanese workers. METHODS: A total of 33,302 workers completed an Internet survey about telecommuting and dietary habits. Data from 13,468 office workers who telecommuted were analyzed. Telecommuting frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic was extracted from a questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) of four types of dietary habits, namely, skipping breakfast, solitary eating, lower meal frequency, and meal substitution associated with telecommuting frequency were estimated using multilevel logistic regression nested in the prefecture of residence to control for differences in residential area. RESULTS: The multivariate OR of skipping breakfast was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.29, p = .013) for participants who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. Similarly, the OR of solitary eating, lower meal frequency and meal substitution were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.28-1.63, p < .001), 2.39 (95% CI: 1.66-3.44, p < .001), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.04-1.51, p = .015) for those who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. There was a statistically significant increase in the dose-response trend in ORs of solitary eating (p for trend <.001), lower meal frequency (p for trend <.001), and meal substitution (p for trend = .001) with increasing telecommuting frequency. CONCLUSION: Telecommuters may develop unhealthy dietary habits, indicating the need for strategies to help telecommuters manage their nutrition and diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Feeding Behavior , Meals , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio
20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use. RESULTS: Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed. CONCLUSIONS: Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Industry/classification , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
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