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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 938230, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993848

ABSTRACT

Background: Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the government of Bangladesh implemented strict non-therapeutic measures, i.e., "social distancing," "lockdown," "work from home," in the first quarter of 2020. Like other professionals, teachers at schools, colleges and universities were confined within households. However, the introduction of online education imposed an additional burden on teachers along with growing household responsibilities, thus, affecting their psychological state. Aims: This study was aimed to explore the prevalence of mental health problems among teachers in Bangladesh and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: This web-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 381 teachers working at schools, colleges, and universities between 01 August and 29 August 2021 by administering a self-reported e-questionnaire using Google Form, where the mental health of teachers was assessed by depression, anxiety, and stress scale. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 26) and STATA Version 16, and multiple linear regression was executed to predict mental health problems among teachers. Results: The findings indicate that the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among teachers was 35.4%, 43.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. The prevalence was higher among male and older teachers than among their female and younger colleagues. The findings further showed that place of residence, institution, self-reported health, usage of social and electronic media, and fear of COVID-19 significantly influenced the mental health status of teachers. Conclusion: It is strongly recommended that the government and policymakers provide proper mental health services to teachers in order to reduce mental health problems and thus sustain the quality of education during and after the pandemic.

2.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(4): 1787-1801, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826133

ABSTRACT

Bats are the natural reservoir host for many pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses, potentially spilling over to humans and domestic animals directly or via an intermediate host. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is the continuation of virus spillover events that have taken place over the last few decades, particularly in Asia and Africa. Therefore, these bat-associated epidemics provide a significant number of hints, including respiratory cellular tropism, more intense susceptibility to these cell types, and overall likely to become a pandemic for the next spillover. In this systematic review, we analysed data to insight, through bat-originated spillover in Asia and Africa. We used STATA/IC-13 software for descriptive statistics and meta-analysis. The random effect of meta-analysis showed that the pooled estimates of case fatality rates of bat-originated viral zoonotic diseases were higher in Africa (61.06%, 95%CI: 50.26 to 71.85, l2 % = 97.3, p < 0.001). Moreover, estimates of case fatality rates were higher in Ebola (61.06%; 95%CI: 50.26 to 71.85, l2 % = 97.3, p < 0.001) followed by Nipah (55.19%; 95%CI: 39.29 to 71.09, l2 % = 94.2, p < 0.001), MERS (18.49%; 95%CI: 8.19 to 28.76, l2 % = 95.4, p < 0.001) and SARS (10.86%; 95%CI: 6.02 to 15.71, l2 % = 85.7, p < 0.001) with the overall case fatality rates of 29.86 (95%CI: 29.97 to 48.58, l2 % = 99.0, p < 0.001). Bat-originated viruses have caused several outbreaks of deadly diseases, including Nipah, Ebola, SARS and MERS in Asia and Africa in a sequential fashion. Nipah virus emerged first in Malaysia, but later, periodic outbreaks were noticed in Bangladesh and India. Similarly, the Ebola virus was detected in the African continent with neurological disorders in humans, like Nipah, seen in the Asian region. Two important coronaviruses, MERS and SARS, were introduced, both with the potential to infect respiratory passages. This paper explores the dimension of spillover events within and/or between bat-human and the epidemiological risk factors, which may lead to another pandemic occurring. Further, these processes enhance the bat-originated virus, which utilises an intermediate host to jump into human species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Viruses , Africa/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706830

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in China in December 2019, COVID-19 remains the recent leading disease of concern drawing the public health attention globally. The disease is known of viral origin and zoonotic nature originating from animals. However, to date neither the source of the spillover nor the intermediate hosts are identified. Moreover, the public health situation is intermittently aggravated by identification of new animals susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially replicating the virus and maintaining intra and interspecies spread of the disease. Although the role of a given animal and/or its produce is important to map the disease pattern, continuous efforts should be undertaken to further understand the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, a vital step to establish effective disease prevention and control strategy. This manuscript attempted to review updates regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection at the human-animal interface with consideration to postulations on the genetic relatedness and origin of the different SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from different animal species. Also, the review addresses the possible role of different animal species and their produce in transmission of the disease. Also, the manuscript discussed the contamination potentiality of the virus and its environmental stability. Finally, we reviewed the currently instituted measures to prevent and manage the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The manuscript suggested the One Health based control measures that could prove of value for the near future.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667142

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected every stratum of the population and all categories of households to varying degrees. The impact of the pandemic on the quality of life (QoL) of populations is complex and can vary by region, socio-economic status, and other demographic factors. The main purpose of this study was to empirically examine the effects of pandemic trauma on the QoL of households in Saudi Arabia. Primary data from 506 households in different regions were collected through online surveys and estimated using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), statistical regression techniques, and ordered Probit analysis. It was found that the QoL of Saudi households dropped significantly due to the COVID-19 crisis. Demographically, there were significant differences in the impact of COVID-19 on QoL. Low-income households, large households, male-led households, urban households, households living in the central and western regions, households with head unemployment or low educational attainment, and households with elderly head reported greater QoL declines. The findings emphasize the significance of generating on-the-ground survey data to track the well-being of households during the crisis to accumulate the information required to construct evidence-based policy responses. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature on the impact of COVID-19 by providing additional evidence of the pandemic's impact at the household level. The study paints a grim picture of the effects of COVID-19, as it was carried out at a time when the coronavirus was spreading, millions were dying or fighting it in healthcare centers, and lockdowns were imposed throughout the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Heliyon ; 7(12): e08496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536580

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in China in December 2019, COVID-19 remains the recent leading disease of concern drawing the public health attention globally. The disease is known of viral origin and zoonotic nature originating from animals. However, to date neither the source of the spillover nor the intermediate hosts are identified. Moreover, the public health situation is intermittently aggravated by identification of new animals susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially replicating the virus and maintaining intra and interspecies spread of the disease. Although the role of a given animal and/or its produce is important to map the disease pattern, continuous efforts should be undertaken to further understand the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, a vital step to establish effective disease prevention and control strategy. This manuscript attempted to review updates regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection at the human-animal interface with consideration to postulations on the genetic relatedness and origin of the different SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from different animal species. Also, the review addresses the possible role of different animal species and their produce in transmission of the disease. Also, the manuscript discussed the contamination potentiality of the virus and its environmental stability. Finally, we reviewed the currently instituted measures to prevent and manage the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The manuscript suggested the One Health based control measures that could prove of value for the near future.

6.
Soc Netw Anal Min ; 11(1): 38, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182331

ABSTRACT

In recent years, information dissemination has been quicker than earlier years with the sky-high development of diverse social media platforms, e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube and so on, which are more used in creative production. This advancement of social media disclosures has numerous merits and demerits to prevent and control contagious diseases like the Covid-19 pandemic. In this respect, this research scrutinizes the role of creative social media use in preventing the Covid-19 outbreak in Bangladesh utilizing the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. To this end, this study uses an online survey from June to October 2020 engaging 265 (N = 265) Bangladeshi people as respondents at different ages. The study results establish that creative social media use helps enhance the knowledge of Covid-19 precautions online, and this pertinent knowledge contributes to preventing Covid-19 outbreak in Bangladesh. It implies that creative social media use has a significant indirect effect on Covid-19 prevention, whereas knowledge of Covid-19 precautions online mediates this relationship between creative social media use and Covid-19 prevention. The results also discover that the educational level of the people has a significant direct and positive impact on Covid-19 prevention. Therefore, the study suggests more creative use of social media in preventing the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic in Bangladesh.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133911

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emerged from China in December 2019 and during 2020 spread to every continent including Antarctica. The coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been identified as the causative pathogen, and its spread has stretched the capacities of healthcare systems and negatively affected the global economy. This review provides an update on the virus, including the genome, the risks associated with the emergence of variants, mode of transmission, immune response, COVID-19 in children and the elderly, and advances made to contain, prevent and manage the disease. Although our knowledge of the mechanics of virus transmission and the immune response has been substantially demystified, concerns over reinfection, susceptibility of the elderly and whether asymptomatic children promote transmission remain unanswered. There are also uncertainties about the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and why there are variations in clinical presentations and why some patients suffer from long lasting symptoms-"the long haulers." To date, there are no significantly effective curative drugs for COVID-19, especially after failure of hydroxychloroquine trials to produce positive results. The RNA polymerase inhibitor, remdesivir, facilitates recovery of severely infected cases but, unlike the anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone, does not reduce mortality. However, vaccine development witnessed substantial progress with several being approved in countries around the globe.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antigenic Variation , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries ; n/a(n/a):e12157, 2020.
Article | Wiley | ID: covidwho-833884

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of mobile phones for business purposes has revolutionized various sub-sectors of the economy, including micro and small enterprises in both Saudi Arabia, the context of this study, and other countries. This study uncovers how the use of mobile phones has affected the performance of micro and small enterprises in both monetary and nonmonetary terms. Using a survey instrument, data were collected from 300 micro and small enterprise owners across Saudi Arabia and then analyzed using SmartPLS. Among the major findings, we suggest that no direct correlation exists between mobile phone usage and micro and small enterprises' monetary performance. However, mobile phones were found to have a significant influence on the nonmonetary performance of micro and small enterprises. This study contributes to the literature on technology adoption and economic performance by providing further evidence of the relationship between mobile phones and micro and small enterprises' performance. These findings can help micro and small enterprise owners, telecommunications companies, policymakers in related authorities (such as the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology and the Ministry of Commerce) and academics to make informed decisions. Conclusions and recommendations are drawn, and priorities are proposed for continuing research.

9.
Front Public Health ; 8: 347, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688887

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid growth in cases of COVID-19 has challenged national healthcare capacity, testing systems at an advanced ICU, and public health infrastructure level. This global study evaluates the association between multi-factorial healthcare capacity and case fatality of COVID-19 patients by adjusting for demographic, health expenditure, population density, and prior burden of non-communicable disease. It also explores the impact of government relationships with civil society as a predictor of infection and mortality rates. Methods: Data were extracted from the Johns Hopkins University database, World Bank records and the National Civic Space Ratings 2020 database. This study used data from 86 countries which had at least 1,000 confirmed cases on 30th April 2020. Negative binomial regression model was used to assess the association between case fatality (a ratio of total number of confirmed deaths to total number of confirmed cases) and healthcare capacity index adjusting for other covariates. Findings: Regression analysis shows that greater healthcare capacity was related to lesser case-fatality [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.5811; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4727-0.7184; p < 0.001] with every additional unit increase in the healthcare capacity index associated with a 42% decrease in the case fatality. Health expenditure and civil society variables did not reach statistical significance but were positively associated with case fatalities. Interpretation: Based on preliminary data, this research suggests that building effective multidimensional healthcare capacity is the most promising means to mitigate future case fatalities. The data also suggests that government's ability to implement public health measures to a degree determines mortality outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/mortality , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures , Cost of Illness , Humans , Incidence , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
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