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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(5)2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, microbes are becoming more challenging by acquiring virulent skills to adapt and develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This is a concern as AMR increases morbidity, mortality, and costs. Consequently, physicians need to be trained on appropriate antimicrobial prescribing, starting as medical students. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate medical students' confidence in antimicrobial prescribing and AMR. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing medical students' knowledge, perception, and confidence in prescribing antimicrobials and AMR in a Malaysian University. A universal sampling method was used. RESULTS: Most responding students believed that educational input regarding overall prescribing was sufficient. Regarding the principle of appropriate and accurate prescriptions, female medical students had less knowledge (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.99; p = 0.050). Year-IV and Year-V medical students had more excellent knowledge than Year-III students regarding confidence in potential antibiotic prescribing once qualified. Year-V students also showed an appreciably higher confidence in the broad principles of prescribing, including antibiotics for infectious diseases, compared to those in other years. CONCLUSION: Overall, medical students gain more knowledge and confidence regarding the potential prescribing of antimicrobials as their academic careers progress. This is important given concerns with the current excessive use of antimicrobials in Malaysia.

2.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(2): 503-511, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776477

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic led to increased self-medication of antimicrobials, vitamins, and immune boosters among the common people and consuming without prescription can lead to adverse consequences including antimicrobial resistance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community pharmacies in Jodhpur, India. They were inquired regarding the prescription and increased sales (<25%, 25-50%, 50--75%, or 75--100%) of various medicines (Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Ivermectin, and Vitamin C) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between requests for certain COVID-19 medications and an increase in their sale. Results: A total of 204 pharmacies took part, and 88.23% reported patients to approach them without prescriptions. Most of the pharmacies revealed that <25% of patients came without prescription. The majority came for azithromycin (68%) and vitamin C (92%). Increased sales of the four targeted medications were seen by 85.92% of pharmacies compared to last year. A majority (51.5%) reported <25% increased sales of azithromycin, but no change in the sale of hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin. However, 39.6% reported >75% increase in vitamin C sales. Conclusion: There was an increase in the demand for COVID-19 medications without prescription. This study was unable to detect a significant increase in sales of antimicrobials, which is encouraging.

3.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23046, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766145

ABSTRACT

In neonates, the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 - COVID-19) is lower. There is the potential for vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. To date, only a few reports suggest this possibility. Neonates usually have mild symptoms, but some develop multisystem involvement, which is a concern. COVID-19 infections have been reported both in pregnant women and their neonates. However, the evidence of vertical or horizontal transmission modes has not been fully established. We recorded a case study where a 33-year-old mother was tested positive for COVID-19 infection by RT-PCR during her 27th week of gestation and needed ventilator support for her respiratory distress at that time for 11 days. Subsequently, she gave birth to a female baby at the 35th week via a lower uterine segment cesarean section. The neonate manifested a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with her possible COVID-19 infection. Sharing her uncommon clinical presentation, immunological syndrome, and disease outcome are noteworthy for similar unforeseen pediatric case management to help guide future investigations and care.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322567

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are in the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic are often under significant pressures which may predispose them to mental ill-health. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among HCWs and factors correlated with mental problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and August 2020. A self-reported online questionnaire was utilized to collect data. The survey included questions concerning socio-demographic, lifestyle, and work setting and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Data from 803 HCWs (50.7% male;mean age: 27.3 [SD=6.9];age range: 18-58 years) were included in analyses. Prevalence estimates of anxiety and depression were, respectively, 69.5% and 39.5% for at least borderline abnormal, 41.2% and 15.7% for at least abnormal symptoms. Regression analyses with HADS-score as dependent variable revealed significant (p<0.05) associations with female sex, moderate and poor health status, irregular physical exercising, smoking, having had regrets about their profession because of the pandemic and many unexpected experiences, not updating on the latest COVID-19-related research, experiencing discrimination in the workplace, and facing social problems due to working in a lab or hospital. Conclusions: Symptoms of mental ill-health are prevalent among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The findings suggest a need for monitoring and early interventions to help these individuals.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625091

ABSTRACT

There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO 'Watch' list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.

6.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 20:188-198, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1450793

ABSTRACT

Objective: The focus on COVID-19 in children in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh has been on addressing key issues including poor vaccination rates as well as mental health issues, domestic violence and child labour. However, the focus on optimally managing children in hospitals is changing with new variants and concerns with the development of hyperinflammatory syndromes. There are also concerns with the overuse of antimicrobials to treat patients with COVID-19 in hospitals enhancing resistance rates. The Bangladesh Paediatric Association have developed guidelines to improve patient care building on national guidance. Consequently, there is a need to document the current management of children with COVID-19 in Bangladesh and use the findings for future guidance. Methods: Rapid analysis of the management of children with COVID-19 among eight private and public hospitals in Bangladesh with varying numbers of in-patient beds using purposely developed case report forms (CRFs). The CRFs were piloted before full roll-out. Results: Overall low numbers of children in hospital with COVID-19 (4.3% of in-patient beds). The majority were male (59.6%) and aged 5 years or under (63.5%). Reasons for admission included respiratory distress/ breathing difficulties with 94.2% of COVID-19 cases confirmed. All children were prescribed antibiotics empirically, typically those on the Watch list of antibiotics and administered parenterally, with only a small minority switched to oral therapy before discharge. There was appreciable prescribing of Vitamins (C and D) and zinc and encouragingly limited prescribing of other antimicrobials (antivirals, antimalarials and antiparasitic medicines). Length of stay was typically 5 to 10 days. Conclusion: Encouraging to see low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimicrobials apart from antibiotics. Concerns with high empiric use of antibiotics and limited switching to oral formulations can be addressed by instigating antimicrobial stewardship programmes. We will be monitoring this. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science is the property of Ibn Sina Medical College, Ibn Sina Trust and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

7.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 3909-3927, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thirteen COVID-19 vaccines are granted emergency approval. It is crucial to monitor their adverse events post vaccination. The present study focuses on cardiovascular adverse events post-COVID-19 vaccination and aims to determine adverse events with the administered vaccine. METHODOLOGY: The cardiovascular (CVS) adverse events were extracted for three broad headings (SOCs) - cardiac disorders, vascular disorders, and investigations. Descriptive statistics were reported in the form of percentage and frequency, and the disproportionality analysis was conducted. RESULTS: For the cardiovascular system, 4863 adverse events (AEs) were reported from BNT162b2 Pfizer, 1222 AstraZeneca, Moderna, and other COVID-19 vaccines. Common adverse events observed with vaccines under study were tachycardia (16.41%), flushing (12.17%), hypertension (5.82%), hypotension (3.60%) and peripheral coldness (2.41%). Based on disproportionality analysis (IC025 values), acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and circulatory collapse were linked to the vaccines in the age group >75 years. Hypertension, severe hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, sinus tachycardia, and palpitations were associated across all age groups and either gender. Amongst the investigations, abnormal ECG findings raised C-reactive protein, elevated D dimer, and troponin were reported in specific age groups or gender or all subjects. CONCLUSION: Although cardiovascular events have been reported with the COVID-19 vaccines, the causality is yet to be established because such CVS AEs are also usually associated with the general public even without intervention. Hence, people should be administered these vaccines, and sustained monitoring of these AEs should be done.

8.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1387-1401, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343660

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected individuals that have hypertension or cardiovascular comorbidities have an elevated risk of serious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and high rates of mortality but how COVID-$19$ and cardiovascular diseases interact are unclear. We therefore sought to identify novel mechanisms of interaction by identifying genes with altered expression in SARS-CoV-$2$ infection that are relevant to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Some recent research shows the SARS-CoV-$2$ uses the angiotensin converting enzyme-$2$ (ACE-$2$) as a receptor to infect human susceptible cells. The ACE2 gene is expressed in many human tissues, including intestine, testis, kidneys, heart and lungs. ACE2 usually converts Angiotensin I in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to Angiotensin II, which affects blood pressure levels. ACE inhibitors prescribed for cardiovascular disease and hypertension may increase the levels of ACE-$2$, although there are claims that such medications actually reduce lung injury caused by COVID-$19$. We employed bioinformatics and systematic approaches to identify such genetic links, using messenger RNA data peripheral blood cells from COVID-$19$ patients and compared them with blood samples from patients with either chronic heart failure disease or hypertensive diseases. We have also considered the immune response genes with elevated expression in COVID-$19$ to those active in cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) common to COVID-$19$ and chronic heart failure, and common to COVID-$19$ and hypertension, were identified; the involvement of these common genes in the signalling pathways and ontologies studied. COVID-$19$ does not share a large number of differentially expressed genes with the conditions under consideration. However, those that were identified included genes playing roles in T cell functions, toll-like receptor pathways, cytokines, chemokines, cell stress, type 2 diabetes and gastric cancer. We also identified protein-protein interactions, gene regulatory networks and suggested drug and chemical compound interactions using the differentially expressed genes. The result of this study may help in identifying significant targets of treatment that can combat the ongoing pandemic due to SARS-CoV-$2$ infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Computational Biology , Hypertension/complications , Systems Biology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(9): 1125-1136, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory cytokines in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affect the lungs leading to pneumonitis with a poor prognosis. Tocilizumab, a type of humanized monoclonal antibody antagonizing interleukin-6 receptors, is currently utilized to treat COVID-19. The present study reviews tocilizumab adverse drug events (ADEs) reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) pharmacovigilance database. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: All suspected ADEs associated with tocilizumab between April to August 2020 were analyzed based on COVID-19 patients' demographic and clinical variables, and severity of involvement of organ system. RESULTS: A total of 1005 ADEs were reported among 513 recipients. The majority of the ADEs (46.26%) were reported from 18-64 years, were males and reported spontaneously. Around 80%, 20%, and 64% were serious, fatal, and administered intravenously, respectively. 'Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications' remain as highest (35%) among categorized ADEs. Neutropenia, hypofibrinogenemia were common hematological ADEs. The above 64 years was found to have significantly lower odds than of below 45 years. In comparison, those in the European Region have substantially higher odds compared to the Region of Americas. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia, superinfections, reactivation of latent infections, hepatitis, and cardiac abnormalities were common ADEs observed that necessitate proper monitoring and reporting.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pharmacovigilance , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Distribution , World Health Organization , Young Adult
10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282529

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a high priority across countries as it increases morbidity, mortality and costs. Concerns with AMR have resulted in multiple initiatives internationally, nationally and regionally to enhance appropriate antibiotic utilization across sectors to reduce AMR, with the overuse of antibiotics exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Effectively tackling AMR is crucial for all countries. Principally a narrative review of ongoing activities across sectors was undertaken to improve antimicrobial use and address issues with vaccines including COVID-19. Point prevalence surveys have been successful in hospitals to identify areas for quality improvement programs, principally centering on antimicrobial stewardship programs. These include reducing prolonged antibiotic use to prevent surgical site infections. Multiple activities centering on education have been successful in reducing inappropriate prescribing and dispensing of antimicrobials in ambulatory care for essentially viral infections such as acute respiratory infections. It is imperative to develop new quality indicators for ambulatory care given current concerns, and instigate programs with clear public health messaging to reduce misinformation, essential for pandemics. Regular access to effective treatments is needed to reduce resistance to treatments for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Key stakeholder groups can instigate multiple initiatives to reduce AMR. These need to be followed up.

11.
J Res Pharm Pract ; 10(1): 17-22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Measures are ongoing to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and treat it with medicines and personal protective equipment (PPE). However, there has been considerable controversy surrounding treatments such as hydroxychloroquine with misinformation fuelling prices hikes and suicides. Shortages have also appreciably increased costs of PPE, potentially catastrophic among lower- and middle-income countries such as Nigeria with high copayment levels. Consequently, a need to investigate changes in availability, utilization, and prices of relevant medicines and PPE during the pandemic in Nigeria. METHODS: Exploratory study among community pharmacists with a survey tool comprising four sections including questions on changes in consumption, prices, and shortages of medicines and PPE from the beginning of March 2020 to the end of June 2020. In addition, suggestions from community pharmacists and co-authors on ways to reduce misinformation. FINDINGS: 30 out of 34 pharmacists participated giving a response rate of 88.2%. Significant increases were seen (3-fold or more increase) in the consumption of hydroxychloroquine (100%), vitamins/immune boosters (96.7%) and antibiotics (46.7%) as well as PPE (100%). Considerable price increases (50% increase or greater) also seen for antimalarials (96.7%), antibiotics (93.3%), vitamins/immune boosters (66.7%), and PPE (100%). Shortages are also seen for hydroxychloroquine and vitamins/immune boosters but most severe for PPE (80% of pharmacies). CONCLUSION: Encouraging to see increases in the utilization of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE. However, a considerable increase in the utilization and prices of antimicrobials is a concern that needs addressing including misinformation. Community pharmacists have a key role in providing evidence-based advice and helping moderate prices.

12.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 2091-2110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244939

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), later named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO), was initiated at Wuhan, Hubei, China, and there was a rapid spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 and the disease COVID-19 in late 2019. The entire world is now experiencing the challenge of COVID-19 infection. However, still very few evidence-based treatment options are available for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 disease. The present review aims to summarize the publicly available information to give a comprehensive yet balanced scientific overview of all the fat-soluble vitamins concerning their role in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. The roles of different fat-soluble vitamins and micronutrients in combating SARS-CoV-2 infection have been recently explored in several studies. There are various hypotheses to suggest their use to minimize the severity of COVID-19 infection. These vitamins are pivotal in the maintenance and modulation of innate and cell-mediated, and antibody-mediated immune responses. The data reported in recent literature demonstrate that deficiency in one or more of these vitamins compromises the patients' immune response and makes them more vulnerable to viral infections and perhaps worse disease prognosis. Vitamins A, D, E, and K boost the body's defense mechanism against COVID-19 infection and specifically prevent its complications such as cytokine storm and other inflammatory processes, leading to increased morbidity and mortality overemphasis. However, more detailed randomized double-blind clinical pieces of evidence are required to define the use of these supplements in preventing or reducing the severity of the COVID-19 infection.

13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 271, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are in the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic are often under significant pressures that may predispose them to symptoms of poor mental health. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among HCWs and factors correlated with mental health concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. And, it also aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bangla version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and August, 2020. A self-reported online questionnaire was utilized to collect data. The survey included questions concerning socio-demographic, lifestyle, and work setting, as well as the HADS. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Data from 803 HCWs (50.7% male; mean age: 27.3 [SD = 6.9]; age range: 18-58 years) were included in the final analysis. The Bangla HADS was psychometrically sound, and demonstrated good internal consistency and reliability (α = 0.83), and excellent construct validity. Prevalence estimates of anxiety and depression were 69.5%, and 39.5%, respectively, for less severe symptomology (at least borderline abnormal), and 41.2% and 15.7% for more severe (at least abnormal) symptomology. Regression analyses with the total HADS score as a dependent variable revealed significant (p < 0.05) associations with female gender, moderate and poor health status, infrequent physical exercising, smoking, having had regrets about one's profession because of the pandemic and associated experiences, not updating on the latest COVID-19-related research, experiencing discrimination in the workplace, and facing social problems due to working in a lab or hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are prevalent among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The findings suggest a need for screening for mental health concerns, and employing early intervention to help these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 1487-1510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200017

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes an arduous global health challenge, and the increasing number of fatalities calls for the speedy pursuit of a remedy. This review emphasizes the changing aspects of the COVID-19 disease, featuring the cytokine storm's pathological processes. Furthermore, we briefly reviewed potential therapeutic agents that may modulate and alleviate cytokine storms. The literature exploration was made using PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Google scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to retrieve the most recent literature on the etiology, diagnostic markers, and the possible prophylactic and therapeutic options for the management of cytokine storm in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 disease. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continually threatens the efficiency of the immune system of the infected individuals. As the first responder, the innate immune system provides primary protection against COVID-19, affecting the disease's progression, clinical outcome, and prognosis. Evidence suggests that the fatalities associated with COVID-19 are primarily due to hyper-inflammation and an aberrant immune function. Accordingly, the magnitude of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, (IL-6), and tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) significantly differentiate between mild and severe cases of COVID-19. The early prediction of a cytokine storm is made possible by several serum chemistry and hematological markers. The prompt use of these markers for diagnosis and the aggressive prevention and management of a cytokine release syndrome is critical in determining the level of morbidity and fatality associated with COVID-19. The prophylaxis and the rapid treatment of cytokine storm by clinicians will significantly enhance the fight against the dreaded COVID-19 disease.

15.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 527-550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121267

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic from COVID-19 infection has generated significant public health concerns, both health-wise and economically. There is no specific pharmacological antiviral therapeutic option to date available for COVID-19 management. Also, there is an urgent need to discover effective medicines, prevention, and control methods because of the harsh death toll from this novel coronavirus infection. Acute respiratory tract infections, significantly lower respiratory tract infections, and pneumonia are the primary cause of millions of deaths worldwide. The role of micronutrients, including trace elements, boosted the human immune system and was well established. Several vitamins such as vitamin A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; microelement including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; omega-3 fatty acids as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid plays essential physiological roles in promoting the immune system. Furthermore, zinc is an indispensable microelement essential for a thorough enzymatic physiological process. It also helps regulate gene-transcription such as DNA replication, RNA transcription, cell division, and cell activation in the human biological system. Subsequently, zinc, together with natural scavenger cells and neutrophils, are also involved in developing cells responsible for regulating nonspecific immunity. The modern food habit often promotes zinc deficiency; as such, quite a few COVID-19 patients presented to hospitals were frequently diagnosed as zinc deficient. Earlier studies documented that zinc deficiency predisposes patients to a viral infection such as herpes simplex, common cold, hepatitis C, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of reducing antiviral immunity. This manuscript aimed to discuss the various roles played by zinc in the management of COVID-19 infection.

16.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 519-533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are lifesaving drugs, and inappropriate uses lead to the resistance that renders them ineffective. This study aims to understand knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) concerning antibiotic use and resistance among university students in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed from January to April 2020 among students at Jahangirnagar University (JU), Bangladesh. Purposive sampling was conducted through an in-person interview using a structured questionnaire. Students from the faculties of biological sciences and non-biology background were included. The univariate ordinal regression technique was used to analyze the relationship between predictors and good knowledge about the antibiotics. A two-tailed p-value was calculated to determine statistical association. RESULTS: Out of 205 study participants, 92 and 113 responders were from biological science faculty and non-biology disciplines, respectively. Less than half of the students (42.4%) showed a good knowledge level (scores higher than 80%). Biology-background students possess better knowledge than non-biology students [odds ratio (OR) = 4.44, 95% confidence level (CL) (2.56, 7.70), p < 0.001]. A better attitude was noticed among all students. The self-medication rate was quite low, and more than 90% of students were found to consume antibiotics according to the physician's prescription. Lack of treatment adherence was recorded, and students admitted to stop-taking antibiotics when symptoms disappeared (48.67% biology and 36.26% non-biology). Multivariate regression analysis was unable to detect any significant association between self-medication and gender, student category or the level of knowledge about antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Students of biological science background possessed better knowledge indicating the importance of appropriate curriculum imparted in knowledge buildup. Introducing a short course about the risk and development of antibiotic resistance will grow the students' awareness to avoid the resistance phenomenon.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 588106, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067663

ABSTRACT

Background: Countries across Africa and Asia have introduced a variety of measures to prevent and treat COVID-19 with medicines and personal protective equipment (PPE). However, there has been considerable controversy surrounding some treatments including hydroxychloroquine where the initial hype and misinformation led to shortages, price rises and suicides. Price rises and shortages were also seen for PPE. Such activities can have catastrophic consequences especially in countries with high co-payment levels. Consequently, there is a need to investigate this further. Objective: Assess changes in utilisation, prices, and shortages of pertinent medicines and PPE among African and Asian countries since the start of pandemic. Our approach: Data gathering among community pharmacists to assess changes in patterns from the beginning of March until principally the end of May 2020. In addition, suggestions on ways to reduce misinformation. Results: One hundred and thirty one pharmacists took part building on the earlier studies across Asia. There were increases in the utilisation of principally antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine) and antibiotics (azithromycin) especially in Nigeria and Ghana. There were limited changes in Namibia and Vietnam reflecting current initiatives to reduce inappropriate prescribing and dispensing of antimicrobials. Encouragingly, there was increased use of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE across the countries where documented. In addition, generally limited change in the utilisation of herbal medicines. However, shortages have resulted in appreciable price increases in some countries although moderated in others through government initiatives. Suggestions in Namibia going forward included better planning and educating patients. Conclusion: Encouraging to see increases in the utilisation of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE. However, concerns with increased utilisation of antimicrobials needs addressing alongside misinformation, unintended consequences from the pandemic and any appreciable price rises. Community pharmacists and patient organisations can play key roles in providing evidence-based advice, helping moderate prices through improved stock management, and helping address unintended consequences of the pandemic.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 582154, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067661

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has already claimed a considerable number of lives worldwide. However, there are concerns with treatment recommendations given the extent of conflicting results with suggested treatments and misinformation, some of which has resulted in increased prices and shortages alongside increasing use and prices of personal protective equipment (PPE). This is a concern in countries such as India where there have been high patient co-payments and an appreciable number of families going into poverty when members become ill. However, balanced against pricing controls. Community pharmacists play a significant role in disease management in India, and this will remain. Consequently, there is a need to review prices and availability of pertinent medicines during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in India to provide future direction. Objective: Assess current utilisation and price changes as well as shortages of pertinent medicines and equipment during the early stages of the pandemic. Our Approach: Multiple approach involving a review of treatments and ongoing activities across India to reduce the spread of the virus alongside questioning pharmacies in selected cities from early March to end May 2020. Our Activities: 111 pharmacies took part, giving a response rate of 80%. Encouragingly, no change in utilisation of antimalarial medicines in 45% of pharmacies despite endorsements and for antibiotics in 57.7% of pharmacies, helped by increasing need for a prescription for dispensing. In addition, increased purchasing of PPE (over 98%). No price increases were seen for antimalarials and antibiotics in 83.8 and 91.9% of pharmacies respectively although shortages were seen for antimalarials in 70.3% of pharmacies, lower for antibiotics (9.9% of pharmacies). However, price increases were typically seen for PPE (over 90% of stores) as well as for analgesics (over 50% of pharmacies). Shortages were also seen for PPE (88.3%). Conclusion: The pandemic has impacted on utilisation and prices of pertinent medicines and PPE in India but moderated by increased scrutiny. Key stakeholder groups can play a role with enhancing evidenced-based approaches and reducing inappropriate purchasing in the future.

19.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 4673-4695, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011320

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread globally. Several treatments have been proposed, many of which have proven ineffective. Consequently, there is a need to review the published evidence of drug clinical trials to guide future prescribing. A systematic review of published clinical trials and retrospective observational studies was carried out. The search was made using PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Articles published between January 2020 and October 2020 and written in the English language were retrieved and included in the study. Researches that used traditional medicine, in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies, as well as reviews were excluded. Seventy-three relevant articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were finally selected and reviewed. Hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, and azithromycin produced no clinical evidence of efficacy in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT). However, retrospective observational studies reported the efficacy of remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir in reducing viral load, although there have been concerns with lopinavir/ritonavir and, more recently, remdesivir. Recently, tocilizumab, dexamethasone, and methylprednisolone significantly relieved lung inflammation and decreased mortality in patients with severe COVID-19. In addition, convalescent plasma was effective in boosting strong immunity among patients with mild COVID-19. There is currently no single worldwide approved therapeutic option for patients with COVID-19 despite the initial hype with medicines, including hydroxychloroquine. Nonetheless, dexamethasone has shown promise in symptomatic treatment and convalescent plasma in boosting immunity. New treatments are currently being researched, and the findings will be reported accordingly to provide evidence-based guidance for prescribers and policymakers.

20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 585832, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004710

ABSTRACT

Background: Countries have introduced a variety of measures to prevent and treat COVID-19 with medicines and personal protective equipment (PPE), with some countries adopting preventative strategies earlier than others. However, there has been considerable controversy surrounding some treatments. This includes hydroxychloroquine where the initial hype and misinformation lead to shortages, price rises and suicides. Price rises and shortages have also been seen for PPE. Such activities can have catastrophic effects on patients where there are high co-payment levels and issues of affordability. Consequently, there is a need to investigate this further. Objective: Assess changes in the availability, utilization and prices of relevant medicines and PPE during the pandemic among a range of Asian countries. Our approach: Narrative literature review combined with interviews among community pharmacists to assess changes in consumption, prices and shortages of medicines and PPE from the beginning of March 2020 until end of May 2020. In addition, suggestions on ways to reduce misinformation. Results: 308 pharmacists took part from five Asian countries. There was an appreciable increase in the utilization of antimicrobials in Pakistan (in over 88% of pharmacies), with lower increases or no change in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Vietnam. Encouragingly, there was increased use of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE across the countries, as well as limited price rises for antimicrobials in India, Malaysia and Vietnam, although greater price rises seen for analgesics and vitamin C/immune boosters. Appreciable price increases were also seen for PPE across some countries. Conclusion: Encouraging to see increases in utilization of vitamins/immune boosters and PPE. However, increases in the utilization and prices of antimicrobials is a concern that needs addressing alongside misinformation and any unintended consequences from the pandemic. Community pharmacists can play a key role in providing evidence-based advice, helping to moderate prices, as well as helping address some of the unintended consequences of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Costs and Cost Analysis , Drugs, Essential , Public Health , Asia , Drugs, Essential/economics , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/supply & distribution , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pharmacies/supply & distribution
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