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1.
International Journal of Public Health Science ; 11(3):1037-1045, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934615

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities in Malaysia implemented online learning. This long-time remote learning is very challenging to some university students. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of psychological well-being on depression, anxiety, and stress of university students on online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The quantitative data were collected from 325 students from a university in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The survey was conducted online through Google Forms. Two instruments used were Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the psychological well-being scale (PWBS-8). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential methods. The study found that 34.9% of the students were depressed, 60.9% anxious, and 32% stressed. The study found that 23% of the variability in psychological well-being (PWB) affected university students’ depression, anxiety, and stress. This finding demonstrates the magnitude of burden that university students now bear during online learning. Therefore, higher education institutions can play a fundamental role in assisting students to cope with their depression, anxiety, and stress. Authorities should also prioritize determining appropriate student facilities and resources. Structured programmes for distress reduction and blended learning are suggested for use in teaching and learning. © 2022, Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama. All rights reserved.

2.
Saudi Pharm J ; 30(7): 964-970, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914731

ABSTRACT

Background: The drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has been repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. This study aims to determine whether HCQ concentration levels in individuals with RA alter the incidence of COVID-19 or its complications. Methods: We collected plasma samples from 13 individuals with confirmed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to measure HCQ concentration levels. The study included individuals at least 18 years old who had been taking HCQ for at least six months at daily doses ranging from 200 to 400 mg. Results: The study enrolled a total of 13 RA patients. All patients were chronic HCQ users. Among the 13 patients, 7 patients were receiving HCQ at a dose of 200 mg per day, and 6 patients were receiving HCQ at a dose of 400 mg per day. COVID-19 confirmed cases accounted for approximately 46% of all patients. Half of the infected patients (n = 3) were taking a daily dose of 200 mg daily, while the other half were taking 400 mg daily. COVID-19 symptoms ranged from mild to moderate, and the intensity of the symptoms was not severe enough to necessitate hospitalization. COVID-19 symptoms in RA patients included headache, fever, fatigue, dry cough, and loss of taste or smell. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that there was no correlation between HCQ concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis patients and the occurrence of COVID-19 or its complications.

3.
JURNAL KOMUNIKASI-MALAYSIAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION ; 38(1):270-283, 2022.
Article in Malay | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1912390

ABSTRACT

Communicating using social media such as Facebook to discuss social issues, politics or economy is increasingly significant among today's society. This is because those aspects play an important role in daily life. This includes issues pertaining to the transmission of coronavirus (COVID-19) and its outbreaks and the death rate which causes panic among Malaysians. These concerns contribute to the increase in virtual communication on all social media platforms, be it news or information, which saw negative comments uncontrollably left on social media sites. Malaysiakini and Sinar Harian received a lot of reactions and responses from Facebook users on COVID-19 issues. Indirectly, the social media sites of the two organisations have become a communication platform between the people and the government. Researchers aim to the forms of language used by Facebook users and how they evaluate and perceive the comments section. A total of 400 comments were selected and categorised according to the framework proposed by Culpepper and Entman. The findings of the study show that netizens in both social media sites use more language in the form of scathing or complaints while the reactions highlighted lead to. This shows that the government failed to address this issue thus giving netizens space to express and use rude language on their Facebook comments. This is a reflection of the dissipating values of being tact and polite in the Malaysian society. This study also shows that the reaction of netizens who tend to make their own interpretations are caused by individual hatred sentiments, political influence, cybertroopers or merely reading the title.

4.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 35(1):313-321, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897354

ABSTRACT

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, has been a global concern and burden since April 2020 due to high contagiousness and pathogenesis. A great effort is being devoted to identify and investigate different druggable targets for SARS-COV-2 drug discovery. At least three targets have been identified among them is the spike glycoprotein which facilitates viral entry by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2 receptor) in host cell. In the current study, different computational tools were used to design potential cell entry inhibitors targeting spike glycoprotein. The essential pharmacophoric features were identified by e-pharmacophore mapping and fragments virtual screening was run using three different libraries. Docking scores were used to select the best fragments which were linked to afford novel molecules. The designed molecules were filtered via molecular docking, MM-GBSA free energy calculation, ADMET, drug-like properties and DFT calculations. Moreover, synthetic feasibility of the best ligands was studied. These ligands would be envisioned as potential leads for SARS-COV-2 cell entry inhibition and could be explored further towards COVID-19 drug discovery and development.

5.
Ann Saudi Med ; 41(6): 350-360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and survival rates among HPV-infected women are scarce in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical biopsy specimens and its effect on survival over a 10-year timeframe. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional. SETTINGS: Saudi referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervical biopsy specimens were collected from women aged 23-95 years old who underwent HPV detection, HPV genotyping, p16INK4a expression measurement using immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier plots were constructed to analyze overall survival rates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival rate of HPV-positive cervical cancer patients. SAMPLE SIZE: 315 cervical biopsy specimens. RESULTS: HPV was detected in 96 patients (30.4%): 37.3% had cervical cancer; 14.2% cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III, 4.1% CIN II, and 17.0% CIN I. A significant association was found between HPV presence and cervical cancer (χ2=56.78; P<.001). The expression of p16INK4a was a significant predictor of survival: women who had p16INK4a overexpression had poorer survival rates (multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-8.8). In addition, multivariate models with HPV status and cervical cancer diagnosis showed that HPV status was a significant predictor of survival: HPV-positive women had better survival rates than HPV-negative women. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that implementing cervical and HPV screening programs may decrease cervical cancer rates and improve survival rates of women in Saudi Arabia. LIMITATION: Single center and small sample size. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Papillomavirus Infections , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846555

ABSTRACT

Frontline health workers in many countries are responsible for filling gaps in essential primary health infrastructure, as witnessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Their work increasingly involves the use of purportedly "intelligent"systems or data collection for such systems, to support diagnosis, disease forecasting, and information delivery. My research aims to inform the design of data-driven and automated systems in frontline health work, particularly for women workers in low-level and precarious roles in the Global South. Drawing from literature in the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), gender and development studies, and health informatics, I will critically examine health workers' experiences and relationships with "intelligent"systems, and engage in the participatory design of technology that might better serve worker needs while strengthening the frontline health ecology overall. © 2022 Owner/Author.

7.
5th International Conference on Informatics and Computational Sciences (ICICoS) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816446

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the ministry of education has adopted policies aimed at enhancing the consistency and efficacy of the teaching and learning process. In the midst of the Covid19 pandemic, the implementation of different alternatives to the current teaching and learning mechanism is extremely crucial. With the migration of the current education online, AR is viewed to be a suitable and relevant alternative to be implemented. However, study on teacher readiness to adopt AR in education is still absent. Therefore, there is a need to investigate teacher's ICT skills and their readiness in deploying AR in teaching and learning. This research uses quantitative study and survey as the research methodology with 96 teachers involved as a participant. The data analysis is performed using descriptive analysis with the help of SPSS software. The findings showed that teachers in this research show a minimum to moderate level of expertise skilled in handling different ICT aspects. In addition, the research has also shown that teachers in this study show less familiarity with AR technology. The significance of this study is able to provide a set of empirical results that is beneficial for further education planning by the government.

9.
J Int Med Res ; 50(4): 3000605221090363, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of its reported anti-viral activity. This study examined the association of chronic HCQ use with the incidence and complications of COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adults with rheumatoid arthritis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus who visited rheumatology clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2019 and December 2020. Patients were categorized into two groups based on HCQ use. Data were obtained from the electronic health record and by interviews with patients. The primary study objective was the incidence of COVID-19 and its complications from March 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: Almost 11% of the study cohort was positive for COVID-19, and the incidence of COVID-19 was similar between HCQ users (11.11%) and nonusers (10.86%). Disease complication rates were similar in the study arms, and they mainly included fever, dry cough, fatigue, and breathing difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed no significant association between chronic HCQ use and the incidence of COVID-19, and disease complications were similar in the study arms.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776371

ABSTRACT

Local, national, and international health agencies have advocated multi-pronged public health strategies to limit infections and prevent deaths. The availability of safe and effective vaccines is critical in the control of a pandemic. Several adverse events have been reported globally following reception of different vaccines, with limited or no data from Africa. This cross-sectional epidemiological study investigated adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination in Africans from April-June, 2021 using a structured online questionnaire. Out of 1200 participants recruited, a total of 80.8% (n = 969) respondents from 35 countries, including 22 African countries and 13 countries where Africans live in the diaspora, reported adverse events. Over half of the vaccinees were male (53.0%) and frontline healthcare workers (55.7%), respectively. A total of 15.6% (n = 151) reported previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2, while about one-fourth, 24.8% (n = 240), reported different underlying health conditions prior to vaccination. Fatal cases were 5.1% (n = 49), while other significant heterogenous events were reported in three categories: very common, common, and uncommon, with the latter including enlarged lymph nodes 2.4% (n = 23), menstrual disorder 0.5% (n = 5), and increased libido 0.2% (n = 2). The study provided useful data for concerned authorities and institutions to prepare plans that will address issues related to COVID-19 vaccines.

11.
Journal for Educators Teachers and Trainers ; 13(1):86-93, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1761746

ABSTRACT

Had Kifayah refers to a minimum basic necessity rate set based on the current cost of living. The objective of this paper is to determine the current Had Kifayah for asnaf candidates focusing more on USIM Pre-Graduate students as the target group. The research method used are the qualitative and quantitative which apart from referring to existing writing and references, a survey was conducted to obtain the latest data from asnaf students through previous databases. The survey has been conducted via online instead one to one interview due to Covid-19 pandemic. Through a survey that covers aspects of student spending and income, the average of spending method has been used as per agreed with all team members to determine the Had Kifayah, in line with the method used by the state Islamic religious council as a reference. With the improvements made in the agreed calculation system, a more accurate calculation method has been developed and at the same time can help the process of proper distribution of zakat.

12.
CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1759463

ABSTRACT

There has been growing interest in the application of AI for Social Good, motivated by scarce and unequal resources globally. We focus on the case of AI in frontline health, a Social Good domain that is increasingly a topic of significant attention. We offer a thematic discourse analysis of scientific and grey literature to identify prominent applications of AI in frontline health, motivations driving this work, stakeholders involved, and levels of engagement with the local context. We then uncover design considerations for these systems, drawing from data from three years of ethnographic fieldwork with women frontline health workers and women from marginalized communities in Delhi (India). Finally, we outline an agenda for AI systems that target Social Good, drawing from literature on HCI4D, post-development critique, and transnational feminist theory. Our paper thus offers a critical and ethnographic perspective to inform the design of AI systems that target social impact.

13.
Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat MEMBANGUN NEGERI ; 5(2):420-428, 2021.
Article in Indonesian | Indonesian Research | ID: covidwho-1754656

ABSTRACT

Selama masa pandemi COVID-19 sebagian besar kegiatan di lingkungan masyarakat seperti kegiatan rutin posyandu sebagai bentuk upaya kesehatan berbasis masyarakat dilaksanakan secara terbatas sehingga berdampak terhadap pemantauan status kesehatan ibu dan balita baik langsng maupun tidak langsung. Pengabdian masyarakat ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan sikap peserta posyandu tentang pentingnya menerapkan protokol kesehatan dan bersedia mengikuti kegiatan posyandu di era new normal. Selain itu kegiatan ini bertujuan meningkatkan partisipasi aktif kader posyandu dan ketua Rukun Tetangga (RT) dalam mencegah penularan COVID-19 di lingkungan masyarakat. Kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat ini melibatkan anggota posyandu termasuk kader posyandu dan ketua RT setempat sebanyak 30 orang. Pelaksanaan kegiatan berupa edukasi kesehatan melalui sosialisasi tentang pencegahan COVID-19 secara langsung dengan menerapkan protokol kesehatan dan menggunakan media sosialisasi berupa brosur. Sosialisasi berlangsung selama satu hari yaitu Sabtu 17 Oktober 2020 di Posyandu Kembang Goyang Kelurahan Teluk Lerong Ulu Kota Samarinda. Berdasarkan anjuran pemerintah agar tetap membatasi kegiatan di luar rumah termasuk kegiatan posyandu maka kegiatan sosialisasi lebih fokus dilakukan pada target kader posyandu dan ketua RT. Selain sosialisasi langsung kepada kader posyandu dan ketua RT setempat dilakukan juga sosialisasi kepada sejumlah ibu yang memiliki balita dengan mengunjungi tempat tinggal mereka. Pada kunjungan ke rumah warga tersebut sekaligus diserahkan bantuan kebutuhan pokok makanan masker dan cairan hand sanitizer kepada ibu dan balita agar status kesehatan mereka tetap optimal di era new normal. Secara umum pelaksanaan kegiatan pengabdian ini berjalan lancar karena memperoleh dukungan penuh dari kader posyandu dan ketua RT setempat. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari kehadiran semua kader posyandu dan ketua RT serta kesediaan sejumlah ibu yang memilki balita untuk dikunjungi dan diberikan edukasi tentang pentingnya penerapan protokol kesehatan pada era new normal.

14.
2021 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2021 ; 2021-December, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746016

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health and economic crisis. It dramatically impacted different industries, and presented an unforeseen challenge to the automotive industry and its supply chain (SC). We model a system dynamics simulation to demonstrate the behavior of a multi-echelon SC responding to different end market scenarios. The model results highlight challenges that arise for a semiconductor automotive SC not only during, but also after a disruption like the COVID-19 pandemic: strong demand dynamics which cause substantial operational consequences. The model evaluates how upstream companies in the automotive SC suffer from the disruption in terms of amplitude and duration. In order to mitigate these challenges, a close collaboration among players in the SC can increase robustness of the overall SC during unforeseen events like the pandemic. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Computing, ICOCO 2021 ; : 372-376, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1730967

ABSTRACT

Depression is a common illness that is affecting many people nowadays, this is especially true now with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. It often arises when a person is having difficulty coping with stressful life events. It can occur throughout the lifespan of a person, and it pervades all aspects of our lives. Currently, depression diagnoses rely on patient interviews and self-report questionnaires, which depend heavily on the patient honesty and the subjective experience of the clinician. In this paper, we will begin with investigating the viability of using the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) as a feature descriptor to objectively diagnose depression from speech data. The dataset used in this research is the Audio-Visual Emotion Challenging 2017 (AVEC2017). The model is based on a modified ResNet18 model architecture to perform a binary classification (i.e., depressed or non-depressed). The STFT is computed from the speech signal to generate a mel-spectrogram for training and testing the model. The experiment shows that relying solely on STFT as an input feature resulted in an F1 score of 74.71% in classifying depression. © 2021 IEEE.

16.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 116:S115-S115, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1720070

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze risk communication related to Covid-19 conducted by three Provincial Health Offices on their Instagram account. This research used descriptive quantitative method with a content analysis approach. The study was limited to the first 6-month-period of crisis moments in Indonesia from March to August 2020. The unit of analysis were postings of three accounts of the Provincial Health offices on Instagram. The population of this study were 970 postings and the samples were 792 postings related to Covid-19 that were chosen using purposive sampling technique. The instruments were coding instrument which were organized in a codebook. It consists of 7 main codes based on previous established study. The main codes were modified into 20 subcodes. The code and subcodes were tested by 4 coders using Krippendorff 's alpha (α) for its intercoder' s reliability. All categories were reliable (α>0.8). The results showed that risk communication varied among three Provincial Health Offices and in some area needs improvement. The most types of postings were are in the form of posters with caption or posters only (66.5%) and the least types of postings were video or Instagram TV (0.1%). Some of the messages' target were made to provide information (46.6%) and only a few were aimed at building public trust. The most targeted audiences were general public (91.6%), while the least targeted audiences were organizations (0.1%). Covid-19 content in the form of behavior change education was the most uploaded postings (46.2%) while government policies related to covid-19 were very limited in the postings (3.5%). Most of the postings cited websites and or social media (54.9%) for references and scientific journals (0.3%) were the least cited. The most widely used message intonation was with positive intonation (84.8%). Instagram plays as an important complementary tool for risk communication by the government. Provincial Health Offices may add more postings that will improve public trust to the government in managing and handling Covid-19 problems and to improve the public engagement, understanding, and responses to Covid-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Infectious Diseases is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(2):584-585, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1709724

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 infection with cardiac involvement in the pediatric population remains rare and it is most recognized for its association with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Isolated pericarditis is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 infection, with a few cases being reported to date. Case description A 7-year-old black male presenting with chest pain and cough was found to have pericardial effusion. He had known exposure to COVID-19 five months prior, without developing symptoms of acute illness. On our evaluation, COVID-19 IgG titers were positive, SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative, confirming prior asymptomatic infection. There was no evidence of MIS-C on laboratory analysis or on clinical examination. Pericardial fluid analysis and testing for infectious and rheumatological causes were unremarkable. Medical management with Ibuprofen, Colchicine, and Lasix initially failed and patient required pericardiocentesis. Pericardial effusion later recurred and was successfully managed medically. Discussion Our patient's case is atypical in that he developed a cardiac complication after acute asymptomatic COVID-19 infection, five months after his known exposure. Secondly, his cardiac complication was not in the context of MIS-C, which is relatively commonly described post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19 related pericarditis presents with chest pain, pericardial rub, EKG changes. No specific biomarkers are available to diagnose pericarditis, however inflammatory markers like ESR, CRP, WBC and imaging like chest X ray, CT scan, ECHO are often utilized to diagnose and monitor response to treatment. Diagnostic pericardiocentesis can be avoided in most cases. Pericardial fluid analysis is mainly used to exclude other causes of pericardial effusion. Cardiac specific biomarkers such as troponin-I, BNP can be used to monitor the progression of the disease and response to treatment. Main treatment options include NSAIDs, steroids, and IVIG. NSAIDS-Colchicine combination has been successfully used in adults and children. Anakinra was used in Colchicine nonresponsive cases in adults. Conclusion It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion for cardiac complications in children with known COVID-19 contacts. In the context of high exposure in the general population during the pandemic, the development of cough and chest pain in a pediatric patient should trigger an evaluation with a CXR, as well as EKG and ECHO to properly investigate a cardiac complication. Such cases should be referred to Cardiology and Infectious Disease specialists for treatment and appropriate follow-up to resolution. Long-term Cardiology follow-up to monitor for sequelae may be warranted.

18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 35(1):313-321, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1709301

ABSTRACT

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by SARS-COV-2, has been a global concern and burden since April 2020 due to high contagiousness and pathogenesis. A great effort is being devoted to identify and investigate different druggable targets for SARS-COV-2 drug discovery. At least three targets have been identified among them is the spike glycoprotein which facilitates viral entry by binding to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-2 receptor) in host cell. In the current study, different computational tools were used to design potential cell entry inhibitors targeting spike glycoprotein. The essential pharmacophoric features were identified by e-pharmacophore mapping and fragments virtual screening was run using three different libraries. Docking scores were used to select the best fragments which were linked to afford novel molecules. The designed molecules were filtered via molecular docking, MM-GBSA free energy calculation, ADMET, drug-like properties and DFT calculations. Moreover, synthetic feasibility of the best ligands was studied. These ligands would be envisioned as potential leads for SARS-COV-2 cell entry inhibition and could be explored further towards COVID-19 drug discovery and development. © 2022 Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

19.
21st International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, ICCAS 2021 ; 2021-October:592-595, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1703421

ABSTRACT

Radiography is used in medical treatment as a method to diagnose the internal organs of the human body from diseases. However, the advancement in machine learning technologies have paved way to new possibilities of diagnosing diseases from chest X-ray images. One such diseases that are able to be detected by using X-ray is the COVID-19 coronavirus. This research investigates the diagnosis of COVID-19 through X-ray images by using transfer learning and fine-tuning of the fully connected layer. Hyperparameters such as dropout, p, number of neurons, and activation functions are investigated on which combinations of these hyperparameters will yield the highest classification accuracy model. VGG19 learning model created by the Visual Geometry Group is used for extraction of features from the patient's chest X-ray images. To evaluate the combination of various pipelines, the loss and accuracy graphs are used to find the pipeline which performs the best in classification task. The findings in this research will open new possibilities in screening method for COVID-19. © 2021 ICROS.

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