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1.
Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine ; 22(3):90-97, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2264137

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has rapidly impacted on mortality worldwide. Early identification of COVID-19 cases in community at high risk of death can enhance patient treatment and resource allocation. The goal of this study is to identify the characteristics of COVID-19 mortality cases in Kubang Pasu districts in 2021. Data on mortality cases in the year 2021 in Kubang Pasu district were collected, extracted and analyzed. There are 210 (1.9%) mortality cases had been recorded in 2021 due to COVID-19 infection form 11019 COVID-19 cases in Kubang Pasu district. The mortality cases consist of 108(51%) female and 102(49%) male. The highest mortality cases involved the age group of more than 70 years old with 73 (34.8%) cases. The highest race was Malay 193(91.9%), followed by non-Malaysian(2.9%), Chinese 4(1.9%), Siamese 4(1.9%) and Indian 3(1.4%) respectively. Most of the mortality cases are unvaccinated 153 (72.9%). The most coomon cause of death is due to COVID-19 pneumonia with 205 (97.5%) cases. Majority of the cases were screen through symptomatic screening and close contact screening 86 (40.9%) cases and 52 (24.8%) respectively. Among the mortality cases, there are 22(10.5%) brought-in-death cases which 19 (86%) cases are Malay. Most of the brought-in-death cases are unvaccinated, 19 (86%) cases, incomplete vaccine 1 (5%) case and 2 (9%) cases completed vaccine. The highest number of mortality cases occur among those with age more than 70. It involved mostly among Malay race and they were unvaccinated. Lung complication is the main cause of death since most of the mortality cases passed away due to pneumonia. This high number of mortality and BID cases might be attributed to poor health-seeking behaviour among the Kubang Pasu population with COVID-19. Promotion activities about COVID-19 and vaccine should be strengthened further to improve the knowledge and actions towards COVID-19 in community. © 2022, Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

2.
Journal of Tropical Resources and Sustainable Science ; 9(2):93-102, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2206596

ABSTRACT

Most of the coronaviruses are known because they are pathogens of veterinary and economic importance or of social importance. The current knowledge on the origin, diversity, evolution of coronaviruses, as well as treatment and prevention strategies, and their impact on animal industries are discussed in this paper. The contribution factors for the outbreak of pathogenic coronaviruses and the potential of spill over of zoonotic coronaviruses to humans are also highlighted in this review paper.

3.
Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany ; 91(5):1089-1104, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1668061

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses caused an outbreak pandemic disease characterized by a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome leading to the infection of more than 200 million patients and the death of more than 4 million individuals. The primary treatment is either supportive or symptomatic. Natural products have an important role in the development of various drugs. Thus, screening of natural compounds with reported antiviral activities can lead to the discovery of potential inhibitory entities against coronaviruses. In the current study, an in-silico molecular docking experiment was conducted on the effects of some of these natural antiviral phytoconstituents, (e.g., procyanidin B2, theaflavin, quercetin, ellagic acid, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, berginin, eudesm-1 beta, 6 alpha, 11-triol and arbutin), on the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (PDB ID: 6w63) using AutoDock-Vina software. Many of the docked compounds revealed good binding affinity, with procyanidin B2 (-8.6 Kcal/mol) and theaflavin (-8.5 Kcal/mol) showing a better or similar binding score as the ligand (-8.5 Kcal/mol). Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out at 100 ns and revealed that procyanidin B2 forms a more stable complex with SARS-CoV-2 main protease than theaflavin. Procyanidin B2, theaflavin, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were evaluated for toxicity by ProTox-II webserver and were non-toxic according to the predicted LD50 values and safe on different organs and pathways. Additionally, these phytoconstituents showed good ADME properties and acceptable lipophilicity, as evaluated using WLOGP. Amongst the tested compounds, procyanidin B2 showed the highest lipophilic value. It is worth mentioning that these natural inhibitiors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease are components of green and black tea that can be used as a supporting supplement for COVID patients or as potential nuclei for further drug design and development campaigns.

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