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1.
iScience ; : 105742, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149914

ABSTRACT

Summary Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit a cytokine storm characterized by greatly elevated levels of cytokines. Despite this, the interferon (IFN) response is delayed, contributing to disease progression. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 excessively generates small viral RNAs (svRNAs) encoding exact 5′ ends of positive-sense genes in human cells in vitro and ex vivo, whereas endemic human coronaviruses (OC43 and 229E) produce significantly fewer similar svRNAs. SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs are RIG-I agonists and induce the IFN-β response in later stages of infection. The first 60-nt ends bearing duplex structures and 5′-triphosphates are responsible for immune-stimulation. We propose that RIG-I activation by accumulated SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs may contribute to later drive over-exuberant IFN production. Additionally, the differences in the amounts of svRNAs produced and the corresponding IFN response among CoV strains suggest that lower svRNA production during replication may correlate with the weaker immune response seen in less pathogenic CoVs.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1188, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106511

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved continuously and accumulated spike mutations with each variant having a different binding for the cellular ACE2 receptor. It is not known whether the interactions between such mutated spikes and ACE2 glycans are conserved among different variant lineages. Here, we focused on three ACE2 glycosylation sites (53, 90 and 322) that are geometrically close to spike binding sites and investigated the effect of their glycosylation pattern on spike affinity. These glycosylation deletions caused distinct site-specific changes in interactions with the spike and acted cooperatively. Of note, the particular interaction profiles were conserved between the SARS-CoV-2 parental virus and the variants of concern (VOCs) Delta and Omicron. Our study provides insights for a better understanding of the importance of ACE2 glycosylation on ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike interaction and guidance for further optimization of soluble ACE2 for therapeutic use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Glycosylation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Protein Binding
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