Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13914, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The continuing evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with decreased susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies is of clinical importance. Several spike mutations associated with immune escape have evolved independently in association with different variants of concern (VOCs). How and when these mutations arise is still unclear. We hypothesized that such mutations might arise in the context of persistent viral replication in immunosuppressed hosts. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected longitudinally from two immunosuppressed patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma was collected from these same patients late in disease course. SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing was performed to assess the emergence and frequency of mutations over time. Select Spike mutations were assessed for their impact on viral entry and antibody neutralization in vitro. RESULTS: Our sequencing results revealed the intrahost emergence of spike mutations that are associated with circulating VOCs in both immunosuppressed patients (del241-243 and E484Q in one patient, and E484K in the other). These mutations decreased antibody-mediated neutralization of pseudotyped virus particles in cell culture, but also decreased efficiency of spike-mediated cell entry. CONCLUSIONS: These observations demonstrate the de novo emergence of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations with enhanced immune evasion in immunosuppressed patients with persistent infection. These data suggest one potential mechanism for the evolution of VOCs and emphasize the importance of continued efforts to develop antiviral drugs for suppression of viral replication in hospitalized settings.

2.
Transplantation ; 105(12): e397, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956638
3.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1103-1116, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931425

ABSTRACT

The chr12q24.13 locus encoding OAS1-OAS3 antiviral proteins has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility. Here, we report genetic, functional and clinical insights into this locus in relation to COVID-19 severity. In our analysis of patients of European (n = 2,249) and African (n = 835) ancestries with hospitalized versus nonhospitalized COVID-19, the risk of hospitalized disease was associated with a common OAS1 haplotype, which was also associated with reduced severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance in a clinical trial with pegIFN-λ1. Bioinformatic analyses and in vitro studies reveal the functional contribution of two associated OAS1 exonic variants comprising the risk haplotype. Derived human-specific alleles rs10774671-A and rs1131454 -A decrease OAS1 protein abundance through allele-specific regulation of splicing and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We conclude that decreased OAS1 expression due to a common haplotype contributes to COVID-19 severity. Our results provide insight into molecular mechanisms through which early treatment with interferons could accelerate SARS-CoV-2 clearance and mitigate against severe COVID-19.

4.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883178

ABSTRACT

Clinical outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with breakthrough COVID (BTCo) after two doses of mRNA vaccination compared to the non-immunocompromised/immunosuppressed (ISC) general population, are not well described. In a cohort of adult patients testing positive for COVID-19 between December 10, 2020 and April 4, 2022, we compared the cumulative incidence of BTCo in a non-ISC population to SOT recipients (overall and by organ type) using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) including data from 36 sites across the United States. We assessed the risk of complications post-BTCo in vaccinated SOT recipients versus SOT with unconfirmed vaccination status (UVS) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression. BTCo occurred in 4776 vaccinated SOT recipients over a median of 149 days (IQR 99-233), with the highest cumulative incidence in heart recipients. The relative risk of BTCo was greatest in SOT recipients (relative to non-ISC) during the pre-Delta period (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.80-3.08). The greatest relative benefit with vaccination for both non-ISC and SOT cohorts was in BTCo mortality (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.36-0.39 for non-ISC; HR 0.67, 95% 0.57-0.78 for SOT relative to UVS). While the relative benefit of vaccine was less in SOT than non-ISC, SOT patients still exhibited significant benefit with vaccination.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 363-364, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860826
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820177

ABSTRACT

Patients with a history of malignancy have been shown to be at an increased risk of COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. Poorer clinical outcomes in that patient population are likely due to the underlying systemic illness, comorbidities, and the cytotoxic and immunosuppressive anti-tumor treatments they are subjected to. We identified 416 cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection being managed for their malignancy at Northwestern Medicine in Chicago, Illinois, between March and July of 2020. Seventy-five (18.0%) patients died due to COVID-related complications. Older age (>60), male gender, and current treatment with immunotherapy were associated with shorter overall survival. Laboratory findings showed that higher platelet counts, ALC, and hemoglobin were protective against critical illness and death from COVID-19. Conversely, elevated inflammatory markers such as ferritin, d-dimer, procalcitonin, CRP, and LDH led to worse clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that a thorough clinical and laboratory assessment of infected patients with cancer might help identify a more vulnerable population and implement more aggressive proactive strategies.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disparities in access to anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies have not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore the impact of race/ethnicity as a social construct on monoclonal antibody delivery. DESIGN/PATIENTS: Following implementation of a centralized infusion program at a large academic healthcare system, we reviewed a random sample of high-risk ambulatory adult patients with COVID-19 referred for monoclonal antibody therapy. MAIN MEASURES: We examined the relationship between treatment delivery, race/ethnicity, and other demographics using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and spatial analysis. KEY RESULTS: There was no significant difference in racial composition between patients who did (n = 25) and patients who did not (n = 378) decline treatment (p = 0.638). Of patients who did not decline treatment, 64.8% identified as White, 14.8% as Hispanic/Latinx, and 11.1% as Black. Only 44.6% of Hispanic/Latinx and 31.0% of Black patients received treatment compared to 64.1% of White patients (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.81, p = 0.008, and OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.12-0.50, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis including age, race, insurance status, non-English primary language, county Social Vulnerability Index, illness severity, and total number of comorbidities, associations between receiving treatment and Hispanic/Latinx or Black race were no longer statistically significant (AOR 1.32, 95% CI 0.69-2.53, p = 0.400, and AOR 1.34, 95% CI 0.64-2.80, p = 0.439, respectively). However, patients who were uninsured or whose primary language was not English were less likely to receive treatment (AOR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.88, p = 0.035, and AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.90, p = 0.028, respectively). Spatial analysis suggested decreased monoclonal antibody delivery to Cook County patients residing in socially vulnerable communities. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk ambulatory patients with COVID-19 who identified as Hispanic/Latinx or Black were less likely to receive monoclonal antibody therapy in univariate analysis, a finding not explained by patient refusal. Multivariable and spatial analyses suggested insurance status, language, and social vulnerability contributed to racial disparities.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713630

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most studies of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 focus on outcomes within one month of illness onset. Delayed mortality in SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 has not been fully examined. METHODS: We used data from a multicenter registry to calculate mortality by 90 days following initial SARS-CoV-2 detection in SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 and developed multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models to compare risk factors for death by days 28 and 90. RESULTS: Vital status at day 90 was available for 936 of 1117 (84%) SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19: 190 of 936 (20%) died by 28 days and an additional 56 of 246 deaths (23%) occurred between days 29 and 90. Factors associated with mortality by day 90 included: age > 65 years [aHR 1.8 (1.3-2.4), p =<0.001], lung transplant (vs. non-lung transplant) [aHR 1.5 (1.0-2.3), p=0.05], heart failure [aHR 1.9 (1.2-2.9), p=0.006], chronic lung disease [aHR 2.3 (1.5-3.6), p<0.001] and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m 2 [aHR 1.5 (1.1-2.0), p=0.02]. These associations were similar for mortality by day 28. Compared to diagnosis during early 2020 (March 1-June 19, 2020), diagnosis during late 2020 (June 20-December 31, 2020) was associated with lower mortality by day 28 [aHR 0.7 (0.5-1.0, p=0.04] but not by day 90 [aHR 0.9 (0.7-1.3), p=0.61]. CONCLUSIONS: In SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19, >20% of deaths occurred between 28 and 90 days following SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Future investigations should consider extending follow-up duration to 90 days for more complete mortality assessment.

9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac027, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While several demographic and clinical correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome have been identified, their relationship to virological and immunological parameters remains poorly defined. METHODS: To address this, we performed longitudinal collection of nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples from a cohort of 58 hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Samples were assessed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load, viral genotype, viral diversity, and antibody titer. Demographic and clinical information, including patient blood tests and several composite measures of disease severity, was extracted from electronic health records. RESULTS: Several factors, including male sex, higher age, higher body mass index, higher 4C Mortality score, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, were associated with intensive care unit admission. Of all measured parameters, only the retrospectively calculated median Deterioration Index score was significantly associated with death. While quantitative polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold (Ct) values and genotype of SARS-CoV-2 were not significantly associated with outcome, Ct value did correlate positively with C-reactive protein levels and negatively with D-dimer, lymphocyte count, and antibody titer. Intrahost viral genetic diversity remained constant through the disease course and resulted in changes in viral genotype in some participants. CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, these results suggest that worse outcomes are driven by immune dysfunction rather than by viral load and that SARS-CoV-2 evolution in hospital settings is relatively constant over time.

10.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(3): 205-210, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662144

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During much of the COVID-19 pandemic, respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 did not infect immunocompromised patients. As mitigation strategies lighten, there has been a rapid resurgence of respiratory viruses globally. This review will summarize our current options for the management of the common respiratory viruses in transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Expansion of the availability and increased utilization of multiplex molecular assays have allowed the recognition of the scope of respiratory virus infections in the transplant populations. New antivirals for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) and adenovirus show promise to improve outcomes of these important infections. SUMMARY: Several new antiviral agents, including combination therapy of oseltamivir as well as baloxavir for influenza, fusion and nucleoprotein inhibitors for RSV, DAS181 for PIV and brincidofovir for adenovirus, hold promise to speed clearance of the virus, improve clinical outcomes and reduce the risk of resistance emergence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 405, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631967

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of the coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) with evolving variants of concern. It remains urgent to identify novel approaches against broad strains of SARS-CoV-2, which infect host cells via the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Herein, we report an increase in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that express ACE2 (evACE2) in plasma of COVID-19 patients, which levels are associated with severe pathogenesis. Importantly, evACE2 isolated from human plasma or cells neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 infection by competing with cellular ACE2. Compared to vesicle-free recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2), evACE2 shows a 135-fold higher potency in blocking the binding of the viral spike protein RBD, and a 60- to 80-fold higher efficacy in preventing infections by both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Consistently, evACE2 protects the hACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury and mortality. Furthermore, evACE2 inhibits the infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants (α, ß, and δ) with equal or higher potency than for the wildtype strain, supporting a broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism of evACE2 for therapeutic development to block the infection of existing and future coronaviruses that use the ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis , Vero Cells
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 24-31, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has strained healthcare systems with patient hospitalizations and deaths. Anti-spike monoclonal antibodies, including bamlanivimab, have demonstrated reduction in hospitalization rates in clinical trials, yet real-world evidence is lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study across a single healthcare system of nonhospitalized patients, age 18 years or older, with documented positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing, risk factors for severe COVID-19, and referrals for bamlanivimab via emergency use authorization. Cases were defined as patients who received bamlanivimab; contemporary controls had a referral order placed but did not receive bamlanivimab. The primary outcome was 30-day hospitalization rate from initial positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Descriptive statistics, including χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U test, were performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used for adjusted analysis to evaluate independent associations with 30-day hospitalization. RESULTS: Between 30 November 2020 and 19 January 2021, 218 patients received bamlanivimab (cases), and 185 were referred but did not receive drug (controls). Thirty-day hospitalization rate was significantly lower among patients who received bamlanivimab (7.3% vs 20.0%, risk ratio [RR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .21-.64, P < .001), and the number needed to treat was 8. On logistic regression, odds of hospitalization were increased in patients not receiving bamlanivimab and with a higher number of pre-specified comorbidities (odds ratio [OR] 4.19 ,95% CI: 1.31-2.16, P < .001; OR 1.68, 95% CI: 2.12-8.30, P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Ambulatory patients with COVID-19 who received bamlanivimab had a lower 30-day hospitalization than control patients in real-world experience. We identified receipt of bamlanivimab and fewer comorbidities as protective factors against hospitalization.Bamlanivimab's role in preventing hospitalization associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. In a real-world, retrospective study of 403 high-risk, ambulatory patients with COVID-19, receipt of bamlanivimab compared to no monoclonal antibody therapy was associated with lower 30-day hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S375-S375, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564291

ABSTRACT

Background Regdanvimab is a monoclonal antibody with activity against SARS-CoV-2. A Phase 2/3 study with two parts is currently ongoing and data up to Day 28 of Part 1 is available while the data from 1315 patients enrolled in Part 2 are expected in June 2021. Methods This phase 2/3, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with 2 parts is aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of regdanvimab in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, not requiring supplemental oxygen therapy. Patients aged >18 with the onset of symptoms within 7 days were eligible to be enrolled. Results In Part 1, 307 patients (101, 103, and 103 patients in the regdanvimab 40 mg/kg, regdanvimab 80 mg/kg, and placebo groups, respectively) were confirmed to have COIVD-19 by RT-qPCR at Day 1 (or Day 2). Regdanvimab significantly reduced the proportion of patients who required hospitalization or supplemental oxygen therapy compared to placebo (8.7% in the placebo vs. 4.0% in the regdanvimab 40 mg/kg). The difference in events rate was even larger in patients who met the high-risk criteria and confirmed a 66.1% reduction in patients receiving regdanvimab 40 mg/kg (Table 1). The median time to clinical recovery was shortened by 2.9 days (7.18 days for regdanvimab 40 mg/kg and 10.03 days for placebo;high-risk). Also, greater reductions from baseline viral load were shown in regdanvimab groups (Figure 1). The safety results confirmed that the regdanvimab was safe and well-tolerated. Occurrence of adverse events (Table 2) and results of other safety assessments were generally comparable among the 3 groups. The overall rate of infusion-related reaction was low and no serious adverse events or deaths were reported. The anti-drug antibody positive rate was low in the regdanvimab groups (1.4% in regdanvimab vs. 4.5% in placebo), and no antibody-dependent enhancement was reported. Conclusion Results from the first part of the study indicate that regdanvimab may lower the rate of hospitalisation or requirement of oxygen supplementation, with the greatest benefit noted in patients at high-risk of progressing to severe COVID-19. The second part of the study remains ongoing and blinded. Therefore, results for the primary endpoint are forthcoming and will be presented at IDWeek. Disclosures Michael G. Ison, MD, MS, Celltrion, Inc. (Consultant) Jin Yong Kim, MD, MPH, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Oana Sandulescu, MD, PhD, Algernon Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Atea Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Diffusion Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Liliana-Lucia Preotescu, MD, PhD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Norma Erendira Rivera Martinez, MD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Marta Dobryanska, MD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Victoria Birlutiu, Assoc. Prof. M.D. Ph.D., Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania & Hasso Plattner Foundation (Research Grant or Support) Egidia Gabriela Miftode, MD, PhD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Natalia Gaibu, MD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Olga Adriana Caliman-Sturdza, MD, PhD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania (Research Grant or Support) Simin-Aysel Florescu, MD, PhD, Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator) Anca Streinu-Cercel, MD, PhD, Assoc.Prof. Infectious diseases, Algernon Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Atea Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Celltrion, Inc. (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Diffusion Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals (Scientific Research Stu y Investigator) Sang Joon Lee, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Sung Hyun Kim, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Il Sung Chang, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Yun Ju Bae, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Jee Hye Suh, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Mi Rim Kim, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Da Re Chung, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Sun Jung Kim, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Seul Gi Lee, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Ga Hee Park, n/a, Celltrion, Inc. (Employee) Joong Sik Eom, MD, PhD, Celltrion, Inc. (Consultant)

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4090-e4099, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well described. METHODS: We performed a multicenter cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 46-57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2-10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-5.5, P < .001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4-7.0, P = .004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.2, P = .018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.4, P = .039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = .033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1-7.5, P = .027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
17.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(2): 158-160, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499889
18.
Am J Transplant ; 22(2): 371-380, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488170

ABSTRACT

Transplant centers seeking to increase coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine coverage may consider requiring vaccination for healthcare workers or for candidates. The authors summarize current data to inform an ethical analysis of the harms, benefits, and individual and societal impact of mandatory vaccination, concluding that vaccine requirements for healthcare workers and transplant candidates are ethically justified by beneficence, net utility, and fiduciary duty to patients and public health. Implementation strategies should mitigate concerns about respect for autonomy and transparency for both groups. We clarify how the same arguments might be applied to related questions of caregiver vaccination, allocation of other healthcare resources, and mandates for non-COVID-19 vaccines. Finally, we call for effort to achieve global equity in vaccination as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination , COVID-19 , Ethical Review , Health Personnel , Humans , Patients
19.
Journal of Medical Internet Research Vol 23(2), 2021, ArtID e25454 ; 23(2), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1451697

ABSTRACT

Background: Government responses to managing the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the way individuals were able to engage in physical activity. Digital platforms are a promising way to support physical activity levels and may have provided an alternative for people to maintain their activity while at home. Objective: This study aimed to examine associations between the use of digital platforms and adherence to the physical activity guidelines among Australian adults and adolescents during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020. Methods: A national online survey was distributed in May 2020. Participants included 1188 adults (mean age 37.4 years, SD 15.1;980/1188, 82.5% female) and 963 adolescents (mean age 16.2 years, SD 1.2;685/963, 71.1% female). Participants reported demographic characteristics, use of digital platforms for physical activity over the previous month, and adherence to moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models examined differences in guideline adherence between those who used digital platforms (ie, users) to support their physical activity compared to those who did not (ie, nonusers). Results: Digital platforms include streaming services for exercise (eg, YouTube, Instagram, and Facebook);subscriber fitness programs, via an app or online (eg, Centr and MyFitnessPal);facilitated online live or recorded classes, via platforms such as Zoom (eg, dance, sport training, and fitness class);sport- or activity-specific apps designed by sporting organizations for participants to keep up their skills (eg, TeamBuildr);active electronic games (eg, Xbox Kinect);and/or online or digital training or racing platforms (eg, Zwift, FullGaz, and Rouvy). Overall, 39.5% (469/1188) of adults and 26.5% (255/963) of adolescents reported using digital platforms for physical activity. Among adults, MVPA (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7), MSE (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.5), and combined (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8) guideline adherence were higher among digital platform users relative to nonusers. Adolescents' MVPA (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), MSE (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.4), and combined (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.1-9.0) guideline adherence were also higher among users of digital platforms relative to nonusers. Conclusions: Digital platform users were more likely than nonusers to meet MVPA and MSE guidelines during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020. Digital platforms may play a critical role in helping to support physical activity engagement when access to facilities or opportunities for physical activity outside the home are restricted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

20.
Am J Transplant ; 22(1): 24-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412661

ABSTRACT

Despite emerging data suggesting reduced antibody responses among solid organ transplant recipients following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, critical unanswered questions remain. The clinical implications of the reduced humoral response need to be assessed through prospective studies. Studies are likewise needed to inform which vaccine dosing strategies result in improved immunity and if such approaches maximize protection against severe infection in the vulnerable transplant population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL