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1.
Materials Chemistry and Physics ; : 126099, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783630

ABSTRACT

Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles coated on textile fabrics have showed remarkable antibacterial characteristics, suggesting that they could be utilized to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 and reduce outbreaks. Textile materials, such as medical cloths and cleaning workers, could help to stop the spread of the COVID-19 Corona Virus in health institutions. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) coated cotton/starched cotton, as well as their functionalized CuO–Ag nanocomposites and Cu(II)-curcumin complex, were synthesized in this study. CuO-NPs are less likely to leach when starched cotton materials are used instead of unstarched cotton. The none-toxic biocompatible starch material has improved the adhesion properties of the cotton fibers and enhanced its durability towards CuO-NPs. Deposition of CuO has improved by 39.5% after 3 wt% starch was used and its antimicrobial activity of CuO-coated cotton has increased by 50% for E. coli and by 23% for S. aureus. The functionalization of CuO-coated cotton with curcumin or Ag nanoparticles has enhanced the antimicrobial performance of the fabric because of the synergistic behavior of CuO, Ag, and curcumin. The results have showed excellent antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus.

2.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions ; 15(4):S58-S59, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1757494

ABSTRACT

Background: TAVR has emerged as a revolutionary treatment for patients with symptomatic and severe AS, irrespective of surgical-risk profile. Novel transcatheter heart valves (THV) with a lower profile, ease of use and expected longer durability are being developed to target younger and low-risk population. Myval is a 14Fr-balloon expandable THV with a skirt to minimize the occurrence of paravalvular leak (PVL), and has been recently approved for commercial use in Brazil. We sought to report our initial experience with this novel device. Methods: Single-center, single arm, open label prospective registry encompassing all consecutive patients referred to TAVR in our Institution between December 2020 and November 2021. Indication for TAVR was according to current international guidelines. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were defined accordingly to VARC-III criteria. Results: A total of 39 patients were enrolled so far. Mean age was 79.5 years, 42% were female and mean STS score was 4%. Pre-procedures mean gradient and aortic valve area were 53.3 mmHg and 0.7cm2, respectively. All procedures were performed under minimalist approach using percutaneous, femoral access. Two patients were treated for bicuspid aortic stenosis and four patients underwent a valve-in-valve procedure. Procedure success was achieved in 100% of the cases, and post-procedure echocardiogram revealed a mean residual gradient of 5 mmHg, with PVL greater than mild in a single case. Permanent pacemaker was required in only 2 patients, and mean hospital stay was 3.1 days. At 30-days, there were two deaths, one due to COVID in a patient who presented major access bleeding requiring prolonged hospital stay, and another one a cardiovascular death. Conclusion: In our initial experience with the Myval THV, valve performance and 30-day clinical results were encouraging. Low rates of complications were observed, comparable to the best last-generation THV. At the time of the meeting, three-month clinical and echocardiographic FU will be available.

3.
University of Toronto Medical Journal ; 98(3):68-70, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1668549

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, cities across Canada locked down in an effort to control the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The containment measures forced many disruptive societal changes, with the virtual delivery of medical education being one example. Many of the resulting educational changes will persist for the foreseeable future. As students at the Temerty Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto, we have observed first-hand the transition to a virtual curriculum. Preclerkship medical students have been unable to participate in clinical observerships as part of early career exploration throughout the duration of the pandemic. These clinical experiences offer more than just opportunities to narrow career options, they also serve as a critical part of our development as future physicians. Given the continued need to preserve personal protective equipment and comply with physical distancing guidelines, we believe innovative solutions are needed to restore this critical component of our medical education. Our student-led research group has described a novel use of a point-of-view livestreaming technology that allows physicians to demonstrate physical exams while teaching clinical skills to medical students as one possible solution. As the pandemic continues to threaten global health, a clear need exists to identify and implement creative innovations to prepare future physicians.

4.
17th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, WiMob 2021 ; 2021-October:277-282, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1651039

ABSTRACT

In the recent year, people had to work from home due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. When the majority of the family members are working online, the bitrate experienced by the average user may drop, especially if some members have to work in rooms that suffer from weak coverage. Benefiting from the emerging concept of Reflective Intelligent Surfaces (RIS), the network coverage in our houses can be greatly improved. This paper presents a study of an RIS-assisted system for an indoor scenario operating at 2.4GHz. We propose an RIS placement approach that is based on minimizing the pathloss of the channel, to enhance the rate of bad coverage rooms, while taking into consideration their user occupancies. The proposed approach, which we refer to as the Weighted RIS Placement, is modeled and simulated for a single RIS. The problem is then extended to a two-RIS scenario. Our results show that the Weighted RIS placement provides significant rate gains. Also, this is the first work that models the communication channels for the individual rooms, using corresponding Rician K-factor values that reflect the indoor layout. © 2021 IEEE.

5.
Elife ; 102021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513059

ABSTRACT

The emergence of mutant K13-mediated artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites has led to widespread treatment failures across Southeast Asia. In Africa, K13-propeller genotyping confirms the emergence of the R561H mutation in Rwanda and highlights the continuing dominance of wild-type K13 elsewhere. Using gene editing, we show that R561H, along with C580Y and M579I, confer elevated in vitro ART resistance in some African strains, contrasting with minimal changes in ART susceptibility in others. C580Y and M579I cause substantial fitness costs, which may slow their dissemination in high-transmission settings, in contrast with R561H that in African 3D7 parasites is fitness neutral. In Cambodia, K13 genotyping highlights the increasing spatio-temporal dominance of C580Y. Editing multiple K13 mutations into a panel of Southeast Asian strains reveals that only the R561H variant yields ART resistance comparable to C580Y. In Asian Dd2 parasites C580Y shows no fitness cost, in contrast with most other K13 mutations tested, including R561H. Editing of point mutations in ferredoxin or mdr2, earlier associated with resistance, has no impact on ART susceptibility or parasite fitness. These data underline the complex interplay between K13 mutations, parasite survival, growth and genetic background in contributing to the spread of ART resistance.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins/pharmacology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance/genetics , Mutation , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Africa , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Asia , Cambodia , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Molecular Epidemiology
6.
Int. Rev. ; - (1-2):66-75, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1459333

ABSTRACT

This article is devoted to the study of trends in the management of global economic development in the post-pandemic period. The paper developed recommendations for further development of countries in the context of the recurrence of pandemics. With this in mind, the main trends in the development of countries during the pandemic were considered and the impact of quarantine on the economies of various countries was determined. To model the future actions of states, based on studies of the historical preconditions for the development of countries in the post-crisis period, the basic patterns were identified, allowing to predict different scenarios of world economic development. The article introduces a forecasting method of global economic development based on the quadrant of trust and affluence of the population, which allows predicting various options for post-pandemic development according to four possible scenarios. The first option is a rapid V-shaped growth, which is based on the fact that with a sufficient level of public confidence in the government, as soon as the quarantine restrictions expire, the economy will gain momentum. The second one is the long-term U-shaped growth, which is expected to take place in terms of insufficient public confidence in the government, with a population reluctant to invest in economic growth. The third one is the L-shaped development, which does not provide for economic recovery in the short run due to public distrust and the impossibility of business recovery. Finally, the fourth scenario is the worst one: it's the way of development, that occurs in case of impossibility of survival and complete distrust to the government;the population will be forced to organize protests and revolutions, thus making the economy operate even worse. According to the expectations of international regulators, V or U-shaped recovery of the world economy after the COVID-19 pandemic is expected nowadays. Most businessmen believe that post-pandemic development will be U-shaped. To improve the mechanisms of managing the development of world economies, the directions of development are proposed focused not on capitalist, but social goals. The state should occupy an important place in this process acting as a guarantor of efficient allocation of resources and providing social guarantees to the population during possible further cataclysms.

7.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 358:363-381, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1340312

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, meta-heuristic algorithm (MA) succeeded in optimizing many engineering problems. Ions motion optimization (IMO) algorithm is a MA that inspired its search strategy from ions attraction based on force law. IMO has good exploration capability but poor exploitation of the search space. The performance of IMO was tested for implementing fragmented local aligner technique (FLAT) which is a local aligner method for finding the longest common consecutive subsequence (LCCS) between pair of biological sequences. Due to the huge length of sequences FLAT based on IMO produce poor results due to the poor exploitation which need to be enhanced by adding particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which has efficient exploitation capability. The enhanced version of IMO (IMO-PSO)was merged as two layer (bottom layer for exploration using IMO and the upper layer exploit the best solution founded from the bottom layer). This hybrid scheme increase the diversity of solutions which increase the quality of solutions. FLAT based on IMO-PSO was tested on real biological sequences gathered from NCBI versus IMO and the standard local alignment algorithm. Besides, COVID-19 was analyzed against other viruses to detect the LCCS between it. FLAT based on IMO-PSO produced an enhancement of the performance of IMO for finding LCCS between biological sequences. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput. ; 1333 AISC:1-8, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1212848

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic that broke out throughout the world and has a high mobility to transfer between humans. Developing intelligent bioinformatics tools is a mandatory to aid in the analysis of the disease. One of these tools is local aligner which aims to find the longest common subsequence between two biological sequences. Fragmented local aligner technique (FLAT) was developed based on meta-heuristic algorithms to accelerating the alignment process, especially for sequences with huge length. In this paper, the performance of ions motion optimization (IMO) algorithm for implementing FLAT was measured. The performance was poor, and a chaotic parameter was added in the exploration equations of IMO to enhance its performance for FLAT. A set of real proteins having a product length which ranges from 250,000 to 9,000,000 were used as a dataset to test the performance of IMO and its developed version. Besides, COVID-19 virus was aligned using FLAT according to IMO and chaotic IMO to verify the enhancement of IMO. All results were compared to the results founded by Smith–Waterman approach. The tests prove the superiority of chaotic IMO over IMO for implementing FLAT on all datasets. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

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