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Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243619


Breakthrough infection (BI) after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has exploded owing to the emergence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants and has become a major problem at present. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological information and possession status of neutralizing antibodies in patients with BI using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped viruses (SARS-CoV-2pv). Analysis of 44 specimens diagnosed with COVID-19 after two or more vaccinations showed high inhibition of infection by 90% or more against the Wuhan strain and the Alpha and Delta variants of pseudotyped viruses in 40 specimens. In contrast, almost no neutralizing activity was observed against the Omicron BA.1 variant. Many cases without neutralizing activity or BI were immunosuppressed individuals. The results of this study show that contact with an infected person can result in BI even when there are sufficient neutralizing antibodies in the blood. Thus, even after vaccination, sufficient precautions must be taken to prevent infection.

J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 347-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510011


Genetic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the mainstay of diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it has not been fully investigated whether infectious viruses are contained in SARS-CoV-2 genome-positive specimens examined using the rRT-PCR test. In this study, we examined the correlation between the threshold Cycle (Ct) value obtained from the rRT-PCR test and virus isolation in cultured cells, using 533 consecutive clinical specimens of COVID-19 patients. The virus was isolated from specimens with a Ct value of less than 30 cycles, and the lower the Ct value, the more efficient the isolation rate. A cytopathic effect due to herpes simplex virus type 1 contamination was observed in one sample with a Ct value of 35 cycles. In a comparison of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells and VeroE6 cells used for virus isolation, VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells isolated the virus 1.7 times more efficiently than VeroE6 cells. There was no significant difference between the two cells in the mean Ct value of the detectable sample. In conclusion, Lower Ct values in the PCR test were associated with higher virus isolation rates, and VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were able to isolate viruses more efficiently than VeroE6 cells.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Line , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction