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1.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 258(1): 63-68, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938489

ABSTRACT

The detailed clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is rarely reported. We report the first case of HCL diagnosed with prolonged pancytopenia after COVID-19 infection in Japan. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was diagnosed with COVID-19. Computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung lobes as well as splenomegaly. Remdesivir and dexamethasone were administered for the treatment of COVID-19. Since the pancytopenia persisted, bone marrow examination was performed, and he was diagnosed with HCL. Although pancytopenia can occur with COVID-19 alone, clinicians should be alerted regarding the presence of hematologic malignancies in patients in whom pancytopenia persists after COVID-19 treatment or in those with splenomegaly. Further, the condition of all previously reported patients with COVID-19 associated with HCL was severe enough to require mechanical ventilation. This is the first case in which the disease was not severe. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) level was lower in this case than in previous cases, suggesting that racial differences in IL-6 production may have contributed to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Leukemia, Hairy Cell , Pancytopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/complications , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/drug therapy , Leukemia, Hairy Cell/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pancytopenia/complications , Splenomegaly/complications , Splenomegaly/pathology
2.
Heart Lung ; 56: 70-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895067

ABSTRACT

One of the major issues encountered during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the shortage of intravenous anesthetics. Moreover, patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) need large quantities of intravenous anesthetics for sedation. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital due to acute respiratory distress syndrome by COVID-19 and treated with ECMO. As controlling sedation with intravenous anesthetics was challenging, we attempted to administer inhaled anesthetics via the gas flow of ECMO. We decreased the quantity of intravenous anesthetics and opioids. This method might help overcome the shortage of intravenous anesthetics.


Subject(s)
Boidae , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Male , Animals , Humans , Middle Aged , Sevoflurane , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Analgesics, Opioid
3.
Microorganisms ; 10(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630058

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at high risk for secondary infection with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Secondary infections contribute to a more severe clinical course and longer intensive care unit (ICU) stays in patients with COVID-19. A man in his 60s was admitted to the ICU at a university hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. His respiratory condition worsened further due to persistent bacteremia caused by imipenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella aerogenes and he required VV-ECMO. Subsequently, he developed a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) due to Candida albicans, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP), and a perianal abscess due to carbapenem-resistant K. aerogenes despite infection control procedures that maximized contact precautions and the absence of MDRO contamination in the patient's room environment. He was decannulated from VV-ECMO after a total of 72 days of ECMO support, and was eventually weaned off ventilator support and discharged from the ICU on day 138. This case highlights the challenges of preventing, diagnosing, and treating multidrug-resistant organisms and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the critical care management of severe COVID-19. In addition to the stringent implementation of infection prevention measures, a high index of suspicion and a careful evaluation of HAIs are required in such patients.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259733, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511831

ABSTRACT

Injured patients requiring definitive intervention, such as surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE), are an extremely time-sensitive population. The effect of an emergency physician (EP) patient care delivery system in this important trauma subset remains unclear. We aimed to clarify whether the preoperative time course and mortality among injured patients differ between ambulances staffed by EPs and those staffed by emergency life-saving technicians (ELST). This was a retrospective cohort study at a community emergency department (ED) in Japan. We included all injured patients requiring emergency surgery or TAE who were transported directly from the ED to the operating room from January 2002 to December 2019. The primary exposure was dispatch of an EP-staffed ambulance to the prehospital scene. The primary outcome measures were preoperative time course including prehospital length of stay (LOS), ED LOS, and total time to definitive intervention. The other outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. One-to-one propensity score matching was performed to compare these outcomes between the groups. Of the 1,020 eligible patients, 353 (34.6%) were transported to the ED by an EP-staffed ambulance. In the propensity score-matched analysis with 295 pairs, the EP group showed a significant increase in median prehospital LOS (71.0 min vs. 41.0 min, P < 0.001) and total time to definitive intervention (189.0 min vs. 177.0 min, P = 0.002) in comparison with the ELST group. Conversely, ED LOS was significantly shorter in the EP group than in the ELST group (120.0 min vs. 131.0 min, P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (8.8% vs.9.8%, P = 0.671). At a community hospital in Japan, EP-staffed ambulances were found to be associated with prolonged prehospital time, delay in definitive treatment, and did not improve survival among injured patients needing definitive hemostatic procedures compared with ELST-staffed ambulances.


Subject(s)
Ambulances , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Embolization, Therapeutic , Humans , Japan , Length of Stay , Operating Rooms , Retrospective Studies
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 718641, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463484

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the leading cause of mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because of limited effective therapies. During infection, the accumulation and activation of macrophages and monocytes in the lungs induce inflammatory mediators and contribute to tissue injury, leading to ARDS. However, therapeutic strategies that directly target activated macrophage and monocytes have not been reported. Combination treatment with etoposide (a cytotoxic agent) and a corticosteroid has been widely used for treating hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis characterized by the systemic activation of macrophages with overwhelming inflammation. Herein, we present five cases of COVID-19-associated ARDS treated with etoposide and corticosteroids. Three of the five patients were over 65 years of age and had various underlying diseases, including multiple myeloma. Four patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), and one patient refused to be placed on MV due to underlying diseases. All patients were pre-treated with antiviral and/or other anti-inflammatory agents, but their condition deteriorated and hyperinflammation was noted. All five patients responded well to treatment and had an immediate response, as reflected by improvement in their respiratory condition and inflammatory marker levels and rapid resolution of fever after etoposide administration; however, some patients required a second dose of etoposide and longer course of steroids. All patients recovered, and there were no severe adverse events related to the drugs. Following successful treatment in these five patients, we plan to conduct a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with etoposide and corticosteroid for treating COVID-19 patients in Japan.

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