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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783494

ABSTRACT

A recent study reported that patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are at increased risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no studies on the outcome of COVID-19 patients with preexisting ILD treated with corticosteroids or antiviral drugs. We extracted 26 patients with preexisting ILD by medical records and HRCT pattern. Of 503 patients with COVID-19, we selected 52 patients as control matched for age and sex. Twenty out of the 26 ILD patients (76.9%) received corticosteroid therapy, and 23 patients (88.5%) also received antiviral treatment with remdesivir or favipiravir. Although no statistical difference was found, the proportion of severe patients in ILD group tended to be higher than in non-ILD group (23.1% vs. 42.3%; p = 0.114). Also, mortality rate in ILD group tended to be higher than in non-ILD patients (11.5% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.326). In univariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for severe condition, diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, and honeycomb lung were not risk factors of severe disease. Treatment with corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immunosuppressive agents may affect the outcome of COVID-19 patients with ILD.

3.
Diagn Interv Imaging ; 102(9): 493-500, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397290

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been reported as a global emergency. As respiratory dysfunction is a major clinical presentation of COVID-19, chest computed tomography (CT) plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of patients with COVID-19. Recent advances in imaging approaches using artificial intelligence have been essential as a quantification and diagnostic tool to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases. Furthermore, cardiovascular involvement in patients with COVID-19 is not negligible and may result in rapid worsening of the disease and sudden death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can accurately depict myocardial involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review summarizes the role of the radiology department in the management and the diagnosis of COVID-19, with a special emphasis on ultra-high-resolution CT findings, cardiovascular complications and the potential of artificial intelligence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(5): 451-458, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the relationships among pulmonary vascular enlargement, computed tomography (CT) findings quantified with software, and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-high-resolution (UHR) CT images of 87 patients (50 males, 37 females; median age, 63 years) with COVID-19 confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction were analyzed. The maximum subsegmental vascular diameter was measured on CT. Total CT lung volume (CTLV total) and lesion extent (ratio of lesion volume to CTLV total) of ground-glass opacities, reticulation, and consolidation were measured using software. Maximum pulmonary vascular diameter and lesion extent were analyzed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed on CT results to predict disease severity. We also assessed changes in these measures on follow-up scans in 16 patients. RESULTS: All 23 patients with severe and critical illness had vascular enlargement (> 4 mm). Pulmonary vascular enlargement (odds ratio 3.05, p = 0.018) and CT lesion extent (odds ratio 1.07, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of disease severity after adjustment for age and comorbidities. On follow-up CT, vascular diameter and CT lesion volume decreased (p = 0.001, p = 0.002; respectively), but CTLV total did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Subsegmental vascular enlargement is a notable finding to predict acute COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
Intern Med ; 59(24): 3207-3211, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883774

ABSTRACT

An 84-year-old man was admitted with hypoxemia and ground-glass opacities with traction bronchiectasis in both lungs and mild fibrosis on computed tomography. We first suspected that he had acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and initiated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. On day 4, he was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Although the ground-glass opacities were improved with corticosteroid treatment alone, the hypoxemia persisted, and the plasma D-dimer level increased. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, and the hypoxemia was improved. COVID-19 pneumonia may result in radiological findings similar to those of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia, and corticosteroids and anticoagulant therapy may lead to favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Male
6.
Respir Investig ; 58(6): 430-434, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741469

ABSTRACT

Although the use of corticosteroids is not recommended in the World Health Organization statement for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), steroid therapy may be indicated for critical cases in specific situations. Here, we report the successful treatment of 11 cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia with favipiravir and methylprednisolone. All cases were severe and patients required oxygen administration or had a blood oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air. All were treated with favipiravir and methylprednisolone, and 10 of 11 patients responded well and required no further oxygen supplementation or ventilator management. This study shows the importance of the early-stage use of a combination of favipiravir and methylprednisolone in severe cases to achieve a favorable clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methylprednisolone , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(5): 394-398, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27270

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings on the ultra-high-resolution CT (U-HRCT) in patients with the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In February 2020, six consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (median age, 69 years) underwent U-HR CT imaging. U-HR-CT has a larger matrix size of 1024 × 1024 thinner slice thickness of 0.25 mm and can demonstrate terminal bronchioles in the normal lungs; as a result, Reid's secondary lobules and their abnormalities can be identified. The distribution and hallmarks (ground-glass opacity, consolidation with or without architectural distortion, linear opacity, crazy paving) of the lung opacities on U-HRCT were visually evaluated on a 1 K monitor by two experienced reviewers. The CT lung volume was measured, and the ratio of the measured lung volume to the predicted total lung capacity (predTLC) based on sex, age and height was calculated. RESULTS: All cases showed crazy paving pattern in U-HRCT. In these lesions, the secondary lobules were smaller than those in the un-affected lungs. CT lung volume decreased in two cases comparing predTLC. CONCLUSION: U-HRCT can evaluate not only the distribution and hallmarks of COVID-19 pneumonia but also visualize local lung volume loss.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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