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1.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly increases the use of mechanical ventilation (MV). Such cases further require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and have a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers pathophysiologically reflecting future deterioration of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected from 102 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Interleukin (IL)-6 level and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copy number in plasma were assessed with ELISA kit and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Twelve patients died or required ECMO owing to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite the use of MV. Among various variables, a ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2), IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission before intubation were strongly predictive of fatal outcomes after the MV use. Moreover, among these variables, combining SpO2/FiO2, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed the highest accuracy (area under the curve: 0.934). In patients with low SpO2/FiO2 (< 261), fatal event-rate after the MV use at the 30-day was significantly higher in patients with high IL-6 (> 49 pg/mL) and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia (> 1.5 copies/µL) compared to those with high IL-6 or RNAaemia or without high IL-6 and RNAaemia (88% vs. 22% or 8%, log-rank test P = 0.0097 or P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining SpO2/FiO2 with high IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia which reflect hyperinflammation and viral overload allows accurately and before intubation identifying COVID-19 patients at high risk for ECMO use or in-hospital death despite the use of MV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
3.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 33: 101383, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122418

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) is the most reliable method to evaluate the progression of COVID-19 pneumonitis. However, in a pandemic, transportation of critically ill invasively ventilated patients to radiology facilities is challenging, especially for those on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Notably, lung ultrasound (LUS) is a favored alternative imaging modality due to its ease of use at the point of care, which reduces the infectious risk of exposure and transmission; repeatability; absence of radiation exposure; and low cost. We demonstrated that serial LUS compares favorably with other imaging modalities in terms of usefulness for evaluating lung aeration and recovery in an ECMO-managed COVID-19 patient.

4.
Acute Med Surg ; 7(1): e509, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102563

ABSTRACT

Background: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is one of the ultimate treatments for acute respiratory failure. However, the effectiveness of ECMO in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unknown. Case Presentation: A 72-year-old woman who was a passenger of a cruise ship tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) while in quarantine on board using throat swab. Three days after admission, her condition deteriorated, and she was subsequently intubated. On day 6, VV-ECMO was introduced. Lopinavir/ritonavir was given; continuous renal replacement therapy was also introduced. On day 10, her chest radiography and lung compliance improved. She was weaned off ECMO on day 12. Conclusion: Treatment of severe pneumonia in COVID-19 by ECMO should recognize lung plasticity considering time to ECMO introduction and interstitial biomarkers. In Japan, centralization of ECMO patients has not been sufficient. Thus, we suggest nationwide centralization and further research to respond to the crisis caused by COVID-19.

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