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1.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(2): 146-157, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding COVID-19 epidemiology is crucial to clinical care and to clinical trial design and interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients with laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to 57 US hospitals from March 1 to April 1, 2020. RESULTS: Of 1480 inpatients with COVID-19, median (IQR) age was 62.0 (49.4-72.9) years, 649 (43.9%) were female, and 822 of 1338 (61.4%) were non-White or Hispanic/Latino. Intensive care unit admission occurred in 575 patients (38.9%), mostly within 4 days of hospital presentation. Respiratory failure affected 583 patients (39.4%), including 284 (19.2%) within 24 hours of hospital presentation and 413 (27.9%) who received invasive mechanical ventilation. Median (IQR) hospital stay was 8 (5-15) days overall and 15 (9-24) days among intensive care unit patients. Hospital mortality was 17.7% (n = 262). Risk factors for hospital death identified by penalized multivariable regression included older age; male sex; comorbidity burden; symptoms-to-admission interval; hypotension; hypoxemia; and higher white blood cell count, creatinine level, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Of 1218 survivors, 221 (18.1%) required new respiratory support at discharge and 259 of 1153 (22.5%) admitted from home required new health care services. CONCLUSIONS: In a geographically diverse early-pandemic COVID-19 cohort with complete hospital folllow-up, hospital mortality was associated with older age, comorbidity burden, and male sex. Intensive care unit admissions occurred early and were associated with protracted hospital stays. Survivors often required new health care services or respiratory support at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Crit Care ; 31(2): 146-157, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding COVID-19 epidemiology is crucial to clinical care and to clinical trial design and interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult patients with laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to 57 US hospitals from March 1 to April 1, 2020. RESULTS: Of 1480 inpatients with COVID-19, median (IQR) age was 62.0 (49.4-72.9) years, 649 (43.9%) were female, and 822 of 1338 (61.4%) were non-White or Hispanic/Latino. Intensive care unit admission occurred in 575 patients (38.9%), mostly within 4 days of hospital presentation. Respiratory failure affected 583 patients (39.4%), including 284 (19.2%) within 24 hours of hospital presentation and 413 (27.9%) who received invasive mechanical ventilation. Median (IQR) hospital stay was 8 (5-15) days overall and 15 (9-24) days among intensive care unit patients. Hospital mortality was 17.7% (n = 262). Risk factors for hospital death identified by penalized multivariable regression included older age; male sex; comorbidity burden; symptoms-to-admission interval; hypotension; hypoxemia; and higher white blood cell count, creatinine level, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Of 1218 survivors, 221 (18.1%) required new respiratory support at discharge and 259 of 1153 (22.5%) admitted from home required new health care services. CONCLUSIONS: In a geographically diverse early-pandemic COVID-19 cohort with complete hospital folllow-up, hospital mortality was associated with older age, comorbidity burden, and male sex. Intensive care unit admissions occurred early and were associated with protracted hospital stays. Survivors often required new health care services or respiratory support at discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003807, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined whether key sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mortality changed over time in a population-based cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cohort of 9,127,673 persons enrolled in the United States Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we evaluated the independent associations of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 216,046), SARS-CoV-2-related mortality (n = 10,230), and case fatality at monthly intervals between February 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021. VA enrollees had a mean age of 61 years (SD 17.7) and were predominantly male (90.9%) and White (64.5%), with 14.6% of Black race and 6.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Black (versus White) race was strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.10, [95% CI 4.65 to 5.59], p-value <0.001), mortality (AOR 3.85 [95% CI 3.30 to 4.50], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.56, 95% CI 2.23 to 2.93, p-value < 0.001) in February to March 2020, but these associations were attenuated and not statistically significant by November 2020 for infection (AOR 1.03 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.07] p-value = 0.05) and mortality (AOR 1.08 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.20], p-value = 0.21) and were reversed for case fatality (AOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.95, p-value = 0.005). American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN versus White) race was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in April and May 2020; this association declined over time and reversed by March 2021 (AOR 0.66 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.85] p-value = 0.004). Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic) ethnicity was associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality during almost every time period, with no evidence of attenuation over time. Urban (versus rural) residence was associated with higher risk of infection (AOR 2.02, [95% CI 1.83 to 2.22], p-value < 0.001), mortality (AOR 2.48 [95% CI 2.08 to 2.96], p-value < 0.001), and case fatality (AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.93 to 2.60, p-value < 0.001) in February to April 2020, but these associations attenuated over time and reversed by September 2020 (AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89, p-value < 0.001 for infection, AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83, p-value < 0.001 for mortality and AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93, p-value = 0.006 for case fatality). Throughout the observation period, high comorbidity burden, younger age, and obesity were consistently associated with infection, while high comorbidity burden, older age, and male sex were consistently associated with mortality. Limitations of the study include that changes over time in the associations of some risk factors may be affected by changes in the likelihood of testing for SARS-CoV-2 according to those risk factors; also, study results apply directly to VA enrollees who are predominantly male and have comprehensive healthcare and need to be confirmed in other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that strongly positive associations of Black and AI/AN (versus White) race and urban (versus rural) residence with SARS-CoV-2 infection, mortality, and case fatality observed early in the pandemic were ameliorated or reversed by March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Population Surveillance , Rural Population/trends , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/trends , Urban Population/trends , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/economics , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance/methods , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Crit Care ; 64: 160-164, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479628

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To measure the rate of recall of study participation and study attrition in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). MATERIALS/METHODS: In this ancillary study of the Re-evaluation of Systemic Early neuromuscular blockade(ROSE) trial, we measured the rate of study participation recall 3 months following discharge and subsequent study attrition at 6 months. We compared patient and hospital characteristics, and long-term outcomes by recall. As surrogate decision-makers provided initial consent, we measured the rate of patient reconsent and its association with study recall. RESULTS: Of 487 patients evaluated, recall status was determined in 386(82.7%). Among these, 287(74.4%) patients recalled participation in the ROSE trial, while 99(25.6%) did not. There was no significant difference in 6-month attrition among patients who recalled study participation (9.1%) and those who did not (12.1%) (p = 0.38). Patient characteristics were similar between groups, except SOFA scores, ventilator-free days, and length of stay. 330(68%) were reconsented. Compared to those not reconsented, significantly more patients who were reconsented recalled study participation(78% vs. 66%;p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: One in 4 ARDS survivors do not recall their participation in a clinical trial during hospitalization 3 months following hospital discharge, which did not influence 6-month attrition. However, more patients recall study participation if reconsent is obtained.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Survivors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mental Recall , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survivors/psychology
5.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1230-1238, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of patients with COVID-19 has changed and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased. We aimed to examine patient selection, treatments, outcomes, and ECMO centre characteristics over the course of the pandemic to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and COVID-19 Addendum to compare three groups of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (aged ≥16 years). At early-adopting centres-ie, those using ECMO support for COVID-19 throughout 2020-we compared patients who started ECMO on or before May 1, 2020 (group A1), and between May 2 and Dec 31, 2020 (group A2). Late-adopting centres were those that provided ECMO for COVID-19 only after May 1, 2020 (group B). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in a time-to-event analysis assessed 90 days after ECMO initiation. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to compare the patient and centre-level adjusted relative risk of mortality among the groups. FINDINGS: In 2020, 4812 patients with COVID-19 received ECMO across 349 centres within 41 countries. For early-adopting centres, the cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO initiation was 36·9% (95% CI 34·1-39·7) in patients who started ECMO on or before May 1 (group A1) versus 51·9% (50·0-53·8) after May 1 (group A2); at late-adopting centres (group B), it was 58·9% (55·4-62·3). Relative to patients in group A2, group A1 patients had a lower adjusted relative risk of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO (hazard ratio 0·82 [0·70-0·96]), whereas group B patients had a higher adjusted relative risk (1·42 [1·17-1·73]). INTERPRETATION: Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Duration of Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Chest ; 161(4): 971-978, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulse oximeters may produce less accurate results in non-White patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do pulse oximeters detect arterial hypoxemia less effectively in Black, Hispanic, and/or Asian patients than in White patients in respiratory failure and about to undergo extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on adult patients with respiratory failure readings 6 h before ECMO were provided by the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. Data was collected from 324 centers between January 2019 and July 2020. Our primary analysis was of rates of occult hypoxemia-low arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2 ≤ 88%) on arterial blood gas measurement despite a pulse oximetry reading in the range of 92% to 96%. RESULTS: The rate of pre-ECMO occult hypoxemia, that is, arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) ≤ 88%, was 10.2% (95% CI, 6.2%-15.3%) for 186 White patients with peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) of 92% to 96%; 21.5% (95% CI, 11.3%-35.3%) for 51 Black patients (P = .031 vs White); 8.6% (95% CI, 3.2%-17.7%) for 70 Hispanic patients (P = .693 vs White); and 9.2% (95% CI, 3.5%-19.0%) for 65 Asian patients (P = .820 vs White). Black patients with respiratory failure had a statistically significantly higher risk of occult hypoxemia with an OR of 2.57 (95% CI, 1.12-5.92) compared with White patients (P = .026). The risk of occult hypoxemia for Hispanic and Asian patients was equivalent to that of White patients. In a secondary analysis of patients with Sao2 ≤ 88% despite Spo2 > 96%, Black patients had more than three times the risk compared with White patients (OR, 3.52; 95% CI, 1.12-11.10; P = .032). INTERPRETATION: Compared with White patients, the prevalence of occult hypoxemia was higher in Black patients than in White patients about to undergo ECMO for respiratory failure, but it was comparable in Hispanic and Asian patients compared with White patients.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Racism , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Oximetry/methods , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Hosp Med ; 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients discharged after COVID-19 report ongoing needs. OBJECTIVES: To measure incident symptoms after COVID-19 hospitalization. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Preplanned early look at 1-month follow-up surveys from patients hospitalized August 2020 to January 2021 in NHLBI PETAL Network's Biology and Longitudinal Epidemiology: COVID-19 Observational (BLUE CORAL) study. English- or Spanish-speaking hospitalized adults without substantial pre-COVID-19 disability with a positive molecular test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Overall, 253 patients were hospitalized for a median of 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-8), and had a median age of 60 years (IQR, 45-68). By race/ethnicity, 136 (53.8%) were non-Hispanic White, 23 (9.1%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 83 (32.8%) were Hispanic. Most (139 [54.9%]) reported a new or worsened cardiopulmonary symptom, and 16% (n = 39) reported new or increased oxygen use; 213 (84.2%) patients reported not feeling fully back to their pre-COVID-19 level of functioning. New limitations in activities of daily living were present in 130 (52.8%) patients. Financial toxicities, including job loss or change (49 [19.8%]), having a loved one take time off (93 [37.8%]), and using up one's savings (58 [23.2%]), were common. Longer lengths of hospital stay were associated with greater odds of 1-month cardiopulmonary symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.82 per additional week in the hospital; 95% CI, 1.11-2.98) and new disability (aOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.21-3.53). There were not uniform demographic patterns of association. LIMITATIONS: We prioritized patients' reports of their own incident problems over objective testing. CONCLUSION: Patients who survived COVID-19 in the United States during late 2020/early 2021 still faced new burdens 1 month after hospital discharge.

8.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 6: 100121, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: : This study aimed to understand the impact of a critical care admission on long-term outcomes, compared to other hospitalised patients without a critical care encounter. A secondary aim was to examine the interrelationship between emotional, physical, and social problems during recovery. METHODS: : We utilised data from the UK Biobank, an on-going, prospective population-based cohort study. We employed propensity score matching to assess differences in outcomes between patients with a critical care encounter and patients admitted to the hospital (first admission to hospital available) without critical care. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse emotional, physical and social outcomes following critical illness and the relationships between these health domains. FINDINGS: : Data from 1,618 patients were analysed. The median time to follow-up in the critical care cohort was 4427 days (IQR:788-6146) vs 4516 days (IQR: 811-6369) in the non-critical care, hospitalised cohort. Across the two time periods assessed (pre and post 2000), patients exposed to critical care were more likely to experience mental health issues such as depression (p < 0.01) and social isolation (p = 0.01) following discharge from hospital. The critical care cohort were also more likely to have social problems such as the requirement for government funded welfare support (p = 0.02). In the critical care cohort, social and emotional health were closely correlated (p < 0.001, 95% CI:0.33-0.54). The nature of physical problems changed over time; pre-2000 there was a significant difference between the critical and non-critical care in physical outcomes following discharge from hospital, however, there was no difference detected between the two cohorts post-2000. INTERPRETATION: This cohort study has demonstrated that survivors of critical illness have different psycho-social outcomes to matched patients, hospitalised without a critical care encounter. FUNDING: JM is funded by a THIS.Institute (University of Cambridge) Research Fellowship (PD-2019-02-16). AHL is part of the Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, funded by the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12017/13) and the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office (SPHSU13).

9.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(6): e0466, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268084

ABSTRACT

Shortages of equipment, medication, and staff under coronavirus disease 2019 may force hospitals to make wrenching decisions. Although bioethical guidance is available, published procedures for decision-making processes to resolve the time-sensitive conflicts are rare. Failure to establish decision-making procedures before scarcities arise exposes clinicians to moral distress and potential legal liability, entrenches existing systemic biases, and leaves hospitals without processes to guarantee transparency and consistency in the application of ethical guidelines. Formal institutional processes can reduce the panic, inequity, and irresolution that arise from confronting ethical conflicts under duress. Drawing on expertise in critical care medicine, bioethics, and political science, we propose a decision-making protocol to ensure fairness in the resolution of conflict, timely decision-making, and accountability to improve system response.

10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 91, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of severe COVID-19 are at risk of impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and persistent physical and psychological disability after ICU and hospital discharge. The subsequent social burden is a major concern. We aimed to assess the short-term HRQoL, physical function and prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms of invasively mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients treated in our ICU. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in a follow-up clinic. Patients completed a 6-min walking test (6MWT) to assess their cardio-pulmonary function around 2 months (early follow-up) from hospital discharge, the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire for quality of life assessment around 2 months and at 6 months from hospital discharge and an anonymous web-based Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire for Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms at 2 months. RESULTS: 47 patients attended our follow-up program, mean age 59 ± 10 years, median pre-morbid Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) 2 [2-3]. The median distance walked in 6 min was 470 [406-516] m, 83 [67-99]% of the predicted value. Overall 1 out 3 patients and 4/18 (22%) among those with a good functional baseline prior to COVID-19 (CFS of 1 or 2) had lower (84%) than predicted 6MWT. EQ-5D-5L quality of life VAS was 80 [70-90] out of 100 at early follow-up with a slight improvement to 85 [77.5-90] at 6 months. Mobility, self-care and usual activities improved between the two timepoints, while pain/discomfort and depression/anxiety did not improve or got worse. The IES-R total score was greater than the threshold for concern of 1.6 in 27/41(66%) respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Patients recovering from severe COVID-19 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation surviving hospital discharge present with early mild to moderate functional impairment, mildly reduced quality of life from hospital discharge with an overall improvement of mobility, self-care and the ability of performing usual activities, while a worsening of pain and depression/anxiety symptoms at 6 months and a large proportion of symptoms of post-traumatic distress soon after hospital discharge.

11.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e340-e348, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common, but under-recognised, critical illness syndrome associated with high mortality. An important factor in its under-recognition is the variability in chest radiograph interpretation for ARDS. We sought to train a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to detect ARDS findings on chest radiographs. METHODS: CNNs were pretrained on 595 506 radiographs from two centres to identify common chest findings (eg, opacity and effusion), and then trained on 8072 radiographs annotated for ARDS by multiple physicians using various transfer learning approaches. The best performing CNN was tested on chest radiographs in an internal and external cohort, including a subset reviewed by six physicians, including a chest radiologist and physicians trained in intensive care medicine. Chest radiograph data were acquired from four US hospitals. FINDINGS: In an internal test set of 1560 chest radiographs from 455 patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, a CNN could detect ARDS with an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUROC) of 0·92 (95% CI 0·89-0·94). In the subgroup of 413 images reviewed by at least six physicians, its AUROC was 0·93 (95% CI 0·88-0·96), sensitivity 83·0% (95% CI 74·0-91·1), and specificity 88·3% (95% CI 83·1-92·8). Among images with zero of six ARDS annotations (n=155), the median CNN probability was 11%, with six (4%) assigned a probability above 50%. Among images with six of six ARDS annotations (n=27), the median CNN probability was 91%, with two (7%) assigned a probability below 50%. In an external cohort of 958 chest radiographs from 431 patients with sepsis, the AUROC was 0·88 (95% CI 0·85-0·91). When radiographs annotated as equivocal were excluded, the AUROC was 0·93 (0·92-0·95). INTERPRETATION: A CNN can be trained to achieve expert physician-level performance in ARDS detection on chest radiographs. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of these algorithms to support real-time identification of ARDS patients to ensure fidelity with evidence-based care or to support ongoing ARDS research. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Department of Veterans Affairs.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , Datasets as Topic , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Cavity/pathology , Pleural Diseases , Radiography , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , United States
12.
ATS Sch ; 1(2): 145-151, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191230

ABSTRACT

Background: Early experience during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and predictive modeling indicate that the need for respiratory therapists (RTs) will exceed the current supply. Objective: We present an implemented model to train and deploy medical students in the novel role of "respiratory therapist extender" (RTE) to address respiratory therapist shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The RTE role was formulated through discussions with respiratory therapists. A three-part training, with both online and in-person components, was developed and delivered to 25 University of Michigan Medical Students. RTEs were trained in basic respiratory care, documentation, equipment preparation, and equipment processing for clinically stable patients. They operate in a tiered staffing model in which RTEs report to a single RT, thereby extending his/her initial capacity. Results: The first cohort of safely trained RTEs was deployed to provide patient care within 1 week of volunteer recruitment. Conclusion: Our experience has demonstrated that healthcare professionals, including medical students, can be quickly trained and deployed in the novel RTE role as a surge strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because we urgently developed and implemented the RTE role, we recognize the need for ongoing monitoring and adaptation to ensure patient and volunteer safety. We are sharing the RTE concept and training openly to help address RT shortages as the pandemic evolves.

13.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(6): e83-e89, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine visitor guidelines among children's hospitals in the United States in response to the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective assessment of visitor guidelines in 239 children's hospitals in the United States. RESULTS: In this study, we present an analysis of 239 children's hospital visitor guidelines posted to hospitals' Web sites during 1 week in June 2020. Of the 239 hospitals, only 28 did not have posted guidelines for review. The guidelines were analyzed and grouped by how the guidelines were updated in response to COVID-19. Parental visitation was restricted to 1 parent in 116 of the posted guidelines (49%). There were no obvious similarities among guidelines associated with their geographical (eg, state or local) location. As of February 2021, 33 of 55 (60%) randomly selected hospitals had not changed their visitor policy since our initial review. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered changes in publicly reported visitor guidelines across the majority of children's hospitals. With our findings, we suggest wide variation in policies and practices in how guidelines were updated. More work is needed to understand how to optimize public safety and preserve family-centered care and parental authority in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1071-1078, 2020 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple major health organisations recommend the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. However, initial reports of ECMO use in patients with COVID-19 described very high mortality and there have been no large, international cohort studies of ECMO for COVID-19 reported to date. METHODS: We used data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry to characterise the epidemiology, hospital course, and outcomes of patients aged 16 years or older with confirmed COVID-19 who had ECMO support initiated between Jan 16 and May 1, 2020, at 213 hospitals in 36 countries. The primary outcome was in-hospital death in a time-to-event analysis assessed at 90 days after ECMO initiation. We applied a multivariable Cox model to examine whether patient and hospital factors were associated with in-hospital mortality. FINDINGS: Data for 1035 patients with COVID-19 who received ECMO support were included in this study. Of these, 67 (6%) remained hospitalised, 311 (30%) were discharged home or to an acute rehabilitation centre, 101 (10%) were discharged to a long-term acute care centre or unspecified location, 176 (17%) were discharged to another hospital, and 380 (37%) died. The estimated cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after the initiation of ECMO was 37·4% (95% CI 34·4-40·4). Mortality was 39% (380 of 968) in patients with a final disposition of death or hospital discharge. The use of ECMO for circulatory support was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1·89, 95% CI 1·20-2·97). In the subset of patients with COVID-19 receiving respiratory (venovenous) ECMO and characterised as having acute respiratory distress syndrome, the estimated cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after the initiation of ECMO was 38·0% (95% CI 34·6-41·5). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received ECMO, both estimated mortality 90 days after ECMO and mortality in those with a final disposition of death or discharge were less than 40%. These data from 213 hospitals worldwide provide a generalisable estimate of ECMO mortality in the setting of COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Registries , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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