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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3854, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799575

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a worldwide pandemic, and the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure is rapidly increasing in Japan. An international meta-analysis has been conducted to identify genetic factors associated with the onset and severity of COVID-19, but these factors have yet to be fully clarified. Here, we carried out genomic analysis based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Japanese COVID-19 patients to determine whether genetic factors reported to be associated with the onset or severity of COVID-19 in the international meta-GWAS are replicated in the Japanese population, and whether new genetic factors exist. Although no significant genome-wide association was detected in the Japanese GWAS, an integrated analysis with the international meta-GWAS identified for the first time the involvement of the IL17A/IL17F gene in the severity of COVID-19. Among nine genes reported in the international meta-GWAS as genes involved in the onset of COVID-19, the association of FOXP4-AS1, ABO, and IFNAR2 genes was replicated in the Japanese population. Moreover, combined analysis of ABO and FUT2 genotypes revealed that the presence of oral AB antigens was significantly associated with the onset of COVID-19. FOXP4-AS1 and IFNAR2 were also significantly associated in the integrated analysis of the Japanese GWAS and international meta-GWAS when compared with severe COVID-19 cases and the general population. This made it clear that these two genes were also involved in not only the onset but also the severity of COVID-19. In particular, FOXP4-AS1 was not found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19 in the international meta-GWAS, but an integrated analysis with the Japanese GWAS revealed an association with severity. Individuals with the SNP risk allele found between IL17A and IL17F had significantly lower mRNA expression levels of IL17F, suggesting that activation of the innate immune response by IL17F may play an important role in the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-17/genetics , Saliva/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Respirol Case Rep ; 10(4): e0938, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763287

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) is an effective and well-tolerated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. However, rare adverse events have been reported. We report two cases of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). A 67-year-old man and a 70-year-old man with underlying ILD presented to our hospital with a few days of fever and respiratory symptoms after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Drug-related pneumonitis due to the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was diagnosed. One case was diagnosed with lymphocytic alveolitis by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. Both patients were successfully treated with corticosteroids, and they attended outpatient clinics thereafter. Although the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines have been established, further studies are needed to estimate long-term data and reports of rare adverse reactions. We present the clinical course of two cases, review previously published case reports on COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-related ILD and discuss the relevant findings.

3.
Intern Med ; 61(6): 913-916, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745229

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old woman with a fever, cough, and pharyngitis was admitted after left-sided pleural effusion was detected. The fever and upper respiratory symptoms were confirmed, and she was diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) after showing a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. After thoracentesis, pleural fluid revealed elevated adenosine deaminase values and a positive QuantiFeron test; tuberculous pleurisy was thus suspected. Subsequent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG tests were negative, suggesting that the initial PCR result had been erroneous. However, we were unable to confirm this. Data concerning COVID-19 diagnostics are insufficient at present. It is important to make comprehensive judgments regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients as well as public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pleural Effusion , Tuberculosis, Pleural , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312933

ABSTRACT

Background: Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score–matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. Methods: : This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January–April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Results: : Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388–0.962;p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758;95% CI, 1.323–2.337;p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466;95% CI, 0.841–2.554;p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831;95% CI, 1.347–5.950;p = 0.006). Conclusions: : Corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation. Trial registration : This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).

6.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676817

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are widely used to treat severe COVID-19, but in immunocompromised individuals, who are susceptible to persistent infection, long term corticosteroid use may delay viral clearance. We present a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection in a man with significantly impaired B-cell immunity due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma which had been treated with rituximab. SARS-CoV-2 shedding persisted, despite treatment with remdesivir. Viral sequencing confirmed the persistence of the same viral strain, ruling out the possibility of reinfection. Although SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA and IgM remained negative throughout the treatment period, after reduction of the corticosteroid dose, PCR became negative. Long-term corticosteroid treatment, especially in immunocompromised individuals, may result in suppression of cell-mediated immunity and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To alleviate the overflow of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in hospitals, less invasive and simple criteria are required to triage the patients. We evaluated the relationship between COVID-19 severity and fatty liver on plain computed tomography (CT) scan performed on admission. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we considered all COVID-19 patients at a large tertiary care hospital between January 31 and August 31, 2020. COVID-19 severity was categorized into severe (moderate and severe) and non-severe (asymptomatic and mild) groups, based on the Japanese National COVID-19 guidelines. Fatty liver was detected on plain CT scan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 222 patients (median age: 52 years), 3.2%, 58.1%, 20.7%, and 18.0% presented with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, respectively. Although 59.9% had no fatty liver on plain CT, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver occurred in 13.1%, 18.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. Age and presence of fatty liver were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that fatty liver on plain CT scan on admission can become a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This finding may help clinicians to easily triage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Respir Investig ; 60(2): 241-247, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been a significant concern worldwide since its outbreak in December 2019. Various treatments are being researched and developed, and there are reports that dexamethasone has reduced the mortality rate and improved the clinical course of critically ill patients with COVID-19. In this study, we examined the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid therapy for patients with COVID-19 in our hospital during the first wave of infections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with COVID-19 who were treated with or without corticosteroid therapy at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Japan between February and April 2020. The primary outcome was improvement in the patients' clinical course using a seven-category ordinal scale. We collected data on patient characteristics, treatment, and clinical course, and compared them between two groups: the steroid-using group and the non-steroid-using group. RESULTS: Between February and April 2020, 110 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. Despite poor conditions during admission into the steroid group, there were no statistical differences in clinical course between both groups, as measured using the scale. There were no statistical differences between the two groups in the number of days to fever resolution or negative polymerase chain reaction results. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in the clinical course between both groups. Because of the difference in background, corticosteroids may potentially make the clinical course of severely ill patients similar to that of mildly ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Global Health , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2353-2369, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347449

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The administration of systemic corticosteroids is a key strategy for improving COVID-19 outcomes. However, evidence is lacking on combination therapies of antiviral agents and systemic corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of favipiravir and methylprednisolone in preventing respiratory failure progression in patients with COVID-19 and non-critical respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, open-label, single-arm phase II study. The patients received favipiravir 3600 mg on the first day, followed by 1600 mg for a total of 10-14 days. Methylprednisolone was administered intravenously at 1 mg/ideal body weight (IBW)/day from days 1 to 5, followed by 0.5 mg/IBW/day from days 6 to 10 if clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) (including noninvasive positive pressure ventilation) or those who met the criteria for tracheal intubation within 14 days of the study treatment initiation (MVCTI-14). RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were enrolled and underwent the study treatment. Of them, the MVCTI-14 proportion was 29.2% (90% confidence interval 20.1-39.9, p = 0.200). The proportion of patients who required MV or who died within 30 days was 26.2%, and 30-day mortality was 4.9%. The most significant risk factor for MVCTI-14 was a smoking history (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.2-14.2). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse event was hyperglycemia, which was observed in 21.7%. CONCLUSION: The MVCTI-14 proportion did not reach a favorable level in the clinical trial setting with the threshold of 35%. However, the proportion of MV or death within 30 days was 26.6%, which might be close to the findings (28.1%) of the RECOVERY trial, which showed the efficacy of dexamethasone for patients with COVID-19 and non-critical respiratory failure. Further evaluation of this combination therapy is needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) identifier jRCTs041200025.

10.
Intern Med ; 60(14): 2297-2300, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311331

ABSTRACT

We herein report a 67-year-old kidney transplant patient who died of COVID-19. He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin and received mechanical ventilation that temporarily improved his respiratory status. Despite our efforts, however, he later developed respiratory failure and died 43 days after the disease onset. The autopsy revealed prominent organization of alveoli and alveolar ducts, with a massive accumulation of macrophages in the lungs. A few severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen-positive cells were detected in the lung, suggesting delayed virus clearance owing to his long-term immunosuppressed state, leading to constant lung damage and ultimately respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1536-1538, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300890

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and radiological findings of COVID-19 patients with "silent hypoxia," who had no dyspnea on admission even though their oximetry saturation was less than 94%. This retrospective cohort study included all COVID-19 patients (n = 270) at a large tertiary care hospital between January 31 and August 31, 2020. Clinical and radiological characteristics of patients who met our criteria of "silent hypoxia", which included those who reported no dyspnea even though oximetry saturation was <94%, were extracted. Eight patients (3.0%) met the criteria for "silent hypoxia." The median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 48.8-72.3), and five (62.5%) were men. All patients had consolidation on CT and showed a moderate to high COVID-19 CT severity score (median: 13.5, IQR: 10.8-15.3). The median FIO2 of the maximum oxygen required was 55 (IQR: 28-70)%. Two patients (25.0%) were intubated, and one patient (12.5%) underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Some COVID-19 patients with "silent hypoxia" may develop severe disease. Close and accurate monitoring of patients using arterial blood gas and pulse oximetry is necessary, regardless of their symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10727, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238019

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January-April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388-0.962; p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758; 95% CI, 1.323-2.337; p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466; 95% CI, 0.841-2.554; p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.347-5.950; p = 0.006). In conclusion, corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation.Trial registration: This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221947

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as an outbreak by the World Health Organization (WHO) in January 2020 and as a pandemic in March 2020. The majority of infected individuals have experienced no or only mild symptoms, ranging from fully asymptomatic cases to mild pneumonic disease. However, a minority of infected individuals develop severe respiratory symptoms. The objective of this study was to identify susceptible HLA alleles and clinical markers that can be used in risk prediction model for the early identification of severe COVID-19 among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A total of 137 patients with mild COVID-19 (mCOVID-19) and 53 patients with severe COVID-19 (sCOVID-19) were recruited from the Center Hospital of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine (NCGM), Tokyo, Japan for the period of February-August 2020. High-resolution sequencing-based typing for eight HLA genes was performed using next-generation sequencing. In the HLA association studies, HLA-A*11:01:01:01 [Pc = 0.013, OR = 2.26 (1.27-3.91)] and HLA-C*12:02:02:01-HLA-B*52:01:01:02 [Pc = 0.020, OR = 2.25 (1.24-3.92)] were found to be significantly associated with the severity of COVID-19. After multivariate analysis controlling for other confounding factors and comorbidities, HLA-A*11:01:01:01 [P = 3.34E-03, OR = 3.41 (1.50-7.73)], age at diagnosis [P = 1.29E-02, OR = 1.04 (1.01-1.07)] and sex at birth [P = 8.88E-03, OR = 2.92 (1.31-6.54)] remained significant. The area under the curve of the risk prediction model utilizing HLA-A*11:01:01:01, age at diagnosis, and sex at birth was 0.772, with sensitivity of 0.715 and specificity of 0.717. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article that describes associations of HLA alleles with COVID-19 at the 4-field (highest) resolution level. Early identification of potential sCOVID-19 could help clinicians prioritize medical utility and significantly decrease mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Gene Frequency/genetics , HLA-A11 Antigen/genetics , HLA-B52 Antigen/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Haplotypes/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(8): 581-589, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current gold standard in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostics is the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. Alternatively, nasal swab (NS) or saliva swab (SS) specimens are used, although available data on test accuracy are limited. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of NPS/NS/SS samples for this purpose. METHODS: Ten patients were included after being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in NPS samples according to the National Institute of Infectious Disease guidelines. In comparison with this conventional diagnostic method, NPS/NS/SS samples were tested using the cobas 6800 systems RT-PCR device. To investigate the usefulness of the cobas method and the difference among sample types, the agreement and sensitivity were calculated. Five to six samples were collected over a total period of 5-6 d from each patient. RESULTS: Fifty-seven sets of NPS/NS/SS samples were collected, of which 40 tested positive for COVID-19 by the conventional method. Overall, the concordance rates using the conventional method were 86.0%/70.2%/54.4% for NPS/NS/SS samples (cobas); however, for samples collected up to and including on Day 9 after disease onset (22 negative and one positive specimens), the corresponding rates were 95.7%/87.0%/65.2%. The overall sensitivity estimates were 100.0%/67.5%/37.5% for NPS/NS/SS samples (cobas). For samples up to 9 d after onset, the corresponding values were 100.0%/86.4%/63.6%. CONCLUSIONS: NS samples are more reliable than SS samples and can be an alternative to NPS samples. They can be a useful diagnostic method in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva , Specimen Handling
15.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 62-66, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077102

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originating in Wuhan, China, has spread globally very rapidly. The number of COVID-19 patients increased in Japan from late March to early April 2020. Since COVID-19 treatment methods with antiviral drugs were not established in March 2020, clinical trials began at a rapid pace worldwide. We participated in a global investigator-initiated clinical trial of the antiviral drug remdesivir. It took approximately two months to prepare for and start patient enrollment, 26 days to enroll all patients in Japan, and 32 days from the end of enrollment to the release of the first report, a fairly quick response overall. In the course of this clinical trial, we found some of the critical issues related to conducting an infectious disease clinical trial in Japan need to be addressed and tackled to support a rapid response. These included such things as the necessity of a research network to promote clinical research, a framework for a rapid review system of clinical trial notification, and better cooperation with outsourced teams. Furthermore, for Japan to take the lead in global collaborative research and development in the field of infectious diseases, it is necessary to develop further human resources and organization on a national basis. It is indispensable for Japan to establish a clinical trial system at the national level to prepare for future emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.

16.
Respir Investig ; 59(3): 377-381, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065554

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old Japanese man contracted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and required oxygen to maintain oxygen saturation (>90%), 5 weeks after onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy revealed pathological features of organizing pneumonia with alveolar epithelial injury, and prednisolone administration led to alleviation of respiratory symptoms and recovery of respiratory function. This case report is the first to demonstrate the use of corticosteroids to successfully treat post-COVID-19 respiratory failure in a patient with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. We propose that steroid treatment be considered for patients with persistent respiratory dysfunction as COVID-19 pneumonia sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Clin Apher ; 36(3): 313-321, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct hemoperfusion using a polymyxin B-immobilized polystyrene column (PMX-DHP) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive pneumonia patients. METHODS: This study was a case series conducted at a designated infectious diseases hospital. Twelve SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with partial pressure of arterial oxygen/percentage of inspired oxygen (P/F) ratio < 300 were treated with PMX-DHP on two consecutive days each during hospitalization. We defined day 1 as the first day when PMX-DHP was performed. PMX-DHP efficacy was assessed on days 7 and 14 after the first treatment based on eight categories. Subsequently, improvement in P/F ratio and urinary biomarkers on days 4 and 8, malfunctions, and ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation avoidance rates were also evaluated. RESULTS: On day 14 after the first treatment, disease severity decreased in 58.3% of the patients. P/F ratio increased while urine ß2-microglobulin decreased on days 4 and 8. Cytokine measurement pre- and post-PMX-DHP revealed decreased levels of interleukin-6 and the factors involved in vascular endothelial injury, including vascular endothelial growth factor. Twenty-two PMX-DHPs were performed, of which seven and five PMX-DHPs led to increased inlet pressure and membrane coagulation, respectively. When the membranes coagulated, the circuitry needed to be reconfigured. Circuit problems were usually observed when D-dimer and fibrin degradation product levels were high before PMX-DHP. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies are expected to determine the therapeutic effect of PMX-DHP on COVID-19. Because of the relatively high risk of circuit coagulation, coagulation capacity should be assessed beforehand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Hemoperfusion/methods , Polymyxin B/chemistry , Polystyrenes/chemistry , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arteries/metabolism , Biomarkers/urine , Blood Gas Analysis , Cytokines/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk , beta 2-Microglobulin/urine
18.
Pulm Circ ; 10(4): 2045894020969492, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945165

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with pulmonary hypertension due to pulmonary embolism, which affects subsequent outcomes. However, definitive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension is difficult because of the risk of spreading the infection. Here, we assess the utility of plane computed tomography in noninvasively predicting the clinical severity of COVID-19.

19.
Gene ; 766: 145145, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756821

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a novel coronavirus-related illness, has spread worldwide. Patients with apparently mild/moderate symptoms can suddenly develop severe pneumonia. Therefore, almost all COVID-19 patients require hospitalization, which can reduce limited medical resources in addition to overwhelming medical facilities. To identify predictive markers for the development of severe pneumonia, a comprehensive analysis of serum chemokines and cytokines was conducted using serial serum samples from COVID-19 patients. The expression profiles were analyzed along the time axis. Serum samples of common diseases were enrolled from a BioBank to confirm the usefulness of predictive markers. Five factors, IFN-λ3, IL-6, IP-10, CXCL9, and CCL17, were identified as predicting the onset of severe/critical symptoms. The factors were classified into two categories. Category A included IFN-λ3, IL-6, IP-10, and CXCL9, and their values surged and decreased rapidly before the onset of severe pneumonia. Category B included CCL17, which provided complete separation between the mild/moderate and the severe/critical groups at an early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The five markers provided a high predictive value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC): 0.9-1.0, p < 0.001). Low expression of CCL17 was specifically observed in pre-severe COVID-19 patients compared with other common diseases, and the predictive ability of CCL17 was confirmed in validation samples of COVID-19. The factors identified could be promising prognostic markers to distinguish between mild/moderate and severe/critical patients, enabling triage at an early phase of infection, thus avoiding overwhelming medical facilities.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Chemokine CCL17/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Intern Med ; 59(19): 2405-2408, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736583

ABSTRACT

An 83-year-old man was hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after a 10-day history of a persistent fever. Chest computed tomography showed extensive non-segmental ground glass opacity. Despite the initiation of lopinavir and ritonavir, respiratory failure progressed. Two days of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column-direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) with adjunctive corticosteroid prevented his respiratory condition from worsening. For rapidly progressive COVID-19 cases, the early use of PMX-DHP may avoid the need for mechanical ventilation by suppressing local inflammation of the lung.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hemoperfusion/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polymyxin B/pharmacology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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