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1.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792833

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to the hospitalization of an unselected population with the possibility to evaluate the epidemiology of viral hepatitis. Thus, a retrospective multicenter study was conducted in an area of Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the prevalence of HCV and HBV markers and the ability of current screening program to capture cases. We evaluated 2126 hospitalized patients in seven COVID Centers of Naples and Caserta area in which 70% of the Campania population lives. HBsAg and HCV-Ab prevalence was 1.6% and 5.1%, respectively, with no differences between gender. Decade distribution for birth year shows a bimodal trend of HCV prevalence, with a peak (11.6%) in the decade 1930-1939 and a second peak (5.6%) for those born in 1960-1969. An analysis of the screening period imposed by the Italian government for those born between 1969 and 1989 shows that only 17% of cases of HCV infection could be captured. A small alignment of the screening period, i.e., those born from 1960 to 1984, would capture 40% of cases. The data confirm the high endemicity of our geographical area for hepatitis virus infections and underline the need for a tailored screening program according to the regional epidemiology.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5771, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778635

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still a health problem worldwide despite the availability of vaccines. Therefore, there is a need for effective and safe antiviral. SARS-CoV-2 and HCV necessitate RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for replication; therefore, it has been hypothesized that RdRp inhibitors used to treat HCV may be effective treating SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of the sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) combination in early SARS-CoV-2 infection. A multicenter case-control study was conducted, enrolling 120 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19, of whom 30, HCV coinfected or not, received SOF/VEL tablets (400/100 mg) once daily for 9 days within a median of 6 days from the beginning of infection and 90 controls were treated with standard care. The primary endpoint was the effect on viral clearance, and the secondary endpoint was the improvement of clinical outcomes. Nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR were performed every 5-7 days. Between 5-14 days after starting SOF/VEL treatment, SAS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in 83% of patients, while spontaneous clearance in the control was 13% (p < 0.001). An earlier SARS-CoV-2 clearance was observed in the SOF/VEL group than in the control group (median 14 vs 22 days, respectively, p < 0.001) also when the first positivity was considered. None of the patients in the SOF/VEL group showed disease progression, while in the control group, 24% required more intensive treatment (high flow oxygen or noninvasive/invasive ventilation), and one patient died (p < 0.01). No significant side effects were observed in the SOF/VEL group. Early SOF/VEL treatment in mild/moderate COVID-19 seems to be safe and effective for faster elimination of SARS-CoV-2 and to prevent disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/adverse effects , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir , Treatment Outcome
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307075

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether the risk of multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) acquisition in the intensive care unit (ICU) is increased during the COVID-19 crisis is unknown. Our aim was to measure the rate of MDRB acquisition in patients admitted in COVID-19 ICU and to compare it with pre-COVID-19 controls. Methods: : This single center case control study included adult patients admitted to COVID-19 ICUs for more than 48h. Patients were screen twice a week for MDRB carriage during ICU stay. We compared the rate of MDRB acquisition of COVID-19 patients with a cohort of patients admitted for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and matched on length of ICU stay using a competing risk analysis. Results: : Among 72 patients admitted to the COVID-19 ICUs, 24 (33%) patients acquired 31 MDRB during ICU stay. The rate of MDRB acquisition was 30/1000 patient-days. Patients that acquired MDRB had received more antimicrobial therapy [22 (92%) vs 34 (78%, p=0.05] and had a longer exposure time [12 days (8-18) vs 5 days (2-18), p=0.02]. The rate of MDRB acquisition in matched SAH patients was 18/1000 patient-days. When compared to SAH retrospective cohort, being admitted to a COVID-19 ICU was associated with a numerically higher proportion of MDRB acquisition. This association did not reach statistical significance in the multivariable competing risk analysis (sHR 1.71 (CI 95% 0.93-3.21). Conclusion: Acquisition of MDRB was frequent during the COVID-19 first wave in ICU patients. Despite physical isolation, it was similar to patients admitted to the same ICU in previous years.

4.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(11): 1217-1225, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fever has been reported as a common symptom in COVID-19 patients. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of COVID-19 critically ill patients with fever and to assess if fever management had an impact on some physiologic variables. METHODS: This is a retrospective monocentric cohort analysis of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the Department of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, between March 2020 and May 2020. Fever was defined as body temperature ≥38 °C during the ICU stay. We assessed the independent predictors of fever during ICU stay. We reported the clinical and physiological variables before and after the first treated episode of fever during the ICU stay. RESULTS: A total of 72 critically ill COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU over the study period and were all eligible for the final analysis; 53 (74%) of them developed fever, after a median of 4 [0-13] hours since ICU admission. In the multivariable analysis, male gender (OR 5.41 [C.I. 95% 1.34-21.92]; P=0.02) and low PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR 0.99 [C.I. 95% 0.99-1.00]; P=0.04) were independently associated with fever. After the treatment of the first febrile episode, heart rate and respiratory rate significantly decreased together with an increase in PaO2 and SaO2. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, male gender and severe impairment of oxygenation were independently associated with fever in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Fever treatment reduced heart rate and respiratory rate and improved systemic oxygenation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244628, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in China in December 2019 and has spread around the world. High Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in COVID-19 patients suggest that a cytokine storm may play a major role in the pathophysiology and are considered as a relevant parameter in predicting most severe course of disease. The aim of this study was to assess repeated IL-6 levels in critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to evaluate their relationship with patient's severity and outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 10 (i.e. the date of the first admitted patients) and April 30, 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at admission. On the day of IL-6 blood concentration measurement, we also collected results of D-Dimers, C-Reactive Protein, white blood cells and lymphocytes count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ferritin as well as microbiological samples, whenever present. RESULTS: Of a total of 65 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our ICU we included 41 patients with repeated measure of IL-6. There was a significant difference in IL-6 levels between survivors and non-survivors over time (p = 0.001); moreover, non survivors had a significantly higher IL-6 maximal value when compared to survivors (720 [349-2116] vs. 336 [195-646] pg/mL, p = 0.01). The IL-6 maximal value had a significant predictive value of ICU mortality (AUROC 0.73 [95% CI 0.57-0.89]; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated measurements of IL-6 can help clinicians in identifying critically ill COVID-19 patients with the highest risk of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
6.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024609

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic role of eosinophils count in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our hospital with suspicion of COVID-19. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected on admission. Eosinopenia was defined as eosinophils < 100 cells/mm3. The outcomes of this study were the association between eosinophils count on admission and positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test and with suggestive chest computerized tomography (CT) of COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: A total of 174 patients was studied. Of those, 54% had positive rRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. A chest CT-scan was performed in 145 patients; 71% showed suggestive findings of COVID-19. Eosinophils on admission had a high predictive accuracy for positive rRT-PCR and suggestive chest CT-scan (area under the receiver operating characteristic-ROC curve, 0.84 (95% CIs 0.78-0.90) and 0.84 (95% CIs 0.77-0.91), respectively). Eosinopenia and high LDH were independent predictors of positive rRT-PCR, whereas eosinopenia, high body mass index and hypertension were predictors for suggestive CT-scan findings. Conclusions: Eosinopenia on admission could predict positive rRT-PCR test or suggestive chest CT-scan for COVID-19. This laboratory finding could help to identify patients at high-risk of COVID-19 in the setting where gold standard diagnostic methods are not available.

7.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934507

ABSTRACT

Whether the risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) acquisition in the intensive care unit (ICU) is modified by the COVID-19 crisis is unknown. In this single center case control study, we measured the rate of MDRB acquisition in patients admitted in COVID-19 ICU and compared it with patients admitted in the same ICU for subarachnoid hemorrhage (controls) matched 1:1 on length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation. All patients were systematically and repeatedly screened for MDRB carriage. We compared the rate of MDRB acquisition in COVID-19 patients and in control using a competing risk analysis. Of note, although we tried to match COVID-19 patients with septic shock patients, we were unable due to the longer stay of COVID-19 patients. Among 72 patients admitted to the COVID-19 ICUs, 33% acquired 31 MDRB during ICU stay. The incidence density of MDRB acquisition was 30/1000 patient days. Antimicrobial therapy and exposure time were associated with higher rate of MDRB acquisition. Among the 72 SAH patients, 21% acquired MDRB, with an incidence density was 18/1000 patient days. The septic patients had more comorbidities and a greater number of previous hospitalizations than the COVID-19 patients. The incidence density of MDRB acquisition was 30/1000 patient days. The association between COVID-19 and MDRB acquisition (compared to control) risk did not reach statistical significance in the multivariable competing risk analysis (sHR 1.71 (CI 95% 0.93-3.21)). Thus, we conclude that, despite strong physical isolation, acquisition rate of MDRB in ICU patients was at least similar during the COVID-19 first wave compared to previous period.

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