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Microrna ; 10(4): 226-228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594371


Despite their biological simplicity, microRNA-based organisms, such as RNA viruses, are currently shown to be unexpected threats to mammals, including humans. This situation is exemplified by the COVID-19 pandemic triggered by the spread of SARS-CoV-2. RNA viruses are older than DNA viruses. Indeed, from an evolutionary standpoint, RNA is an older molecule than DNA. The strength of RNA viruses, compared to DNA viruses, resides in their simplicity and instability. The instability of RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and flu viruses, generates mutants to escape the host's defense mechanisms. A formidable combination of lethality and infectivity was recently achieved by SARS-CoV-2. Complex DNAbased defense systems use Toll-like receptors to intercept viral RNA inside a cell. Activation of Toll-like receptors triggers inflammation and activates lymphocytes and monocytes, causing thromboxane release. In the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, this process results in cytokine storms and lung thromboembolism. The ongoing pandemic can be envisioned as a struggle between highly evolved complex DNA organisms, i.e., humans, and poorly evolved simple RNA organisms, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 virus. Quite surprisingly, the complex organism has a serious problem defeating the simplistic organism. However, humans are finally developing a new effective weapon in fighting the SARS-CoV-2 virus, paradoxically, RNA-based vaccines. These considerations underscore the relevance of microRNAs as powerful tools in therapeutic and preventive medicine.

COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Animals , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
J Pers Med ; 11(2)2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234763


The development of high-throughput omics technologies represents an unmissable opportunity for evidence-based prevention of adverse effects on human health. However, the applicability and access to multi-omics tests are limited. In Italy, this is due to the rapid increase of knowledge and the high levels of skill and economic investment initially necessary. The fields of human genetics and public health have highlighted the relevance of an implementation strategy at a national level in Italy, including integration in sanitary regulations and governance instruments. In this review, the emerging field of public health genomics is discussed, including the polygenic scores approach, epigenetic modulation, nutrigenomics, and microbiomes implications. Moreover, the Italian state of implementation is presented. The omics sciences have important implications for the prevention of both communicable and noncommunicable diseases, especially because they can be used to assess the health status during the whole course of life. An effective population health gain is possible if omics tools are implemented for each person after a preliminary assessment of effectiveness in the medium to long term.

J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154441


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the human population; therefore, multiple prevention and intervention protocols are being rapidly developed. The aim of our study was to develop a new chemo-prophylactic/-therapeutic strategy that effectively prevents COVID-19 and related complications. METHODS: In in vitro studies, COVID-19 infection-sensitive cells were incubated with human oropharyngeal fluids containing high SARS-CoV-2 loads. Levels of infection were determined via intra-cellular virus loads using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Efficacies for infection prevention were determined using several antiviral treatments: lipid-encapsulated ozonized oil (HOO), water-soluble HOO (HOOws), UV, and hydrogen peroxide. In in vivo studies, safety and efficacy of HOO in fighting COVID-19 infection was evaluated in human subjects. RESULTS: HOO in combination with HOOws was the only treatment able to fully neutralize SARS-CoV-2 as well as its capacity to penetrate and reproduce inside sensitive cells. Accordingly, the feasibility of using HOO/HOOws was tested in vivo. Analysis of expired gas in healthy subjects indicates that HOO administration increases oxygen availability in the lung. For our human studies, HOO/HOOws was administered to 52 cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects at high risk for COVID-19 infection, and all of them showed clinical safety. None of them developed COVID-19 infection, although an incidence of at least 11 cases was expected. Efficacy of HOO/HOOws was tested in four COVID-19 patients obtaining recovery and qPCR negativization in less than 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experience, the HOO/HOOws treatment can be administered at standard doses (three pills per day) for chemo-prophylactic purposes to healthy subjects for COVID-19 prevention and at high doses (up to eight pills per day) for therapeutic purposes to infected patients. This combined prevention strategy can provide a novel protocol to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.