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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758748

ABSTRACT

Residents and staff of emergency shelters for people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. The importance of shelter-related transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in this population remains unclear. It is also unknown whether there is significant spread of shelter-related viruses into surrounding communities. We analyzed genome sequence data for 28 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected from 8 shelters in King County, Washington between March and October, 2020. We identified at least 12 separate SARS-CoV-2 introduction events into these 8 shelters and estimated that 57% (16 out of 28) of the examined cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were the result of intra-shelter transmission. However, we identified just a few SARS-CoV-2 specimens from Washington that were possible descendants of shelter viruses. Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 spread in shelters is common, but we did not observe evidence of wide-spread transmission of shelter-related viruses into the general population.

2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(4): 673-679, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with persons with COVID-19 are at high risk of developing COVID-19; protection offered by COVID-19 vaccines in the context of known exposure is poorly understood. METHODS: Symptomatic outpatients aged ≥12 years reporting acute onset of COVID-19-like illness and tested for SARS-CoV-2 between February 1 and September 30, 2021 were enrolled. Participants were stratified by self-report of having known contact with a COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to illness onset. Vaccine effectiveness was evaluated using the test-negative study design and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 2229 participants, 283/451 (63%) of those reporting contact and 331/1778 (19%) without known contact tested SARS-CoV-2-positive. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49%-83%) among fully vaccinated participants reporting a known contact versus 80% (95% CI, 72%-86%) among those with no known contact (p-value for interaction = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to growing evidence of the benefits of vaccinations in preventing COVID-19 and support vaccination recommendations and the importance of efforts to increase vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccine Efficacy
3.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634069

ABSTRACT

Evaluations of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are important to monitor as COVID-19 vaccines are introduced in the general population. Research staff enrolled symptomatic participants seeking outpatient medical care for COVID-19-like illness or SARS-CoV-2 testing from a multisite network. VE was evaluated using the test-negative design. Among 236 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test-positive and 576 test-negative participants aged ≥16 years, VE of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 was 91% (95% CI: 83-95) for full vaccination and 75% (95% CI: 55-87) for partial vaccination. Vaccination was associated with prevention of most COVID-19 cases among people seeking outpatient medical care.

4.
Vaccine ; 40(5): 752-756, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) uses vaccination data from electronic health records (EHR) at eight integrated health systems to monitor vaccine safety. Accurate capture of data from vaccines administered outside of the health system is critical for vaccine safety research, especially for COVID-19 vaccines, where many are administered in non-traditional settings. However, timely access and inclusion of data from Immunization Information Systems (IIS) into VSD safety assessments is not well understood. METHODS: We surveyed the eight data-contributing VSD sites to assess: 1) status of sending data to IIS; 2) status of receiving data from IIS; and 3) integration of IIS data into the site EHR. Sites reported separately for COVID-19 vaccination to capture any differences in capacity to receive and integrate data on COVID-19 vaccines versus other vaccines. RESULTS: All VSD sites send data to and receive data from their state IIS. All eight sites (100%) routinely integrate IIS data for COVID-19 vaccines into VSD research studies. Six sites (75%) also routinely integrate all other vaccination data; two sites integrate data from IIS following a reconciliation process, which can result in delays to integration into VSD datasets. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines are being administered in a variety of non-traditional settings, where IIS are commonly used as centralized reporting systems. All eight VSD sites receive and integrate COVID-19 vaccine data from IIS, which positions the VSD well for conducting quality assessments of vaccine safety. Efforts to improve the timely receipt of all vaccination data will improve capacity to conduct vaccine safety assessments within the VSD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Information Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4411-e4418, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninfluenza respiratory viruses are responsible for a substantial burden of disease in the United States. Household transmission is thought to contribute significantly to subsequent transmission through the broader community. In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, contactless surveillance methods are of particular importance. METHODS: From November 2019 to April 2020, 303 households in the Seattle area were remotely monitored in a prospective longitudinal study for symptoms of respiratory viral illness. Enrolled participants reported weekly symptoms and submitted respiratory samples by mail in the event of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for 14 viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Participants completed all study procedures at home without physical contact with research staff. RESULTS: In total, 1171 unique participants in 303 households were monitored for ARI. Of participating households, 128 (42%) included a child aged <5 years and 202 (67%) included a child aged 5-12 years. Of the 678 swabs collected during the surveillance period, 237 (35%) tested positive for 1 or more noninfluenza respiratory viruses. Rhinovirus, common human coronaviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common. Four cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 3 households. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the circulation of respiratory viruses within households during the winter months during the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Contactless methods of recruitment, enrollment, and sample collection were utilized throughout this study and demonstrate the feasibility of home-based, remote monitoring for respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Vaccine ; 40(1): 122-132, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550126

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about COVID-19 vaccination intent among people experiencing homelessness. This study assesses surveyed COVID-19 vaccination intent among adult homeless shelter residents and staff and identifies factors associated with vaccine deliberation (responded "undecided") and reluctance (responded "no"), including time trends. METHODS: From 11/1/2020-2/28/21, we conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys at nine shelters in King County, WA as part of ongoing community-based SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. We used a multinomial model to identify characteristics associated with vaccine deliberation and reluctance. RESULTS: A total of 969 unique staff (n = 297) and residents (n = 672) participated and provided 3966 survey responses. Among residents, 53.7% (n = 361) were vaccine accepting, 28.1% reluctant, 17.6% deliberative, and 0.6% already vaccinated, whereas among staff 56.2% were vaccine accepting, 14.1% were reluctant, 16.5% were deliberative, and 13.1% already vaccinated at their last survey. We observed higher odds of vaccine deliberation or reluctance among Black/African American individuals, those who did not receive a seasonal influenza vaccine, and those with lower educational attainment. There was no significant trend towards vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSIONS: Strong disparities in vaccine intent based on race, education, and prior vaccine history were observed. Increased vaccine intent over the study period was not detected. An intersectional, person-centered approach to addressing health inequities by public health authorities planning vaccination campaigns in shelters is recommended. Clinical Trial Registry Number: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Washington
7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(1): 68-77, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453520

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine vaccine delivery in the US and globally. The magnitude of these disruptions and their association with childhood vaccination coverage are unclear. Objectives: To compare trends in pediatric vaccination before and during the pandemic and to evaluate the proportion of children up to date (UTD) with vaccinations by age, race, and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This surveillance study used a prepandemic-postpandemic control design with data from 8 health systems in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Minnesota, and Wisconsin in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Children from age groups younger than 24 months and 4 to 6, 11 to 13, and 16 to 18 years were included if they had at least 1 week of health system enrollment from January 5, 2020, through October 3, 2020, over periods before the US COVID-19 pandemic (January 5, 2020, through March 14, 2020), during age-limited preventive care (March 15, 2020, through May 16, 2020), and during expanded primary care (May 17, 2020, through October 3, 2020). These individuals were compared with those enrolled during analogous weeks in 2019. Exposures: This study evaluated UTD status among children reaching specific ages in February, May, and September 2020, compared with those reaching these ages in 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly vaccination rates for routine age-specific vaccines and the proportion of children UTD for all age-specific recommended vaccines. Results: Of 1 399 708 children in 2019 and 1 402 227 in 2020, 1 371 718 were female (49.0%) and 1 429 979 were male (51.0%); 334 216 Asian individuals (11.9%), 900 226 were Hispanic individuals (32.1%), and 201 619 non-Hispanic Black individuals (7.2%). Compared with the prepandemic period and 2019, the age-limited preventive care period was associated with lower weekly vaccination rates, with ratios of rate ratios of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) among those younger than 24 months, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.16-0.20) among those aged 4 to 6 years, 0.16 (95% CI, 0.14-0.17) among those aged 11 to 13 years, and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.08-0.13) among those aged 16 to 18 years. Vaccination rates during expanded primary care remained lower for most ages (ratios of rate ratios: <24 months, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]; 11-13 years, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.76-0.86]; 16-18 years, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63]). In September 2020, 74% (95% CI, 73%-76%) of infants aged 7 months and 57% (95% CI, 56%-58%) of infants aged 18 months were UTD vs 81% (95% CI, 80%-82%) and 61% (95% CI, 60%-62%), respectively, in September 2019. The proportion UTD was lowest in non-Hispanic Black children across most age groups, both during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (eg, in May 2019, 70% [95% CI, 64%-75%] of non-Hispanic Black infants aged 7 months were UTD vs 82% [95% CI, 81%-83%] in all infants aged 7 months combined). Conclusions and Relevance: As of September 2020, childhood vaccination rates and the proportion who were UTD remained lower than 2019 levels. Interventions are needed to promote catch-up vaccination, particularly in populations at risk for underimmunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Male , Time Factors
8.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402385

ABSTRACT

Evaluations of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are important to monitor as COVID-19 vaccines are introduced in the general population. Research staff enrolled symptomatic participants seeking outpatient medical care for COVID-19-like illness or SARS-CoV-2 testing from a multisite network. VE was evaluated using the test-negative design. Among 236 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test-positive and 576 test-negative participants aged ≥16 years, VE of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 was 91% (95% CI: 83-95) for full vaccination and 75% (95% CI: 55-87) for partial vaccination. Vaccination was associated with prevention of most COVID-19 cases among people seeking outpatient medical care.

9.
Elife ; 102021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308531

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination is one of the most effective public health interventions. We investigate the impact of vaccination activities for Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and yellow fever over the years 2000-2030 across 112 countries. Methods: Twenty-one mathematical models estimated disease burden using standardised demographic and immunisation data. Impact was attributed to the year of vaccination through vaccine-activity-stratified impact ratios. Results: We estimate 97 (95%CrI[80, 120]) million deaths would be averted due to vaccination activities over 2000-2030, with 50 (95%CrI[41, 62]) million deaths averted by activities between 2000 and 2019. For children under-5 born between 2000 and 2030, we estimate 52 (95%CrI[41, 69]) million more deaths would occur over their lifetimes without vaccination against these diseases. Conclusions: This study represents the largest assessment of vaccine impact before COVID-19-related disruptions and provides motivation for sustaining and improving global vaccination coverage in the future. Funding: VIMC is jointly funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) (BMGF grant number: OPP1157270 / INV-009125). Funding from Gavi is channelled via VIMC to the Consortium's modelling groups (VIMC-funded institutions represented in this paper: Imperial College London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Public Health England, Johns Hopkins University, The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Disease Analysis Foundation, Kaiser Permanente Washington, University of Cambridge, University of Notre Dame, Harvard University, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Emory University, National University of Singapore). Funding from BMGF was used for salaries of the Consortium secretariat (authors represented here: TBH, MJ, XL, SE-L, JT, KW, NMF, KAMG); and channelled via VIMC for travel and subsistence costs of all Consortium members (all authors). We also acknowledge funding from the UK Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, which supported aspects of VIMC's work (MRC grant number: MR/R015600/1).JHH acknowledges funding from National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship; Richard and Peggy Notebaert Premier Fellowship from the University of Notre Dame. BAL acknowledges funding from NIH/NIGMS (grant number R01 GM124280) and NIH/NIAID (grant number R01 AI112970). The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) receives funding support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.This paper was compiled by all coauthors, including two coauthors from Gavi. Other funders had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. All authors had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Global Health , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans
10.
Elife ; 102021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285537

ABSTRACT

Background: Childhood immunisation services have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. WHO recommends considering outbreak risk using epidemiological criteria when deciding whether to conduct preventive vaccination campaigns during the pandemic. Methods: We used two to three models per infection to estimate the health impact of 50% reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 and delay of campaign vaccination from 2020 to 2021 for measles vaccination in Bangladesh, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Sudan, for meningococcal A vaccination in Burkina Faso, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria, and for yellow fever vaccination in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, and Nigeria. Our counterfactual comparative scenario was sustaining immunisation services at coverage projections made prior to COVID-19 (i.e. without any disruption). Results: Reduced routine vaccination coverage in 2020 without catch-up vaccination may lead to an increase in measles and yellow fever disease burden in the modelled countries. Delaying planned campaigns in Ethiopia and Nigeria by a year may significantly increase the risk of measles outbreaks (both countries did complete their supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) planned for 2020). For yellow fever vaccination, delay in campaigns leads to a potential disease burden rise of >1 death per 100,000 people per year until the campaigns are implemented. For meningococcal A vaccination, short-term disruptions in 2020 are unlikely to have a significant impact due to the persistence of direct and indirect benefits from past introductory campaigns of the 1- to 29-year-old population, bolstered by inclusion of the vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule accompanied by further catch-up campaigns. Conclusions: The impact of COVID-19-related disruption to vaccination programs varies between infections and countries. Planning and implementation of campaigns should consider country and infection-specific epidemiological factors and local immunity gaps worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic when prioritising vaccines and strategies for catch-up vaccination. Funding: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Measles/prevention & control , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Africa/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Infant , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine/therapeutic use , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Young Adult
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 956, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Influenza is an important public health problem, but data on the impact of influenza among homeless shelter residents are limited. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate whether on-site testing and antiviral treatment of influenza in residents of homeless shelters reduces influenza spread in these settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial of on-site testing and antiviral treatment for influenza in nine homeless shelter sites within the Seattle metropolitan area. Participants with acute respiratory illness (ARI), defined as two or more respiratory symptoms or new or worsening cough with onset in the prior 7 days, are eligible to enroll. Approximately 3200 individuals are estimated to participate from October to May across two influenza seasons. All sites will start enrollment in the control arm at the beginning of each season, with routine surveillance for ARI. Sites will be randomized at different timepoints to enter the intervention arm, with implementation of a test-and-treat strategy for individuals with two or fewer days of symptoms. Eligible individuals will be tested on-site with a point-of-care influenza test. If the influenza test is positive and symptom onset is within 48 h, participants will be administered antiviral treatment with baloxavir or oseltamivir depending upon age and comorbidities. Participants will complete a questionnaire on demographics and symptom duration and severity. The primary endpoint is the incidence of influenza in the intervention period compared to the control period, after adjusting for time trends. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04141917 . Registered 28 October 2019. Trial sponsor: University of Washington.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first US case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected on January 20, 2020. However, some serology studies suggest SARS-CoV-2 may have been present in the United States prior to that, as early as December 2019. The extent of domestic COVID-19 detection prior to 2020 has not been well-characterized. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody among healthcare users in the greater Seattle, Washington area from October 2019 through early April 2020. STUDY DESIGN: We tested residual samples from 766 Seattle-area adults for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies utilizing an ELISA against prefusion-stabilized Spike (S) protein. RESULTS: No antibody-positive samples were found between October 2, 2019 and March 13, 2020. Prevalence rose to 1.2% in late March and early April 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive samples in October 2019 through mid-March, 2020, provides evidence against widespread circulation of COVID-19 among healthcare users in the Seattle area during that time. A small proportion of this metropolitan-area cohort had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Washington
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the transmission of respiratory viruses. METHODS: Residual specimens from patients evaluated for acute respiratory illness at hospitals in the Seattle metropolitan area were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses. Transmission models were fit to each virus to estimate the magnitude reduction in transmission due to weather-related disruptions. Changes in contact rates and care-seeking were informed by data on local traffic volumes and hospital visits. RESULTS: Disruption in contact patterns reduced effective contact rates during the intervention period by 16 to 95%, and cumulative disease incidence through the remainder of the season by 3 to 9%. Incidence reductions were greatest for viruses that were peaking when the disruption occurred and least for viruses in an early epidemic phase. CONCLUSION: High-intensity, short-duration social distancing measures may substantially reduce total incidence in a respiratory virus epidemic if implemented near the epidemic peak. For SARS-CoV-2, this suggests that, even when SARS-CoV-2 spread is out of control, implementing short-term disruptions can prevent COVID-19 deaths.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Weather , COVID-19 , Cities , Humans , Incidence , Models, Theoretical , Retrospective Studies , Washington
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): 802-807, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although multiple respiratory viruses circulate in humans, few studies have compared the incidence of different viruses across the life course. We estimated the incidence of outpatient illness due to 12 different viruses during November 2018 through April 2019 in a fully enumerated population. METHODS: We conducted active surveillance for ambulatory care visits for acute respiratory illness (ARI) among members of Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA). Enrolled patients provided respiratory swab specimens which were tested for 12 respiratory viruses using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We estimated the cumulative incidence of infection due to each virus overall and by age group. RESULTS: The KPWA population under surveillance included 202 562 individuals, of whom 2767 (1.4%) were enrolled in the study. Influenza A(H3N2) was the most commonly detected virus, with an overall incidence of 21 medically attended illnesses per 1000 population; the next most common viruses were influenza A(H1N1) (18 per 1000), coronaviruses (13 per 1000), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 13 per 1000), and rhinovirus (9 per 1000). RSV was the most common cause of medically attended ARI among children aged 1-4 years; coronaviruses were the most common among adults aged ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with other studies focused on single viruses, we found that influenza and RSV were major causes of acute respiratory illness in persons of all ages. In comparison, coronaviruses and rhinovirus were also important pathogens. Prior to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronaviruses were the second-most common cause of medically attended ARI during the 2018/19 influenza season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Child , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): 42-49, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Homeless shelters are a high-risk setting for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission because of crowding and shared hygiene facilities. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SARS-CoV-2 case counts across several adult and family homeless shelters in a major metropolitan area. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, community-based surveillance study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04141917). SETTING: 14 homeless shelters in King County, Washington. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1434 study encounters were done in shelter residents and staff, regardless of symptoms. INTERVENTION: 2 strategies were used for SARS-CoV-2 testing: routine surveillance and contact tracing ("surge testing") events. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome measure was test positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection at shelters, determined by dividing the number of positive cases by the total number of participant encounters, regardless of symptoms. Sociodemographic, clinical, and virologic variables were assessed as correlates of viral positivity. RESULTS: Among 1434 encounters, 29 (2% [95% CI, 1.4% to 2.9%]) cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected across 5 shelters. Most (n = 21 [72.4%]) were detected during surge testing events rather than routine surveillance, and most (n = 21 [72.4% {CI, 52.8% to 87.3%}]) were asymptomatic at the time of sample collection. Persons who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 were more frequently aged 60 years or older than those without SARS-CoV-2 (44.8% vs. 15.9%). Eighty-six percent of persons with positive test results slept in a communal space rather than in a private or shared room. LIMITATION: Selection bias due to voluntary participation and a relatively small case count. CONCLUSION: Active surveillance and surge testing were used to detect multiple cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in homeless shelters. The findings suggest an unmet need for routine viral testing outside of clinical settings for homeless populations. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Gates Ventures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Homeless Persons , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa576, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944372

ABSTRACT

We compared symptoms and characteristics of 4961 ambulatory patients with and without laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Findings indicate that clinical symptoms alone would be insufficient to distinguish between coronavirus disease 2019 and other respiratory infections (eg, influenza) and/or to evaluate the effects of preventive interventions (eg, vaccinations).

19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240783, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding and monitoring the demographics of SARS-CoV-2 infection can inform strategies for prevention. Surveillance monitoring has suggested that the age distribution of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 has changed since the pandemic began, but no formal analysis has been performed. METHODS: Retrospective review of SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing results from a national reference laboratory was performed. Result distributions by age and positivity were compared between early period (March-April 2020) and late periods (June-July 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, a sub-analysis compared changing age distributions between inpatients and outpatients. RESULTS: There were 277,601 test results of which 19320 (7.0%) were positive. The median age of infected people declined over time (p < 0.0005). In March-April, the median age of positive people was 40.8 years (Interquartile range (IQR): 29.0-54.1). In June-July, the median age of positive people was 35.8 years (IQR: 24.0-50.2). The positivity rate of patients under 50 increased from 6.0 to 10.6 percent and the positivity rate for those over 50 decreased from 6.3 to 5.0 percent between the early and late periods. The trend was only observed for outpatient populations. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that there is a trend toward decreasing age among persons with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, but that these trends seem to be specific to the outpatient population. Overall, this suggests that observed age-related trends are driven by changes in testing patterns rather than true changes in the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This calls for caution in interpretation of routine surveillance data until testing patterns stabilize.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Pandemics , United States
20.
Microbes Infect ; 22(10): 611-616, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779462

ABSTRACT

Many jurisdictions implemented intensive social distancing to suppress SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The challenge now is to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic without overburdening economic and social activities. An agent-based model simulated the population of King County, Washington. SARS-CoV-2 transmission probabilities were estimated by fitting simulated to observed hospital admissions. Interventions considered included encouraging telecommuting, reducing contacts to high-risk persons, and reductions to contacts outside of the home, among others. Removing all existing interventions would result in nearly 42,000 COVID-19 hospitalizations between June 2020 and January 2021, with peak hospital occupancy exceeding available beds 6-fold. Combining interventions is predicted to reduce total hospitalizations by 48% (95% CI, 47-49%), with peak COVID-19 hospital occupancy of 70% of total beds. Targeted school closures can further reduce the peak occupancy. Combining low-impact interventions may mitigate the course of the COVID-19 epidemic, keeping hospital burden within the capacity of the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Nursing Homes/standards , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence , Washington/epidemiology
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