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1.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; JOUR(16):E18558-E18558, 40.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092870
2.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent and associations with patient-reported disruptions to cancer treatment and cancer-related care during the COVID-19 pandemic utilizing nationally representative data. METHODS: This analysis uses data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, cross-sectional survey of US adults. Adults (age >18) who reported requiring current cancer treatment or other cancer-related medical care in the second half of 2020 were included. Estimated proportions of patients with self-reported changes, delays, or cancelations to cancer treatment or other cancer care due to the COVID-19 pandemic were calculated using sampling weights and associations with sociodemographic and other health-related variables were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 574 (sample-weighted estimate of 2,867,326) adults reported requiring cancer treatment and/or other cancer care since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. An estimated 32.1% reported any change, delay, or cancelation. On sample-weighted univariable analysis, patients who were younger, female, had one or fewer comorbidities, and uninsured were significantly more likely to report disruptions. On sample-weighted, multivariable analysis, patients who were younger and female remained significant predictors. Nearly 90% of patients included in the study reported virtual appointment use. Patients reporting disruptions were also significantly more likely to report feelings of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: An estimated 1/3 of patients experienced disruptions to cancer care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients experiencing disruptions in care were more likely to be female or younger which may reflect risk stratification strategies in the early stages of the pandemic, and also had higher rates of anxiety. The longitudinal impact of these disruptions on outcomes merits further study.

3.
Ann Behav Med ; 56(11): 1157-1173, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Promoting the adoption of personal hygiene behaviors known to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, such as avoiding touching one's face with unwashed hands, is important for limiting the spread of infections. PURPOSE: We aimed to test the efficacy of a theory-based intervention to promote the avoidance of touching one's face with unwashed hands to reduce the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We tested effects of an intervention employing imagery, persuasive communication, and planning techniques in two pre-registered studies adopting randomized controlled designs in samples of Australian (N = 254; Study 1) and US (N = 245; Study 2) residents. Participants were randomly assigned to theory-based intervention or education-only conditions (Study 1), or to theory-based intervention, education-only, and no-intervention control conditions (Study 2). The intervention was delivered online and participants completed measures of behavior and theory-based social cognition constructs pre-intervention and one-week postintervention. RESULTS: Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed a significant increase in avoidance of touching the face with unwashed hands from pre-intervention to follow-up irrespective of intervention condition in both studies, but no significant condition effects. Exploratory analyses revealed significant effects of the theory-based intervention on behavior at follow-up in individuals with low pre-intervention risk perceptions in Study 2. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate high adoption of avoiding touching one's face with unwashed hands, with behavior increasing over time independent of the intervention. Future research should confirm risk perceptions as a moderator of the effect theory-based interventions on infection-prevention behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Australia , Health Behavior
4.
Appl Spat Anal Policy ; : 1-18, 2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014504

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a major public health challenge that is associated with negative health outcomes in wealthy countries. In US urban areas, food banks and pantries played an expanded role in providing emergency food assistance and addressing food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study seeks to determine if socially vulnerable neighborhoods are more likely to receive emergency food assistance during this pandemic, after controlling for distance to emergency food distribution sites and spatial clustering. The study area is El Paso County, Texas-an urban area on the US-Mexico border. Dependent variables represent both coverage and intensity of emergency food transfers (EFTs) from local food banks and pantries during November 2020, at the census tract level. Independent variables are derived from the widely used Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Our statistical analyses are based on multivariable generalized estimating equations that account for spatial clustering and proximity to emergency food distribution sites. Results indicate that both coverage and intensity of EFTs are significantly greater in neighborhoods with higher social vulnerability and proximity to emergency food distribution sites, but lower in neighborhoods that are more vulnerable in terms of housing and transportation. Our findings highlight the significance of neighborhood-level social factors in influencing access to the emergency food network during a public health crisis and have important implications for government agencies and nonprofit organizations associated with public health and emergency preparedness in US urban areas.

5.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009585

ABSTRACT

Background: Research has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced access to cancer treatment and care for patients, especially for COVID-19 patients. Methods: We investigated the impact of COVID-19 testing on access to cancer care. A US based cross sectional study was conducted on 2,393 cancer patients using data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between COVID-19 testing and likelihood of receiving cancer treatment or other cancer care during the pandemic. Results: Patients who reported ever being tested for COVID were on average younger (66.9 vs 69.3, p<0.001). Patients with professional school education reported higher rates of being tested than lower education levels (40.0%, p=0.032). Tested patients reported higher rates of not receiving medical care due to COVID-19 (23.3% vs. 19.1%, p=0.026). On multivariable analysis, patients who reported ever being tested for COVID-19 were less likely to receive cancer treatment (OR 0.639, 95% CI 0.489-0.834, p=0.001) or receive any other cancer medical care (OR 0.657, 95% CI 0.523-0.825, p<0.001) (Table). Conclusions: These data suggest COVID testing itself is associated with increased likelihood of cancer care disruption. As the pandemic persists, awareness of cancer care disruption, even by testing alone, should be raised.

6.
Leisure Studies ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-2004858
7.
International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education ; 14(5):320-329, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1998026

ABSTRACT

Social distancing is of key importance during the current pandemic. It helps limit the spread of COVID by observing distance between disease spreading individuals. Now it is not possible to station a person 24x7 at each queue to monitor social distancing violations. Banks, Public Offices, Malls, Schools, Theatre, etc.., usually see long queues for hours every day. To ensure social distancing in queues we hereby design a social distancing monitoring robot. The robot consists of a four wheel design system used to drive the robotic vehicle. It makes use of a line following principle to constantly move along with the queue and monitor for social distancing violations. The robot use IR sensor to travel along with the queue to and front in order to detect violations. The robot is now equipped with the obstacle detecting ultrasonic sensor in order to detect obstacles in the vehicle path. The robotic vehicle uses other ultrasonic sensor for detecting distance between two individuals in a queue. It any two individuals are found having less than three feet distance between them, the robot instantly sounds a buzzer and alert to inform about the violation, also it sends alerts of these violations along with a camera picture using WiFi over IoT to inform the higher authorities or head office to update them about violations with proof so instant disciplinary action can be taken. Thus this work allows for automatic maintaining social distancing in queues help to prevent the spread of the Corona virus

8.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1123-1125, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958265

ABSTRACT

The California Prison Industry Authority (CALPIA), a semiautonomous prison labor agency under the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, runs two optical laboratories operated by people incarcerated at Valley State Prison and California State Prison, Solano,1 and these laboratories supply ophthalmic lenses to eligible Medicaid recipients, such as this young patient. Documents we obtained through a public records request revealed that our state's public health agency, the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS), agreed to pay CALPIA up to $37.9 million for the 2021/22 fiscal year for optical services alone. CALPIA wages in prison-based optical shops range between $0.35 and $1.00 per hour,6 up to 55% of which can be deducted by law for restitution and administrative costs, resulting in an effective pay rate as low as $0.16 per hour.7 Courts have routinely rejected legal challenges to these meager wages by concluding that, because the Thirteen Amendment permits the involuntary servitude of incarcerated people, the federal minimum wage law does not apply to prison labor.8 The result is a strange supply chain that is not always transparent or top of mind: medical devices produced by poorly paid imprisoned people are provided to the poorest members of free society, such as the infant who needed sight-saving glasses. Others have called for public health officials, researchers, and physicians to address the sprawling reach of the prison industrial complex.14 Medical providers could use their position of authority to advocate better pay and conditions for incarcerated workers who produce the very devices that providers prescribe.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(1): 67-73, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921772
11.
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica ; 95(e202108103), 2021.
Article in Spanish | GIM | ID: covidwho-1871391

ABSTRACT

Background: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the availability of a critical care bed was insufficient. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of protocols, management in the emergency department (ED) and the availability of intensive care unit (ICU) beds for severe COVID-19 patients attended in Spanish hospital EDs during the first peak of the 2020 pandemic.

12.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860422

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged researchers performing clinical trials to develop innovative approaches to mitigate infectious risk while maintaining rigorous safety monitoring. Methods: In this report we describe the implementation of a novel exclusively remote randomized clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04354428) of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for the treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-mediated COVID-19 disease which included cardiovascular safety monitoring. All study activities were conducted remotely. Self-collected vital signs (temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation) and electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were transmitted digitally to investigators while mid-nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing were shipped. ECG collection relied on a consumer device (KardiaMobile 6L, AliveCor Inc.) that recorded and transmitted six-lead ECGs via participants' internet-enabled devices to a central core laboratory, which measured and reported QTc intervals that were then used to monitor safety. Results: Two hundred and thirty-one participants uploaded 3245 ECGs. Mean daily adherence to the ECG protocol was 85.2% and was similar to the survey and mid-nasal swab elements of the study. Adherence rates did not differ by age or sex assigned at birth and were high across all reported race and ethnicities. QTc prolongation meeting criteria for an adverse event occurred in 28 (12.1%) participants, with 2 occurring in the placebo group, 19 in the hydroxychloroquine group, and 7 in the hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin group. Conclusions: Our report demonstrates that digital health technologies can be leveraged to conduct rigorous, safe, and entirely remote clinical trials.

13.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantifying occupational risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers can inform efforts to improve healthcare worker and patient safety and reduce transmission. This study aimed to quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among healthcare workers in a large metropolitan healthcare system. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey conducted from April through June of 2020 linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to quantify risk factors for infection. Participants were employees and medical staff members who elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all healthcare workers as part of a quality initiative, and who completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. Exposures of interest included known demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential zip code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to PCR test-positive healthcare workers or patients, and use of personal protective equipment. The primary outcome of interest was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 5.7% (95% CI: 5.2%-6.1%) among 10,275 healthcare workers. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (aOR=1.9, 95% CI:1.4-2.5) and zip code level COVID-19 incidence (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR=2.0, 95% CI:1.6-2.4). Overall, occupational risk factors accounted for 27% (95% CI: 25%-30%) of the risk among healthcare workers and included contact with a PCR test-positive healthcare worker (aOR=1.2, 95% CI:1.0-1.6). CONCLUSIONS: Community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19 positive individual and residential COVID-19 incidence, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among healthcare workers than exposure in the workplace.

14.
Emergencias ; 34(2):159-160, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798252
15.
Chimica Oggi/Chemistry Today ; 39(5):76-78, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787505

ABSTRACT

Manufacturing is a key component of the pharmaceutical supply chain and over the past twenty years it has been transformed by the growth of new technologies, such as biologics, cell and gene therapies, as well as the increasing importance of outsourcing to Contract Development Manufacturing Organisations (CDMOs). As the pharmaceutical industry continues shape and re-shape through mergers and acquisitions, established pharmaceutical companies have been divesting their manufacturing operations to CDMOs. These changes, together with countries wishing to bring manufacturing home, has brought forward new challenges for the industry. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has also brought an additional dimension to the demands for the sector. Here we explore the how these changes are influencing the shape of the industry and attempt to predict its future. © 2021 TeknoScienze. All rights reserved.

16.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(6 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779692

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental illness is a growing issue in the USA. More individuals continue to be diagnosed with illnesses such as depression and anxiety and placed on necessary medications. Studies have shown that the psychological makeup of an individual greatly impacts their health behavior and usage of preventative measures. However, there is limited research on the effect of anxiety and depression on PSA testing. This study explores the associations between the use of anxiety and depression medications and PSA testing. Methods: We used data from the National Health Interview Survey during the year 2018, and assessed responses to the question "Have you ever had a PSA test?" and "What is the number of PSA tests you had in the last 5 years?". Responses were stratified by whether men were taking medications for anxiety, depression, both or none. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to define adjusted odds ratios of undergoing PSA testing adjusting for relevant socio-economic and demographic parameters. Results: Among the 5,035 male participants, 89.4% did not take any medication, 2.9% reported they took anxiety medication, 2.1% took depression medication and 5.5% took both medications. There was a significantly higher rate of PSA testing in men who took medications for both anxiety and depression compared to men taking no medications (p=0.002). Furthermore, the average number of PSA tests in the last 5 years was highest in the group of men taking both medications (p < 0.0001). Multivariable analysis showed that men who took medications for both depression and anxiety were more likely to undergo PSA testing in comparison to men, not on any of these medications (OR=1.755, p=0.001). The multivariable analysis also showed that age, living with a spouse, and prior cancer history were associated with an increased likelihood of PSA testing while being a minority, living in the south of the USA, and being a current smoker was associated with a lower likelihood of undergoing PSA testing. Conclusions: Taking both anxiety and depression medications in men may be associated with a higher likelihood of undergoing PSA testing. Despite obvious limitations of this analysis including its retrospective nature and recall bias, this association needs to be further explored, especially due to rising use of these medication in the current era of the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 251, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic with poorly understood long-term consequences. Determining the trajectory of recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization is critical for prioritizing care, allocating resources, facilitating prognosis, and informing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Participants age 18 years or older who were hospitalized for ≥24 h due to COVID-19 completed phone/video call virtual assessments (including the 10-time chair rise test) and survey forms at three time points (2-6, 12, and 18 weeks) after hospital discharge. Univariate logistic and linear regression models assessed the associations of the outcomes with primary predictors (categorical age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and categorical pre-hospitalization frailty) at baseline; the same were used to assess differences in change from week 2-6 (continuous outcomes) or outcome persistence/worsening (categorical) at last contact. RESULTS: One hundred nine adults (age 53.0 [standard deviation 13.1]; 53% female) participated including 43 (39%) age 60 or greater; 59% identified as an ethnic and/or racial minority. Over 18 weeks, the mean time to complete the 10-time chair rise test decreased (i.e., improved) by 6.0 s (95% CI: 4.1, 7.9 s; p < 0.001); this change did not differ by pre-hospital frailty, race/ethnicity group, or sex, but those age ≥ 60 had greater improvement. At weeks 2-6, 67% of participants reported a worse Clinical Frailty Scale category compared to their pre-hospitalization level, whereas 42% reported a worse frailty score at 18 weeks. Participants who did not return to pre-hospitalization levels were more likely to be female, younger, and report a pre-hospitalization category of 'very fit' or 'well'. CONCLUSIONS: We found that functional performance improved from weeks 2-6 to 18 weeks of follow-up; that incident clinical frailty developed in some individuals following COVID-19; and that age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pre-hospitalization frailty status may impact recovery from COVID-19. Notably, individuals age 60 and older were more likely than those under age 45 years to return to their pre-hospitalization status and to make greater improvements in functional performance. The results of the present study provide insight into the trajectory of recovery among a representative cohort of individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Telemedicine , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
18.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330329

ABSTRACT

Introduction Shared characteristics between COVID-19 and pulmonary fibrosis, including symptoms, genetic architecture, and circulating biomarkers, suggests interstitial lung disease (ILD) development may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods The UKILD Post-COVID study planned interim analysis was designed to stratify risk groups and estimate the prevalence of Post-COVID Interstitial Lung Damage (ILDam) using the Post-HOSPitalisation COVID-19 (PHOSP-COVID) Study. Demographics, radiological patterns and missing data were assessed descriptively. Bayes binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of persistent lung damage >10% involvement in linked, clinically indicated CT scans. Indexing thresholds of percent predicted DLco, chest X-ray findings and severity of admission were used to generate risk strata. Number of cases within strata were used to estimate the amount of suspected Post-COVID ILDam. Results A total 3702 people were included in the UKILD interim cohort, 2406 completed an early follow-up research visit within 240 days of discharge and 1296 had follow-up through routine clinical review. We linked the cohort to 87 clinically indicated CTs with visually scored radiological patterns (median 119 days;interquartile range 83 to 155, max 240), of which 74 people had ILDam. ILDam was associated with abnormal chest X-ray (RR 1.21 95%CrI 1.05;1.40), percent predicted DLco<80% (RR 1.25 95%CrI 1.00;1.56) and severe admission (RR 1.27 95%CrI 1.07;1.55). A risk index based on these features suggested 6.9% of the interim cohort had moderate to very-high risk of Post-COVID ILDam. Comparable radiological patterns were observed in repeat scans >90 days in a subset of participants. Conclusion These interim data highlight that ILDam was not uncommon in clinically indicated thoracic CT up to 8 months following SARS-CoV-2 hospitalisation. Whether the ILDam will progress to ILD is currently unknown, however health services should radiologically and physiologically monitor individuals who have Post-COVID ILDam risk factors.

19.
Emergencias ; 34(2):159-160, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1738153
20.
Neurooncol Pract ; 9(2): 91-104, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713699

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic has catalyzed the expansion of telemedicine into nearly every specialty of medicine, few articles have summarized current practices and recommendations for integrating virtual care in the practice of neuro-oncology. This article identifies current telemedicine practice, provides practical guidance for conducting telemedicine visits, and generates recommendations for integrating virtual care into neuro-oncology practice. Practical aspects of telemedicine are summarized including when to use and not use telemedicine, how to conduct a virtual visit, who to include in the virtual encounter, unique aspects of telehealth in neuro-oncology, and emerging innovations.

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