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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847305

ABSTRACT

Public health restrictions, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, have had potentially wide-ranging, unintended effects on health-related behaviours such as diet and physical activity and also affected mental health due to reduced social interactions. This study explored how health-related behaviours and mental health were impacted in a sample of the UK public during the first set of COVID-19 public health restrictions. Two online surveys were administered in the UK, one within the first three months of the restrictions (Timepoints 1 (T1-involving pre-pandemic recall) and 2/T2) and another ten weeks later (Timepoint 3/T3). Moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), outdoor time, sitting time, screen time and sexual activity were self-reported. Diet was assessed using the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education questionnaire. Mental health was measured using the short-form Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and Becks' Anxiety and Depression Inventories. Differences between timepoints were explored using the Friedman, Wilcoxon signed-rank, McNemar and McNemar-Bowker tests. Two hundred and ninety-six adults (74% under 65 years old; 65% female) provided data across all timepoints. Between T1 and T2, MVPA, time outdoors and sexual activity decreased while sitting, and screen time increased (p < 0.05). Between T2 and T3, saturated fat intake, MVPA, time outdoors, and mental wellbeing increased while sitting, screen time and anxiety symptoms decreased (p < 0.05). This study found that depending on the level of COVID-19 public health restrictions in place, there appeared to be a varying impact on different health-related behaviours and mental health. As countries emerge from restrictions, it is prudent to direct necessary resources to address these important public health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844139

ABSTRACT

It remains unclear how effective COVID-19 vaccinations will be in patients with weakened immunity due to diseases, transplantation, and dialysis. We conducted a systematic review comparing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with solid tumor, hematologic malignancy, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and patients who received transplantation or dialysis. A literature search was conducted twice using the Medline/PubMed database. As a result, 21 papers were included in the review, and seropositivity rate was summarized by specific type of disease, transplantation, and dialysis. When different papers studied the same type of patient group, a study with a higher number of participants was selected. Most of the solid tumor patients showed a seropositivity rate of more than 80% after the second inoculation, but a low seropositivity was found in certain tumors such as breast cancer. Research in patients with certain types of hematological malignancy and autoimmune diseases has also reported low seropositivity, and this may have been affected by the immunosuppressive treatment these patients receive. Research in patients receiving dialysis or transplantation has reported lower seropositivity rates than the general population, while all patients with inflammatory bowel disease have converted to be seropositive. Meta-analysis validating these results will be needed, and studies will also be needed on methods to protect patients with reduced immunity from COVID-19.

3.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804969

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the change of insulin doses in Germany between 2017 and 2021. METHODS: This retrospective study used data from the longitudinal prescription LRx database (IQVIA) and included all patients with at least two insulin prescriptions per year in 2017-2021. Calculated daily dose (CDD) was assessed in 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, separately. RESULTS: The number of patients was comprised between 1,079,894 in 2021 and 1,132,839 in 2018. Median (interquartile range) CDD of basal insulin was relatively stable across the years and ranged between 27.9 (18.5-38.8) in 2021 and 28.3 (18.7-39.5) in 2020. In terms of short-acting insulin, median (interquartile range) CDD slightly decreased from 40.1 (28.2-54.3) in 2017 to 38.1 (27.2-52.2) in 2021. A slight decrease was also observed for mix insulin, from 39.4 (27.5-55.3) in 2017 to 37.9 (26.5-54.2) in 2021. These results were corroborated in most age and sex subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had no substantial effects on insulin doses in Germany. Further data are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings in other settings and countries.

4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(7):3959, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762730

ABSTRACT

Public health restrictions, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, have had potentially wide-ranging, unintended effects on health-related behaviours such as diet and physical activity and also affected mental health due to reduced social interactions. This study explored how health-related behaviours and mental health were impacted in a sample of the UK public during the first set of COVID-19 public health restrictions. Two online surveys were administered in the UK, one within the first three months of the restrictions (Timepoints 1 (T1-involving pre-pandemic recall) and 2/T2) and another ten weeks later (Timepoint 3/T3). Moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA), outdoor time, sitting time, screen time and sexual activity were self-reported. Diet was assessed using the Dietary Instrument for Nutrition Education questionnaire. Mental health was measured using the short-form Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and Becks' Anxiety and Depression Inventories. Differences between timepoints were explored using the Friedman, Wilcoxon signed-rank, McNemar and McNemar–Bowker tests. Two hundred and ninety-six adults (74% under 65 years old;65% female) provided data across all timepoints. Between T1 and T2, MVPA, time outdoors and sexual activity decreased while sitting, and screen time increased (p < 0.05). Between T2 and T3, saturated fat intake, MVPA, time outdoors, and mental wellbeing increased while sitting, screen time and anxiety symptoms decreased (p < 0.05). This study found that depending on the level of COVID-19 public health restrictions in place, there appeared to be a varying impact on different health-related behaviours and mental health. As countries emerge from restrictions, it is prudent to direct necessary resources to address these important public health issues.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1566-1580, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718403

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to the intensive care unit and recovery with conservative care. Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n = 58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favorable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (odds ratio: 20.3, 95% confidence interval 1.90-217, p = 0.013). The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. However, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, and a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
6.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718373

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

7.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2336, 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712178

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of N95, surgical/medical and non-medical facemasks as personal protective equipment against respiratory virus infection. The study incorporated 35 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating specific mask effectiveness against influenza virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and medRxiv databases for studies published up to 5 February 2021 (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020214729). The primary outcome of interest was the rate of respiratory viral infection. The quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADE approach. High compliance to mask-wearing conferred a significantly better protection (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.82) than low compliance. N95 or equivalent masks were the most effective in providing protection against coronavirus infections (OR, 0.30; CI, 0.20-0.44) consistently across subgroup analyses of causative viruses and clinical settings. Evidence supporting the use of medical or surgical masks against influenza or coronavirus infections (SARS, MERS and COVID-19) was weak. Our study confirmed that the use of facemasks provides protection against respiratory viral infections in general; however, the effectiveness may vary according to the type of facemask used. Our findings encourage the use of N95 respirators or their equivalents (e.g., P2) for best personal protection in healthcare settings until more evidence on surgical and medical masks is accrued. This study highlights a substantial lack of evidence on the comparative effectiveness of mask types in community settings.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4053-4063, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633402

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The clinical manifestation and outcomes of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration are largely unknown due to the rare nature of the disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, outcomes, and prognostic factors of adenoviral TTS, as well as identify predictors for mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched and the resulting articles were reviewed. A total of 6 case series and 13 case reports (64 patients) of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were included. We performed a pooled analysis and developed a novel scoring system to predict mortality. The overall mortality of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 35.9% (23/64). In our analysis, age ≤60 years, platelet count <25 × 103/µL, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL, the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were significantly associated with death and were selected as predictors for mortality (1 point each). We named this novel scoring system FAPIC (fibrinogen, age, platelet count, ICH, and CVT), and the C-statistic for the FAPIC score was 0.837 (95% CI 0.732-0.942). Expected mortality increased with each point increase in the FAPIC score, at 2.08, 6.66, 19.31, 44.54, 72.94, and 90.05% with FAPIC scores 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The FAPIC scoring model was internally validated through cross-validation and bootstrapping, then externally validated on a panel of TTS patients after Ad26.COV2.S administration. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen levels, age, platelet count, and the presence of ICH and CVT were significantly associated with mortality in patients with TTS, and the FAPIC score comprising these risk factors could predict mortality. The FAPIC score could be used in the clinical setting to recognize TTS patients at high risk of adverse outcomes and provide early intensive interventions including intravenous immunoglobulins and non-heparin anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633539

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Little is known on how coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted cancer diagnosis in Germany since the first lockdown in March 2020. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to compare the number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in general and specialized practices in Germany between April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with at least 1 visit to 1 of 1403 general and specialized practices in Germany in April 2020-March 2021 (n = 3,804,596) and April 2019-March 2020 (n = 3,913,386) were included in this retrospective study. Specialized practices were composed of gynecology, dermatology and urology practices. Cancer diagnoses included all types of cancer documented using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97). The number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer per practice was compared between April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020 using Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: There were 126,379 and 138,996 patients diagnosed with cancer in April 2020-March 2021 and April 2019-March 2020, respectively. The number of patients diagnosed with cancer decreased in all types of practice, and this decrease was significant in general practices (- 7.1%, p value = 0.038). In terms of cancer type, this decrease was particularly pronounced for skin cancers (- 12.8%, p value = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with a decrease in the number of patients newly diagnosed with cancer in general and specialized practices in Germany. Public health interventions are urgently warranted to mitigate the deleterious effects of this health crisis on cancer diagnosis.

11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 147: 79-84, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611884

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mental health compared with other respiratory infections. Thus, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients followed in general practices in Germany compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis. This study included all patients diagnosed with symptomatic or asymptomatic COVID-19 for the first time in 1198 general practices in Germany between March 2020 and May 2021. Patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection were matched to those with COVID-19 using propensity scores based on sex, age, index month, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. The index date corresponded to the date on which either COVID-19 or acute upper respiratory infection was diagnosed. Differences in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder between the COVID-19 and the acute upper respiratory infection group were studied using conditional Poisson regression models. This study included 56,350 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 56,350 patients diagnosed with acute upper respiratory infection (52.3% women; mean [SD] age 43.6 [19.2] years). The incidence of depression (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.95-1.10) and anxiety disorder (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.83-1.07) was not significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than in the upper respiratory infection group. Compared with acute upper respiratory infection diagnosis, COVID-19 diagnosis was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety disorder in patients treated in general practices in Germany.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 114-121, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare, serious complication after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration that can involve various organ systems. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in patients with VITT. METHODS: We searched PubMed ePubs, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published until April 28, 2021, involving patients with VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including laboratory measurements, were collected and compared. RESULTS: Four case series and three case reports involving 48 cases of VITT were included. Hepatosplenic thrombosis was present in 8 cases (17%). Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had lower platelet counts (13,000 vs. 29,500/µL, p=0.016) and higher D-dimer levels (140.0 vs. 57.3 times upper limit of normal range, p=0.028). Multiple-site thrombosis was also associated with hepatosplenic thrombosis (88% vs. 15%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing clinical profiles of patients with VITT according to the presence of hepatosplenic thrombosis. Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had more severe presentations with lower platelet counts, higher D-dimer levels, and a higher rate of multiple-site thrombosis. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish definitive evidence regarding the significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 270-275, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about tremendous social and economic turmoil, which has been associated with increased levels of depression and anxiety. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Healthy Minds Study (Fall Semester Cohort 2020), a non-probability sample of students across multiple colleges who completed an online survey between September - December 2020. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the associations between COVID-19 dimensions (concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, infection, illness of loved one, death of loved one, caregiving) and mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety), adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and international student status. RESULTS: Nearly a fifth of the sample reported moderately severe or severe depression, and nearly a third reported moderately severe or severe anxiety over the past two weeks. When accounting for all COVID-19 dimensions in the same model, COVID-19 concern, racial/ethnic discrimination, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe depression; COVID-19 concern, financial distress, and infection were significantly associated with moderately severe or severe anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic may have shaped mental health through a range of potential social and environmental dimensions. Interventions are required that consider multiple dimensions of COVID-19 to improve mental health during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
14.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506221

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

15.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(2): 501-513, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494654

ABSTRACT

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
16.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). INTERPRETATION: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. FUNDING: National Research Foundation of Korea.

17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(41): e291, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. RESULTS: Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11-23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2-27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2-31%) and a 35-41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8-83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5-71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1-92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARS-CoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Eur Heart J ; 42(39): 4053-4063, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429203

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The clinical manifestation and outcomes of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration are largely unknown due to the rare nature of the disease. We aimed to analyse the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, outcomes, and prognostic factors of adenoviral TTS, as well as identify predictors for mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched and the resulting articles were reviewed. A total of 6 case series and 13 case reports (64 patients) of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were included. We performed a pooled analysis and developed a novel scoring system to predict mortality. The overall mortality of TTS after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 35.9% (23/64). In our analysis, age ≤60 years, platelet count <25 × 103/µL, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL, the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and the presence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) were significantly associated with death and were selected as predictors for mortality (1 point each). We named this novel scoring system FAPIC (fibrinogen, age, platelet count, ICH, and CVT), and the C-statistic for the FAPIC score was 0.837 (95% CI 0.732-0.942). Expected mortality increased with each point increase in the FAPIC score, at 2.08, 6.66, 19.31, 44.54, 72.94, and 90.05% with FAPIC scores 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The FAPIC scoring model was internally validated through cross-validation and bootstrapping, then externally validated on a panel of TTS patients after Ad26.COV2.S administration. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen levels, age, platelet count, and the presence of ICH and CVT were significantly associated with mortality in patients with TTS, and the FAPIC score comprising these risk factors could predict mortality. The FAPIC score could be used in the clinical setting to recognize TTS patients at high risk of adverse outcomes and provide early intensive interventions including intravenous immunoglobulins and non-heparin anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3395-3402, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409696

ABSTRACT

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the main diagnositic tools for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To document the chest CT findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their association with the clinical severity, we searched related literatures through PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (inception to May 4, 2020) and reviewed reference lists of previous systematic reviews. A total of 31 case reports (3768 patients) on CT findings of COVID-19 were included. The most common comorbid conditions were hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes mellitus (8.3%). The most common symptom was fever (78.7%), followed by cough (60.2%). It took an average of 5.6 days from symptom onset to admission. The most common chest CT finding was vascular enlargement (84.8%), followed by ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.1%), air-bronchogram (47.8%), and consolidation (41.4%). Most lung lesions were located in the lung periphery (72.2%) and involved bilateral lung (76%). Most patients showed normal range of laboratory findings such as white blood cell count (96.4%) and lymphocyte (87.2%). Compared to previous published meta-analyses, our study is the first to summarize the different radiologic characteristics of chest CT in a total of 3768 COVID-19 patients by compiling case series studies. A comprehensive diagnostic approach should be adopted for patients with known COVID-19, suspected cases, and for exposed individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lymphocyte Count , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Prognosis
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 37-42, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347654

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and the factors associated with the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in symptomatic patients followed in general practices in Germany between March 2020 and March 2021. METHODS: Symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19 and followed in one of 962 general practices in Germany from March 2020 to March 2021 were included in this study. Covariates included sex, age, and comorbidities present in at least 3% of the population. The association between these factors and the diagnosis of COVID-19 was analyzed using an adjusted logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 301,290 patients tested for COVID-19 were included in this study (54.7% women; mean [SD] age 44.6 [18.5] years). The prevalence of COVID-19 was 13.8% in this sample. Male sex and older age were positively and significantly associated with COVID-19. In terms of comorbidities, the strongest positive associations with COVID-19 were observed for cardiac arrhythmias, depression, and obesity. There was also a negative relationship between the odds of being diagnosed with COVID-19 and several conditions such as chronic sinusitis, asthma, and anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 14% of symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19 were diagnosed with COVID-19 in German general practices from March 2020 to March 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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