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Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073911


Objective To estimate rates and identify factors associated with asymptomatic COVID-19 in the population of Olmsted County during the pre-vaccination era. Patients and Methods We screened first responders (N=191) and Olmsted County employees (N=564) for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from November 2020 to February 2021 to estimate seroprevalence and asymptomatic infection. Second, we retrieved all PCR confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses in Olmsted County from March 2020 through January 2021, ed symptom information, estimated rates of asymptomatic infection and examined related factors. Results Twenty (10.5%;95%CI: 6.9%-15.6%) first responders and thirty-eight (6.7%;95% CI: 5.0%-9.1%) county employees had positive antibodies;an additional 5 (2.6%) and 10 (1.8%) had prior positive PCR tests per self-report or medical record, but no antibodies detected. Of persons with symptom information, 4/20, (20%, 95% CI: 3.0%-37.0%) of first responders and 10/39 (26%, 95% CI: 12.6%-40.0%) county employees, were asymptomatic. Of 6,020 positive PCR tests in Olmsted County with symptom information between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021, 6% (n=385;95% CI: 5.8%-7.1%) were asymptomatic. Factors associated with asymptomatic disease included age [0-18 years (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and 65+ years (OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0) compared to ages 19-44 years], body-mass-index [overweight OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.44-0.77) or obese (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.57-0.62) compared to normal or underweight] and tests after November 20, 2020 [(OR=1.35;95% CI: 1.13-1.71) compared to prior dates]. Conclusion Asymptomatic rates in Olmsted County prior to vaccine rollout ranged from 6-25%, and younger age, normal weight, and later tests dates were associated with asymptomatic infection.

Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2528-2539, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294052


OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection in a defined Midwestern US population overall and within different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to identify persons residing in a defined 27-county Midwestern region who had positive results on polymerase chain reaction tests for COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and September 30, 2020 (N=9928). Age, sex, race, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking status, and 44 chronic disease categories were considered as possible risk factors for severe infection. Severe infection was defined as hospitalization or death caused by COVID-19. Associations between risk factors and severe infection were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models overall and within 3 age groups (0 to 44, 45 to 64, and 65+ years). RESULTS: Overall, 474 (4.8%) persons developed severe COVID-19 infection. Older age, male sex, non-White race, Hispanic ethnicity, obesity, and a higher number of chronic conditions were associated with increased risk of severe infection. After adjustment, 36 chronic disease categories were significantly associated with severe infection. The risk of severe infection varied significantly across age groups. In particular, persons 0 to 44 years of age with cancer, chronic neurologic disorders, hematologic disorders, ischemic heart disease, and other endocrine disorders had a greater than 3-fold increased risk of severe infection compared with persons of the same age without those conditions. Associations were attenuated in older age groups. CONCLUSION: Older persons are more likely to experience severe infections; however, severe cases occur in younger persons as well. Our data provide insight regarding younger persons at especially high risk of severe COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States , Risk Factors , Young Adult
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(3): 699-707, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002867


The success of vaccination programs is contingent upon irrefutable scientific safety data combined with high rates of public acceptance and population coverage. Vaccine hesitancy, characterized by lack of confidence in vaccination and/or complacency about vaccination that may lead to delay or refusal of vaccination despite the availability of services, threatens to undermine the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. The rapid pace of vaccine development, misinformation in popular and social media, the polarized sociopolitical environment, and the inherent complexities of large-scale vaccination efforts may undermine vaccination confidence and increase complacency about COVID-19 vaccination. Although the experience of recent lethal surges of COVID-19 infections has underscored the value of COVID-19 vaccines, ensuring population uptake of COVID-19 vaccination will require application of multilevel, evidence-based strategies to influence behavior change and address vaccine hesitancy. Recent survey research evaluating public attitudes in the United States toward the COVID-19 vaccine reveals substantial vaccine hesitancy. Building upon efforts at the policy and community level to ensure population access to COVID-19 vaccination, a strong health care system response is critical to address vaccine hesitancy. Drawing on the evidence base in social, behavioral, communication, and implementation science, we review, summarize, and encourage use of interpersonal, individual-level, and organizational interventions within clinical organizations to address this critical gap and improve population adoption of COVID-19 vaccination.

COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Social Media , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics