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1.
Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop a deep-learning (DL) pipeline that allowed an automated segmentation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) from low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and investigate the link between EAT and COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: This monocentric retrospective study included 353 patients: 95 for training, 20 for testing, and 238 for prognosis evaluation. EAT segmentation was obtained after thresholding on a manually segmented pericardial volume. The model was evaluated with Dice coefficient (DSC), inter-and intraobserver reproducibility, and clinical measures. Uni-and multi-variate analyzes were conducted to assess the prognosis value of the EAT volume, EAT extent, and lung lesion extent on clinical outcomes, including hospitalization, oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission and death. RESULTS: The mean DSC for EAT volumes was 0.85 ± 0.05. For EAT volume, the mean absolute error was 11.7 ± 8.1 cm3 with a non-significant bias of -4.0 ± 13.9 cm3 and a correlation of 0.963 with the manual measures (p < 0.01). The multivariate model providing the higher AUC to predict adverse outcome include both EAT extent and lung lesion extent (AUC = 0.805). CONCLUSIONS: A DL algorithm was developed and evaluated to obtain reproducible and precise EAT segmentation on LDCT. EAT extent in association with lung lesion extent was associated with adverse clinical outcomes with an AUC = 0.805.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
Research in Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging ; 1:100003-100003, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755536

ABSTRACT

Objectives 1) To develop a deep learning (DL) pipeline allowing quantification of COVID-19 pulmonary lesions on low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). 2) To assess the prognostic value of DL-driven lesion quantification. Methods This monocentric retrospective study included training and test datasets taken from 144 and 30 patients, respectively. The reference was the manual segmentation of 3 labels: normal lung, ground-glass opacity(GGO) and consolidation(Cons). Model performance was evaluated with technical metrics, disease volume and extent. Intra- and interobserver agreement were recorded. The prognostic value of DL-driven disease extent was assessed in 1621 distinct patients using C-statistics. The end point was a combined outcome defined as death, hospitalization>10 days, intensive care unit hospitalization or oxygen therapy. Results The Dice coefficients for lesion (GGO+Cons) segmentations were 0.75±0.08, exceeding the values for human interobserver (0.70±0.08;0.70±0.10) and intraobserver measures (0.72±0.09). DL-driven lesion quantification had a stronger correlation with the reference than inter- or intraobserver measures. After stepwise selection and adjustment for clinical characteristics, quantification significantly increased the prognostic accuracy of the model (0.82 vs. 0.90;p<0.0001). Conclusions A DL-driven model can provide reproducible and accurate segmentation of COVID-19 lesions on LDCT. Automatic lesion quantification has independent prognostic value for the identification of high-risk patients.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and management of intensive care units (ICU) patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and to determine 90-day mortality after ICU admission and associated risk factors. METHODS: This observational retrospective study was conducted in six intensive care units (ICUs) in three university hospitals in Marseille, France. Between 10 March and 10 May 2020, all adult patients admitted in ICU with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory failure were eligible for inclusion. The statistical analysis was focused on the mechanically ventilated patients. The primary outcome was the 90-day mortality after ICU admission. RESULTS: Included in the study were 172 patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure, 117 of whom (67%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. 90-day mortality of the invasively ventilated patients was 27.4%. Median duration of ventilation and median length of stay in ICU for these patients were 20 (9-33) days and 29 (17-46) days. Mortality increased with the severity of ARDS at ICU admission. After multivariable analysis was carried out, risk factors associated with 90-day mortality were age, elevated Charlson comorbidity index, chronic statins intake and occurrence of an arterial thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, age and number of comorbidities were the main predictors of mortality in invasively ventilated patients. The only modifiable factor associated with mortality in multivariate analysis was arterial thrombosis.

5.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394754

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiomyopathies/metabolism , Intra-Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/pathology , Pericardium , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
7.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an opportunity to use low- and non-radiating chest imaging techniques on a large scale in the context of an infectious disease, which has never been done before. Previously, low-dose techniques were rarely used for infectious diseases, despite the recognised danger of ionising radiation. METHOD: To evaluate the role of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and lung ultrasound (LUS) in managing COVID-19 pneumonia, we performed a review of the literature including our cases. RESULTS: Chest LDCT is now performed routinely when diagnosing and assessing the severity of COVID-19, allowing patients to be rapidly triaged. The extent of lung involvement assessed by LDCT is accurate in terms of predicting poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19-infected patients. Infectious disease specialists are less familiar with LUS, but this technique is also of great interest for a rapid diagnosis of patients with COVID-19 and is effective at assessing patient prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is currently accelerating the transition to low-dose and "no-dose" imaging techniques to explore infectious pneumonia and their long-term consequences.

9.
Radiology ; 298(2): E81-E87, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048702

ABSTRACT

Background The role and performance of chest CT in the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains under active investigation. Purpose To evaluate the French national experience using chest CT for COVID-19, results of chest CT and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were compared together and with the final discharge diagnosis used as the reference standard. Materials and Methods A structured CT scan survey (NCT04339686) was sent to 26 hospital radiology departments in France between March 2, 2020, and April 24, 2020. These dates correspond to the peak of the national COVID-19 epidemic. Radiology departments were selected to reflect the estimated geographic prevalence heterogeneities of the epidemic. All symptomatic patients suspected of having COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent both initial chest CT and at least one RT-PCR test within 48 hours were included. The final discharge diagnosis, based on multiparametric items, was recorded. Data for each center were prospectively collected and gathered each week. Test efficacy was determined by using the Mann-Whitney test, Student t test, χ2 test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. P < .05 indicated a significant difference. Results Twenty-six of 26 hospital radiology departments responded to the survey, with 7500 patients entered; 2652 did not have RT-PCR test results or had unknown or excess delay between the RT-PCR test and CT. After exclusions, 4824 patients (mean age, 64 years ± 19 [standard deviation], 2669 male) were included. With final diagnosis as the reference, 2564 of the 4824 patients had COVID-19 (53%). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of chest CT in the diagnosis of COVID-19 were 2319 of 2564 (90%; 95% CI: 89, 91), 2056 of 2260 (91%; 95% CI: 91, 92), 2056 of 2300 (89%; 95% CI: 87, 90), and 2319 of 2524 (92%; 95% CI: 91, 93), respectively. There was no significant difference for chest CT efficacy among the 26 geographically separate sites, each with varying amounts of disease prevalence. Conclusion Use of chest CT for the initial diagnosis and triage of patients suspected of having coronavirus disease 2019 was successful. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 117, 2020 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-930571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose chest CT (LDCT) showed high sensitivity and ability to quantify lung involvement of COVID-19 pneumopathy. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors for lung involvement in 247 patients with a visual score and assess the prevalence of incidental findings. METHODS: For 12 days in March 2020, 250 patients with RT-PCR positive tests and who underwent LDCT were prospectively included. Clinical and imaging findings were recorded. The extent of lung involvement was quantified using a score ranging from 0 to 40. A logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with a score ≥ 10. RESULTS: A total of 247 patients were analyzed; 138 (54%) showed lung involvement. The mean score was 4.5 ± 6.5, and the mean score for patients with lung involvement was 8.1 ± 6.8 [1-31]. The mean age was 43 ± 15 years, with 121 males (48%) and 17 asymptomatic patients (7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age > 54 years (odds ratio 4.4[2.0-9.6] p < 0.001) and diabetes (4.7[1.0-22.1] p = 0.049) were risk factors for a score ≥ 10. Multivariate analysis including symptoms showed that only age > 54 years (4.1[1.7-10.0] p = 0.002) was a risk factor for a score ≥ 10. Rhinitis (0.3[0.1-0.7] p = 0.005) and anosmia (0.3[0.1-0.9] p = 0.043) were protective against lung involvement. Incidental imaging findings were found in 19% of patients, with a need for follow-up in 0.6%. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of lung involvement was 54% in a predominantly paucisymptomatic population. Age ≥ 55 years and diabetes were risk factors for significant parenchymal lung involvement. Rhinitis and anosmia were protective against LDCT abnormalities.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241407, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to assess the ability of low-dose CT (LDCT) to determine lung involvement in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and to describe a COVID19-LDCT severity score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR were retrospectively analysed. Clinical data, the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and imaging features were recorded. Lung features included ground-glass opacities (GGO), areas of consolidation and crazy paving patterns. The COVID19-LDCT score was calculated by summing the score of each segment from 0 (no involvement) to 10 (severe impairment). Univariate analysis was performed to explore predictive factor of high COVID19-LDCT score. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare groups and a Spearman correlation used with p<0.05 for significance. RESULTS: Eighty patients with positive RT-PCR were analysed. The mean age was 55 years ± 16, with 42 males (53%). The most frequent symptoms were fever (60/80, 75%) and cough (59/80, 74%), the mean NEWS was 1.7±2.3. All LDCT could be analysed and 23/80 (28%) were normal. The major imaging finding was GGOs in 56 cases (67%). The COVID19-LDCT score (mean value = 19±29) was correlated with NEWS (r = 0.48, p<0.0001). No symptoms were risk factor to have pulmonary involvement. Univariate analysis shown that dyspnea, high respiratory rate, hypertension and diabetes are associated to a COVID19-LDCT score superior to 50. CONCLUSIONS: COVID19-LDCT score did correlate with NEWS. It was significantly different in the clinical low-risk and high-risk groups. Further work is needed to validate the COVID19-LDCT score against patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101791, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In our institute in Marseille, France, we initiated early and massive screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hospitalization and early treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZ) was proposed for the positive cases. METHODS: We retrospectively report the clinical management of 3,737 screened patients, including 3,119 (83.5%) treated with HCQ-AZ (200 mg of oral HCQ, three times daily for ten days and 500 mg of oral AZ on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days, respectively) for at least three days and 618 (16.5%) patients treated with other regimen ("others"). Outcomes were death, transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), ≥10 days of hospitalization and viral shedding. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 45 (sd 17) years, 45% were male, and the case fatality rate was 0.9%. We performed 2,065 low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans highlighting lung lesions in 592 of the 991 (59.7%) patients with minimal clinical symptoms (NEWS score = 0). A discrepancy between spontaneous dyspnoea, hypoxemia and lung lesions was observed. Clinical factors (age, comorbidities, NEWS-2 score), biological factors (lymphocytopenia; eosinopenia; decrease in blood zinc; and increase in D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine phosphokinase, troponin and C-reactive protein) and moderate and severe lesions detected in low-dose CT scans were associated with poor clinical outcome. Treatment with HCQ-AZ was associated with a decreased risk of transfer to ICU or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.18 0.11-0.27), decreased risk of hospitalization ≥10 days (odds ratios 95% CI 0.38 0.27-0.54) and shorter duration of viral shedding (time to negative PCR: HR 1.29 1.17-1.42). QTc prolongation (>60 ms) was observed in 25 patients (0.67%) leading to the cessation of treatment in 12 cases including 3 cases with QTc> 500 ms. No cases of torsade de pointe or sudden death were observed. CONCLUSION: Although this is a retrospective analysis, results suggest that early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment of COVID-19 patients, with at least 3 days of HCQ-AZ lead to a significantly better clinical outcome and a faster viral load reduction than other treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101738, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively report on 1061 SARS-CoV-2 positive tested patients treated for at least three days with the following regimen: HCQ (200 mg three times daily for ten days) + AZ (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days). Outcomes were death, clinical worsening (transfer to ICU, and >10 day hospitalization) and viral shedding persistence (>10 days). RESULTS: A total of 1061 patients were included in this analysis (46.4% male, mean age 43.6 years - range 14-95 years). Good clinical outcome and virological cure were obtained in 973 patients within 10 days (91.7%). Prolonged viral carriage was observed in 47 patients (4.4%) and was associated to a higher viral load at diagnosis (p < .001) but viral culture was negative at day 10. All but one, were PCR-cleared at day 15. A poor clinical outcome (PClinO) was observed for 46 patients (4.3%) and 8 died (0.75%) (74-95 years old). All deaths resulted from respiratory failure and not from cardiac toxicity. Five patients are still hospitalized (98.7% of patients cured so far). PClinO was associated with older age (OR 1.11), severity of illness at admission (OR 10.05) and low HCQ serum concentration. PClinO was independently associated with the use of selective beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II receptor blockers (p < .05). A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision). CONCLUSION: Administration of the HCQ+AZ combination before COVID-19 complications occur is safe and associated with a very low fatality rate in patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
14.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 34: 101663, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We need an effective treatment to cure COVID-19 patients and to decrease virus carriage duration. METHODS: We conducted an uncontrolled, non-comparative, observational study in a cohort of 80 relatively mildly infected inpatients treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over a period of at least three days, with three main measurements: clinical outcome, contagiousness as assessed by PCR and culture, and length of stay in infectious disease unit (IDU). RESULTS: All patients improved clinically except one 86 year-old patient who died, and one 74 year-old patient still in intensive care. A rapid fall of nasopharyngeal viral load was noted, with 83% negative at Day7, and 93% at Day8. Virus cultures from patient respiratory samples were negative in 97.5% of patients at Day5. Consequently patients were able to be rapidly discharged from IDU with a mean length of stay of five days. CONCLUSION: We believe there is urgency to evaluate the effectiveness of this potentially-life saving therapeutic strategy at a larger scale, both to treat and cure patients at an early stage before irreversible severe respiratory complications take hold and to decrease duration of carriage and avoid the spread of the disease. Furthermore, the cost of treatment is negligible.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult
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