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1.
Elife ; 122023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230960

ABSTRACT

With a global tally of more than 500 million cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections to date, there are growing concerns about the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Recent studies suggest that exaggerated immune responses are key determinants of the severity and outcomes of the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as subsequent PASC. The complexity of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the acute and post-acute period requires in-depth mechanistic analyses to identify specific molecular signals as well as specific immune cell populations which promote PASC pathogenesis. In this review, we examine the current literature on mechanisms of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 and the limited emerging data on the immunopathology of PASC. While the acute and post-acute phases may share some parallel mechanisms of immunopathology, it is likely that PASC immunopathology is quite distinct and heterogeneous, thus requiring large-scale longitudinal analyses in patients with and without PASC after an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. By outlining the knowledge gaps in the immunopathology of PASC, we hope to provide avenues for novel research directions that will ultimately lead to precision therapies which restore healthy immune function in PASC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 3(5): e0001675, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317515

ABSTRACT

Causes of non-malarial fevers in sub-Saharan Africa remain understudied. We hypothesized that metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), which allows for broad genomic-level detection of infectious agents in a biological sample, can systematically identify potential causes of non-malarial fevers. The 212 participants in this study were of all ages and were enrolled in a longitudinal malaria cohort in eastern Uganda. Between December 2020 and August 2021, respiratory swabs and plasma samples were collected at 313 study visits where participants presented with fever and were negative for malaria by microscopy. Samples were analyzed using CZ ID, a web-based platform for microbial detection in mNGS data. Overall, viral pathogens were detected at 123 of 313 visits (39%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected at 11 visits, from which full viral genomes were recovered from nine. Other prevalent viruses included Influenza A (14 visits), RSV (12 visits), and three of the four strains of seasonal coronaviruses (6 visits). Notably, 11 influenza cases occurred between May and July 2021, coinciding with when the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 was circulating in this population. The primary limitation of this study is that we were unable to estimate the contribution of bacterial microbes to non-malarial fevers, due to the difficulty of distinguishing bacterial microbes that were pathogenic from those that were commensal or contaminants. These results revealed the co-circulation of multiple viral pathogens likely associated with fever in the cohort during this time period. This study illustrates the utility of mNGS in elucidating the multiple potential causes of non-malarial febrile illness. A better understanding of the pathogen landscape in different settings and age groups could aid in informing diagnostics, case management, and public health surveillance systems.

3.
Immunity ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2260017

ABSTRACT

T cells are a critical component of the response to SARS-CoV-2, but their kinetics after infection and vaccination are insufficiently understood. Using "spheromer” peptide-MHC multimer reagents, we analyzed healthy subjects receiving two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine. Vaccination resulted in robust Spike-specific T cell responses for the dominant CD4+ (HLA-DRB1∗15:01/S191) and CD8+ (HLA-A∗02/S691) T cell epitopes. Antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were asynchronous, with the peak CD4+ T cell responses occurring one week post the second vaccination (boost), whereas CD8+ T cells peaked two weeks later. These peripheral T cell responses were elevated compared to COVID-19 patients. We also found that prior SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in decreased CD8+ T cell activation and expansion, suggesting that prior infection can influence the T cell response to vaccination. Graphical Our understanding of T cell responses in COVID-19 and vaccination is incomplete. Gao et al. examine SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses to infection and vaccination, revealing disparate kinetics between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, compared to vaccination alone, circulating CD8+ T cells are attenuated during infection and in subsequent vaccination.

4.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(6): 100640, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285131

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific CD4+ T cells are likely important in immunity against coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), but our understanding of CD4+ longitudinal dynamics following infection and of specific features that correlate with the maintenance of neutralizing antibodies remains limited. Here, we characterize SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells in a longitudinal cohort of 109 COVID-19 outpatients enrolled during acute infection. The quality of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response shifts from cells producing interferon gamma (IFNγ) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from 5 days to 4 months post-enrollment, with IFNγ-IL-21-TNF-α+ CD4+ T cells the predominant population detected at later time points. Greater percentages of IFNγ-IL-21-TNF-α+ CD4+ T cells on day 28 correlate with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies measured 7 months post-infection (⍴ = 0.4, p = 0.01). mRNA vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 infection boosts both IFNγ- and TNF-α-producing, spike-protein-specific CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2-specific, TNF-α-producing CD4+ T cells may play an important role in antibody maintenance following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Outpatients , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
Immunity ; 56(4): 864-878.e4, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260018

ABSTRACT

T cells are a critical component of the response to SARS-CoV-2, but their kinetics after infection and vaccination are insufficiently understood. Using "spheromer" peptide-MHC multimer reagents, we analyzed healthy subjects receiving two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine. Vaccination resulted in robust spike-specific T cell responses for the dominant CD4+ (HLA-DRB1∗15:01/S191) and CD8+ (HLA-A∗02/S691) T cell epitopes. Antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were asynchronous, with the peak CD4+ T cell responses occurring 1 week post the second vaccination (boost), whereas CD8+ T cells peaked 2 weeks later. These peripheral T cell responses were elevated compared with COVID-19 patients. We also found that previous SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in decreased CD8+ T cell activation and expansion, suggesting that previous infection can influence the T cell response to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2255978, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239367

ABSTRACT

Importance: Estimating the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been difficult in sub-Saharan Africa owing to asymptomatic infections and inadequate testing capacity. Antibody responses from serologic surveys can provide an estimate of SARS-CoV-2 exposure at the population level. Objective: To estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, attack rates, and reinfection in eastern Uganda using serologic surveillance from 2020 to early 2022. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted in the Tororo and Busia districts of eastern Uganda. Plasma samples from participants in the Program for Resistance, Immunology, Surveillance, and Modeling of Malaria in Uganda Border Cohort were obtained at 4 sampling intervals: October to November 2020, March to April 2021, August to September 2021, and February to March 2022. Each participant contributed up to 4 time points for SARS-CoV-2 serology, with almost half of all participants contributing at all 4 time points, and almost 90% contributing at 3 or 4 time points. Information on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status was collected from participants, with the earliest reported vaccinations in the cohort occurring in May 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes of this study were antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as measured with a bead-based serologic assay. Individual-level outcomes were aggregated to population-level SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, attack rates, and boosting rates. Estimates were weighted by the local age distribution according to census data. Results: A total of 1483 samples from 441 participants living in 76 households were tested. Of the 441 participants, 245 (55.6%) were female, and their mean (SD) age was 16.04 (16.04) years. By the end of the Delta wave and before widespread vaccination, adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 67.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 62.5%-72.6%) in the study population. During the subsequent Omicron wave, 84.8% (95% CrI, 67.9%-93.7%) of unvaccinated, previously seronegative individuals were infected for the first time, and 50.8% (95% CrI, 40.6%-59.7%) of unvaccinated, already seropositive individuals were likely reinfected, leading to an overall seropositivity of 96.0% (95% CrI, 93.4%-97.9%) in this population. These results suggest a lower probability of reinfection in individuals with higher preexisting antibody levels. There was evidence of household clustering of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion. No significant associations were found between SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and gender, household size, or recent Plasmodium falciparum malaria exposure. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study in a rural population in eastern Uganda, there was evidence of very high SARS-CoV-2 infection rates throughout the pandemic inconsistent with national level case data and high reinfection rates during the Omicron wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Male , Rural Population , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 10(2): ofad001, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236756

ABSTRACT

Background: The limited variation observed among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) consensus sequences makes it difficult to reconstruct transmission linkages in outbreak settings. Previous studies have recovered variation within individual SARS-CoV-2 infections but have not yet measured the informativeness of within-host variation for transmission inference. Methods: We performed tiled amplicon sequencing on 307 SARS-CoV-2 samples, including 130 samples from 32 individuals in 14 households and 47 longitudinally sampled individuals, from 4 prospective studies with household membership data, a proxy for transmission linkage. Results: Consensus sequences from households had limited diversity (mean pairwise distance, 3.06 single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]; range, 0-40). Most (83.1%, 255 of 307) samples harbored at least 1 intrahost single-nucleotide variant ([iSNV] median, 117; interquartile range [IQR], 17-208), above a minor allele frequency threshold of 0.2%. Pairs in the same household shared significantly more iSNVs (mean, 1.20 iSNVs; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.39) than did pairs in different households infected with the same viral clade (mean, 0.31 iSNVs; 95% CI, .28-.34), a signal that decreases with increasingly stringent minor allele frequency thresholds. The number of shared iSNVs was significantly associated with an increased odds of household membership (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.23-1.49). However, the poor concordance of iSNVs detected across sequencing replicates (24.8% and 35.0% above a 0.2% and 1% threshold) confirms technical concerns that current sequencing and bioinformatic workflows do not consistently recover low-frequency within-host variants. Conclusions: Shared within-host variation may augment the information in consensus sequences for predicting transmission linkages. Improving sensitivity and specificity of within-host variant identification will improve the informativeness of within-host variation.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e314-e321, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T- cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. METHODS: The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI: 80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI: 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI: 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P < .01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of + 50% (95% CI: +25.4 to +74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI: +9.23 to +42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac618, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152129

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying characteristics associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding may be useful to understand viral compartmentalization, disease pathogenesis, and risks for viral transmission. Methods: Participants were enrolled August 2020 to February 2021 in ACTIV-2/A5401, a placebo-controlled platform trial evaluating investigational therapies for mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and underwent quantitative SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing on nasopharyngeal and anterior nasal swabs, oral wash/saliva, and plasma at entry (day 0, pretreatment) and days 3, 7, 14, and 28. Concordance of RNA levels (copies/mL) across compartments and predictors of nasopharyngeal RNA levels were assessed at entry (n = 537). Predictors of changes over time were evaluated among placebo recipients (n = 265) with censored linear regression models. Results: Nasopharyngeal and anterior nasal RNA levels at study entry were highly correlated (r = 0.84); higher levels of both were associated with greater detection of RNA in plasma and oral wash/saliva. Older age, White non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower body mass index (BMI), SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seronegativity, and shorter prior symptom duration were associated with higher nasopharyngeal RNA at entry. In adjusted models, body mass index and race/ethnicity associations were attenuated, but the association with age remained (for every 10 years older, mean nasopharyngeal RNA was 0.27 log10 copies/mL higher; P < .001). Examining longitudinal viral RNA levels among placebo recipients, women had faster declines in nasopharyngeal RNA than men (mean change, -2.0 vs -1.3 log10 copies/mL, entry to day 3; P < .001). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was concordant across compartments. Age was strongly associated with viral shedding, and men had slower viral clearance than women, which could explain sex differences in acute COVID-19 outcomes.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(11): 1883-1892, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Favipiravir, an oral, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, has in vitro activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite limited data, favipiravir is administered to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in several countries. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled outpatient trial of favipiravir in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adults with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) within 72 hours of enrollment. Participants were randomized to receive placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice daily [BID] day 1, 800 mg BID days 2-10). The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 shedding cessation in a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) cohort of participants with positive enrollment RT-PCRs. Using SARS-CoV-2 amplicon-based sequencing, we assessed favipiravir's impact on mutagenesis. RESULTS: We randomized 149 participants with 116 included in the mITT cohort. The participants' mean age was 43 years (standard deviation, 12.5 years) and 57 (49%) were women. We found no difference in time to shedding cessation overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 favoring placebo [95% confidence interval {CI}, .48-1.20]) or in subgroups (age, sex, high-risk comorbidities, seropositivity, or symptom duration at enrollment). We detected no difference in time to symptom resolution (initial: HR, 0.84 [95% CI, .54-1.29]; sustained: HR, 0.87 [95% CI, .52-1.45]) and no difference in transition mutation accumulation in the viral genome during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support favipiravir at commonly used doses in outpatients with uncomplicated COVID-19. Further research is needed to ascertain if higher favipiravir doses are effective and safe for patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04346628.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Outpatients , Antiviral Agents , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
11.
Elife ; 112022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080852

ABSTRACT

Background: The great majority of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are mild and uncomplicated, but some individuals with initially mild COVID-19 progressively develop more severe symptoms. Furthermore, there is substantial heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2-specific memory immune responses following infection. There remains a critical need to identify host immune biomarkers predictive of clinical and immunological outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Methods: Leveraging longitudinal samples and data from a clinical trial (N=108) in SARS-CoV-2-infected outpatients, we used host proteomics and transcriptomics to characterize the trajectory of the immune response in COVID-19 patients. We characterized the association between early immune markers and subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody responses measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We further compared associations between early immune markers and subsequent T cell and antibody responses following natural infection with those following mRNA vaccination. We developed machine-learning models to predict patient outcomes and validated the predictive model using data from 54 individuals enrolled in an independent clinical trial. Results: We identify early immune signatures, including plasma RIG-I levels, early IFN signaling, and related cytokines (CXCL10, MCP1, MCP-2, and MCP-3) associated with subsequent disease progression, control of viral shedding, and the SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and antibody response measured up to 7 months after enrollment. We found that several biomarkers for immunological outcomes are shared between individuals receiving BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine and COVID-19 patients. Finally, we demonstrate that machine-learning models using 2-7 plasma protein markers measured early within the course of infection are able to accurately predict disease progression, T cell memory, and the antibody response post-infection in a second, independent dataset. Conclusions: Early immune signatures following infection can accurately predict clinical and immunological outcomes in outpatients with COVID-19 using validated machine-learning models. Funding: Support for the study was provided from National Institute of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) (U01 AI150741-01S1 and T32-AI052073), the Stanford's Innovative Medicines Accelerator, National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH/NIDA) DP1DA046089, and anonymous donors to Stanford University. Peginterferon lambda provided by Eiger BioPharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , BNT162 Vaccine , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Trials as Topic
12.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 371-387.e9, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783640

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 manifests with respiratory, systemic, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.1, SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory and fecal samples, and recent reports demonstrate viral replication in both the lung and intestinal tissue.2, 3, 4 Although much is known about early fecal RNA shedding, little is known about long-term shedding, especially in those with mild COVID-19. Furthermore, most reports of fecal RNA shedding do not correlate these findings with GI symptoms.5. Methods: We analyzed the dynamics of fecal RNA shedding up to 10 months after COVID-19 diagnosis in 113 individuals with mild to moderate disease. We also correlated shedding with disease symptoms. Findings: Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in 49.2% [95% confidence interval, 38.2%-60.3%] of participants within the first week after diagnosis. Whereas there was no ongoing oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in subjects at 4 months, 12.7% [8.5%-18.4%] of participants continued to shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces at 4 months after diagnosis and 3.8% [2.0%-7.3%] shed at 7 months. Finally, we found that GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting) are associated with fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: The extended presence of viral RNA in feces, but not in respiratory samples, along with the association of fecal viral RNA shedding with GI symptoms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract and that this infection can be prolonged in a subset of individuals with COVID-19. Funding: This research was supported by a Stanford ChemH-IMA grant; fellowships from the AACR and NSF; and NIH R01-AI148623, R01-AI143757, and UL1TR003142.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Feces , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lung , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(634): eabn7842, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723505

ABSTRACT

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that have mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by preexisting immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wild-type (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses, whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(635): eabm7853, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630954

ABSTRACT

A damaging inflammatory response is implicated in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but mechanisms contributing to this response are unclear. In two prospective cohorts, early non-neutralizing, afucosylated immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were associated with progression from mild to more severe COVID-19. To study the biology of afucosylated IgG immune complexes, we developed an in vivo model that revealed that human IgG-Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) interactions could regulate inflammation in the lung. Afucosylated IgG immune complexes isolated from patients with COVID-19 induced inflammatory cytokine production and robust infiltration of the lung by immune cells. In contrast to the antibody structures that were associated with disease progression, antibodies that were elicited by messenger RNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly fucosylated and enriched in sialylation, both modifications that reduce the inflammatory potential of IgG. Vaccine-elicited IgG did not promote an inflammatory lung response. These results show that human IgG-FcγR interactions regulate inflammation in the lung and define distinct lung activities mediated by the IgG that are associated with protection against, or progression to, severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(4): e0010921, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575724

ABSTRACT

The development of effective antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is critical for those awaiting vaccination, as well as for those who do not respond robustly to vaccination. This review summarizes 1 year of progress in the race to develop antiviral therapies for COVID-19, including research spanning preclinical and clinical drug development efforts, with an emphasis on antiviral compounds that are in clinical development or that are high priorities for clinical development. The review is divided into sections on compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 enzymes, including its polymerase and proteases; compounds that inhibit virus entry, including monoclonal antibodies; interferons; and repurposed drugs that inhibit host processes required for SARS-CoV-2 replication. The review concludes with a summary of the lessons to be learned from SARS-CoV-2 drug development efforts and the challenges to continued progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Development , Endopeptidases , Humans
16.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):753-753, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564297

ABSTRACT

Background Persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19 are being increasingly reported. To date, little is known about the cause, clinical associations, and trajectory of “Long COVID”. Methods Participants of an outpatient clinical trial of Peginterferon-Lambda as treatment for uncomplicated SARS-CoV-2 infection were invited to long term follow-up visits 4, 7, and 10 months after initial COVID-19 diagnosis. Ongoing symptoms and functional impairment measures (work productivity and activity index (WPAI), NIH toolbox smell test, 6-minute walk test) were assessed and blood samples obtained. “Long COVID” was defined as presence of 2 or more typical symptoms (fatigue, hyposmia/hypogeusia, dyspnea, cough, palpitations, memory problems, joint pain) at follow up. Associations between baseline characteristics, initial COVID-19 clinical course, and presence of “Long COVID” during follow-up were assessed using generalized estimating equations accounting for repeated measurements within individuals. Results Eighty-seven participants returned for at least one follow-up visit. At four months, 29 (34.1%) had “Long COVID”;19 (24.7%) met criteria at 7 months and 18 (23.4%) at 10 months (Figure 1). Presence of “Long COVID” symptoms did not correlate significantly with functional impairment measures. Female gender (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.37-6.61) and having gastrointestinal symptoms during acute COVID-19 illness (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.02-28.18) were associated with “Long COVID” during follow-up (Figure 2). No significant associations with baseline immunologic signatures were observed. Figure 1. Alluvial plot of long term follow-up participants showing outcomes of symptoms at each visit. Figure 2. Generalized Estimating Equations Model showing associations with “Long COVID” (presence of 2+ symptoms) at month 4, 7, and 10 following acute infection using unstructured correlation matrix. Conclusion “Long COVID” was prevalent in this outpatient trial cohort and had low rates of resolution over 10 months of follow up. Female sex and gastrointestinal symptoms during acute illness were associated with “Long COVID”. Identifying modifiable risk factors associated with the development of persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection remains a critical need. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

18.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(3): 115612, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536510

ABSTRACT

Although the vast majority of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are uncomplicated, our understanding of predictors of symptom resolution and viral shedding cessation remains limited. We characterized symptom trajectories and oropharyngeal viral shedding among 120 outpatients with uncomplicated Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) enrolled in a clinical trial of Peginterferon Lambda, which demonstrated no clinical or virologic benefit compared with placebo. In the combined trial cohort, objective fever was uncommon, inflammatory symptoms (myalgias, fatigue) peaked at 4 to 5 days postsymptom onset, and cough peaked at 9 days. The median time to symptom resolution from earliest symptom onset was 17 days (95% confidence interval 14-18). SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity at enrollment was associated with hastened resolution of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.80, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.1, P = 0.03), but not with symptom resolution. Inflammatory symptoms were associated with a significantly greater odds of oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection; respiratory symptoms were not. These findings have important implications for COVID-19 screening approaches and trial design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3130-e3132, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532491

ABSTRACT

We investigated feasibility and accuracy of an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for detection of T-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Whole blood IGRA accurately distinguished between convalescent and uninfected healthy blood donors with a predominantly CD4+ T-cell response. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA may serve as a useful diagnostic tool in managing the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5753, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447302

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool, sometimes well after their respiratory infection has cleared. This may be significant for patient health, epidemiology, and diagnosis. However, methods to preserve stool, and to extract and quantify viral RNA are not standardized. We test the performance of three preservative approaches at yielding detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA: the OMNIgene-GUT kit, Zymo DNA/RNA shield kit, and the most commonly applied, storage without preservative. We test these in combination with three extraction kits: QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit, Zymo Quick-RNA Viral Kit, and MagMAX Viral/Pathogen Kit. We also test the utility of ddPCR and RT-qPCR for the reliable quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from stool. We identify that the Zymo DNA/RNA preservative and the QiaAMP extraction kit yield more detectable RNA than the others, using both ddPCR and RT-qPCR. Taken together, we recommend a comprehensive methodology for preservation, extraction and detection of RNA from SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses in stool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Preservation, Biological/standards , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/standards , Viral Load/standards
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