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1.
RSC Adv ; 12(15): 9445-9465, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778654

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus pandemic is one of the most significant occurrences in human civilization. The rapid proliferation and mutation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have created an exceedingly challenging situation throughout the world's healthcare systems ranging from underdeveloped countries to super-developed countries. The disease is generally recognized as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is caused by a new human CoV, which has put mankind in jeopardy. COVID-19 is death-dealing and affects people of all ages, including the elderly and middle-aged people, children, infants, persons with co-morbidities, and immunocompromised patients. Moreover, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have evolved as a result of genetic alteration. Some variants cause severe symptoms in patients, while others cause an unusually high infection rate, and yet others cause extremely severe symptoms as well as a high infection rate. Contrasting with a previous epidemic, COVID-19 is more contagious since the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates profuse affection to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) that is copiously expressed on the surface of human lung cells. Since the estimation and tracking of viral loads are essential for determining the infection stage and recovery duration, a quick, accurate, easy, cheap, and versatile diagnostic tool is critical for managing COVID-19, as well as for outbreak control. Currently, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) testing is the most often utilized approach for COVID-19 diagnosis, while Computed Tomography (CT) scans of the chest are used to assess the disease's stages. However, the RT-PCR method is non-portable, tedious, and laborious, and the latter is not capable of detecting the preliminary stage of infection. In these circumstances, nano-biosensors can play an important role to deliver point-of-care diagnosis for a variety of disorders including a wide variety of viral infections rapidly, economically, precisely, and accurately. New technologies are being developed to overcome the drawbacks of the current methods. Nano-biosensors comprise bioreceptors with electrochemical, optical, or FET-based transduction for the specific detection of biomarkers. Different types of organic-inorganic nanomaterials have been incorporated for designing, fabricating, and improving the performance and analytical ability of sensors by increasing sensitivity, adsorption, and biocompatibility. The particular focus of this review is to carry out a systematic study of the status and perspectives of synthetic routes for nano-biosensors, including their background, composition, fabrication processes, and prospective applications in the diagnosis of COVID-19.

2.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1127-1138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic-related "stay-at-home" and confinement orders has led individuals to be more engaged with technology use (eg, internet use). For a minority of individuals, excessive use can become problematic and addictive. However, the investigation of problematic internet use in the COVID-19 context is only just emerging. Therefore, the present study investigated the changes in internet use behaviors and addiction rates in comparison with prior Bangladeshi studies. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was carried out among a total of 601 Bangladeshi students between October 7 and November 2, 2020. The survey included questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioral health, online use behaviors, and psychopathological variables. RESULTS: A quarter of the participants (26%) reported having low levels of internet addiction, whereas 58.6% were classed as having moderate internet addiction and 13% severe internet addiction. A total of 4% of the sample were classed as being at risk of severe internet dependency (ie, scoring over ≥80 on IAT). Risk factors for internet addiction included smartphone addiction, Facebook addiction, depression, and anxiety. However, the final hierarchical regression model comprising all variables explained a total of 70.6% variance of problematic internet use. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, it is concluded that individuals are at elevated risk of problematic internet use like other psychological impacts that have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, risk-reducing measures and healthy control use strategies should be implemented for vulnerable individuals.

3.
J Neuroimmunol ; 356: 577590, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217589

ABSTRACT

A 50-years old male presented with quadriplegia and paresthesia and was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). He was found positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) six weeks prior to the onset of weakness. GBS disability score was 4. Electrophysiology showed acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was found positive. Immunological tests for Campylobacter jejuni, Zika virus, Hepatitis E virus, Herpes Simplex virus, Haemophilus influanzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were negative. Patient received standard dose of intravenous immunoglobulin and after six months had almost complete recovery of muscle power. This case represents possible association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS with good clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time
4.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 57(4): 1707-1711, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066759

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent research has demonstrated the psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among the general population. However, COVID-19-related suicides among healthcare professionals (HCPs) have yet to be investigated. FINDINGS: The present study utilized retrospective press media suicide reports and identified a total of 26 worldwide HCP COVID-19-related suicide cases (aged 22-60 years; 14 females; most of the cases from India). The cases comprised doctors (n = 11), nurses (n = 9), paramedics (n = 5), and one medical student. Being infected with the COVID-19 was the most common suicide reason, followed by work-related stress, and fear related to COVID-19 infection/transmission. Among the eight cases diagnosed with COVID-19, most were female (n = 6), and either doctors (n = 4) or nurses (n = 4). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The present findings will be helpful for human resources departments in healthcare workplaces in ensuring HCP's mental wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 25(4): 335-343, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966993

ABSTRACT

Several published reports have described a possible association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This systematic review aimed to summarize and meta-analyze the salient features and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS. We searched the PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Cochrane databases for articles published between 01 January 2020 and 05 August 2020 using SARS-CoV-2 and GBS-related keywords. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, antecedent symptoms, clinical, serological and electrophysiological features, and hospital outcomes were recorded. We included 45 articles from 16 countries reporting 61 patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS. Most (97.7%) articles were from high- and upper-middle-income countries. Forty-two (68.9%) of the patients were male; median (interquartile range) age was 57 (49-70) years. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 90.2% of patients. One report of SARS-CoV-2-associated familial GBS was found which affected a father and daughter of a family. Albuminocytological dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid was found in 80.8% of patients. The majority of patients (75.5%) had a demyelinating subtype of GBS. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis were given to 92.7% and 7.3% of patients, respectively. Around two-thirds (65.3%) of patients had a good outcome (GBS-disability score ≤ 2) on discharge from hospital. Two patients died in hospital. SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS mostly resembles the classical presentations of GBS that respond to standard treatments. Extensive surveillance is required in low- and lower-middle-income countries to identify and report similar cases/series. Further large-scale case-control studies are warranted to strengthen the current evidence. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42020201673.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(2): e2161, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777660

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an international public health crisis with devastating effects. In particular, this pandemic has further exacerbated the burden in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where dengue fever, caused by dengue virus (DENV), is already endemic to the population. The similar clinical manifestations shared by Covid-19 and dengue fever have raised concerns, especially in dengue-endemic countries with limited resources, leading to diagnostic challenges. In addition, cross-reactivity of the immune responses in these infections is an emerging concern, as pre-existing DENV-antibodies might potentially affect Covid-19 through antibody-dependent enhancement. In this review article, we aimed to raise the issue of Covid-19 and dengue fever misdiagnosis, not only in a clinical setting but also with regards to cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and DENV antibodies. We also have discussed the potential consequences of overlapping immunological cascades between dengue and Covid-19 on disease severity and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Turk J Biol ; 44(3): 228-241, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619663

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been the most devastating pandemic in human history. Despite the highest scientific efforts and investments, a reliable and certified medication has yet to be developed regarding to immune or cure this virus. However, while synthetic medications are gaining the focus of attentions, it appears from a significant number of recent studies that plant-based substances could also be potential candidates for developing effective and secure remedies against this novel disease. Citing such recent works, this review primarily demonstrates the antiviral potentials of medicinal plants for inhibiting human coronaviruses. It also shows the importance of antiviral plants substances, particularly in the development of a broad spectrum medication for coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 responsible for COVID-19.

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