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1.
2022 International Conference on Communication, Computing and Internet of Things, IC3IoT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874252

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic afflicting our society. We propose covIoT, a novel Arduino-based automatic hand sanitizer dispenser, integrated with an oximeter, a heart rate monitor, a non-contact body temperature sensor, and voice assistant feedback. This system can be deployed as an end-to-end COVID patient monitoring system and also for automated sanitization. The system was tested on 100 people to evaluate its performance. The mean absolute error and root mean square error values were found to be 0.79 and 1.03 for the oximeter, 1.22 and 0.70 for the heart rate monitor and 1.07 and 1.28 for the body temperature monitor, respectively, compared to the industry-standard devices. These low error values indicate the high accuracy of our proposed system. We believe this is the first low-cost integrated patient monitoring and sanitization system with vocal feedback, to increase accessibility and ultimately helps combat the virus. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine ; 13(1):191-198, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848780

ABSTRACT

The rampant destruction due to COVID is going on. So far, in modern medical system, there is no proven cure for COVID-19. The only relevant literature on the treatment of corona virus disease comes from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM, which is widely used to control epidemics in China, is also composed of kinds of herbs similar to Ayurveda. There is reportedly a high death rate from severe COVID-19 infection requiring oxygen support. The chest severity score as assessed by computed tomography has predictive value for future outcomes in such situations. This paper is an observational (retrospective) study of COVID-19 condition of three patient receiving Ayurvedic treatment entirely without use of any allopathic drug. There is this case series of 3 patients, 32 years old male, 38 years old female and 70 years old female. These cases were managed on the principle of Sannipatika Jwar (type of fever) along with Shwas (type of respiratory illness) with administration of Hirak bhasma, Trailokya chintamani ras, Maha lakshmi vilas ras, Abhrak bhasma, Shwaskas chintamani ras, Praval pishti, Chandramrita ras, Sitopladi churna, Mahalaxmivilas ras, Sameerpannag ras, Tab Shwas kalpa and Syp Whooping for about 10 days in different combination in these patients. The treatment resulted in complete remission of almost all the signs and symptoms. The cases were followed up after next 15 days and there were no remnant symptoms. The cases also advocated for an early Ayurvedic intervention institution for COVID-19 in prevention, deterioration and complications.

5.
International Management Conference, IMC 2021 ; : 329-339, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826324

ABSTRACT

Almost all types of businesses are facing the challenge of global spread COVID-19 outbreak, but the food and beverage industry (including both offline and online meal chains) has been severely affected by this pandemic effect. This world-class issue has brought down the GDP and economic growth of the country. The pandemic issue has increased the restaurant’s expenses by creating pressure to expend more over the sanitation and hygiene factors. So, all these problems that the food and beverage industry are facing nowadays due to the corona pandemic inspired the researcher to work on this topic. The researcher has collected the data from particularly Delhi-NCR region by taking four constraints—consumer behavior, hygiene and safety measures, customer satisfaction. To test the hypothetical assumption of this descriptive study, the researcher has implied chi-square test, KMO test and Bartlett’s test, etc. The data analysis results showed that customer satisfaction is affected by all the variables used in this study and also identified that almost all of the customers considered hygiene as a vital variable out of all, which affects their dining choices and preferences. So, the rationale of this study can help the restaurants in adopting suitable safety measures to attract and satisfy their customers again. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816910

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO)in December 2019, as it spread globally and confirmed cases approach 5,000 000 patients and will exceed 365000 deaths on the 25 May 2020 across over 160 countries. Cancer patients are one of the most vulnerable groups in the current (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-infected cancer patients remain widely not well understood. Patients and methods A retrospective study was conducted in Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust for COVID-19 Cancer patients. Hospitalised cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection were identified between 30th March 2020 to 30th June 2020. Patients already have been diagnosed with cancer and had a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Clinical retrospective data were collected from hospital medical records, including demographic features, clinical features, laboratory findings, and chest radiograph and chest computed tomography (CT) images. Statistical analysis was done to assess the risk factors associated with severe events which required admission to an intensive care unit, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death Results Forty Cancer patients with Covid 19 infection during the period from 30th March 2020 to 30th June 2020 were enrolled. (52.6%) 22 of patients were females. Median age was 65 years .All patients were local residents of Wolverhampton. Among the cancer patients, Breast cancer was the most frequent type of cancer (n= 9;21.1%), followed by Gl cancers (n= 8;21%) and lymphoma (n = 6;15.8%).Twenty two patients (52.6%) were diagnosed with stage I-III cancer.18 patients (47.4%) were on active chemotherapy, 3 patients were on target therapy and 3 patients(7.9%) were on active immunotherapy. In addition to cancer, 31 (81.6%) patients had at least one or more coexisting chronic diseases. The most common clinical features on admission were fever (92.1%), dry cough (86.8%), and fatigue (92%);29 (76.3%) patients developed dyspnoea along with lymphopaenia (n = 32, 84.2%), high level C-reactive protein (n = 40, 100%), anaemia (n = 22, 57.9 %), and hypoproteinaemia (n = 21, 55.3%). The common chest computed tomography (CT) findings were ground-glass opacity (n = 13) and patchy consolidation (n= 4) .It is important to note that CT chest not done in 17 patients. A total of 19 patients had severe events and the mortality rate was (44.7%) .Median days of hospital admission was (12.5).It is noted that all patients with active immunotherapy had recovered despite disease progression. Conclusions: Cancer patients have deteriorating conditions and worse outcomes from the COVID-19 infection. It is recommended that cancer patients receiving antitumour therapies should have regular screening for COVID-19 infection and should avoid treatments causing immunosuppression or have dose reduction during COVID-19 Pandemic in second wave .Covid 19 has different response with patients on active immunotherapy need to be highlighted.

7.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-3, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: to evaluate the association between coronavirus disease 2019 infection and olfactory and taste dysfunction in patients presenting to the out-patient department with influenza-like illness, who underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for coronavirus; and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of olfactory and taste dysfunction and other symptoms in these patients. METHODS: Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to the study centre in September 2020 were included in the study. The symptoms of patients who tested positive for coronavirus on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing were compared to those with negative test results. RESULTS: During the study period, 909 patients, aged 12-70 years, presented with influenza-like illness; of these, 316 (34.8 per cent) tested positive for coronavirus. Only the symptoms of olfactory and taste dysfunction were statistically more significant in patients testing positive for coronavirus than those testing negative. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, patients presenting to the out-patient department with sudden loss of sense of smell or taste may be considered as positive for coronavirus disease 2019, until proven otherwise.

8.
Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ; 424:87-98, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1802630

ABSTRACT

Supply chain management is a backbone of the industry to serve the requirement of routine life. The supply chain process is complex as it involves several organisations across geographical boundaries. It involves various stakeholders with multivariant processes such as product information, manufacturers, logistics, consumers, product safety, etc. These are some centralised system's challenges. Blockchain technology can achieve transparency, decentralisation, and distributed trust to resolve these issues and improve the existing system. With the help of technology, managing goods, services, and information with an efficient system can be designed to achieve high performance. The health sector is a challenge for each country in this situation of pandemic Covid-19, and to perform the smooth operation, there is a need for an end-to-end tracking system, robust, secure, and strong framework. It is required to ensure the security and integrity of data with transparency in supply chain management. This study presented the conceptual framework of blockchain enabling supply chain management to provide the solution in the healthcare industry. This study provides an efficient way of utilising blockchain technology in the supply chain process and enhance the healthcare sector. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

9.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333856

ABSTRACT

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a high level of optimism based on observational studies and small controlled trials that treating hospitalized patients with convalescent plasma from COVID-19 survivors (CCP) would be an important immunotherapy. However, as more data from controlled trials became available, the results became disappointing, with at best moderate evidence of efficacy when CCP with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was used early in infection. To better understand the potential therapeutic efficacy of CCP, and to further validate SARS-CoV-2 infection of macaques as a reliable animal model for testing such strategies, we inoculated 12 adult rhesus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 by intratracheal and intranasal routes. One day later, 8 animals were infused with pooled human CCP with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (RVPN NT 50 value of 3,003), while 4 control animals received normal human plasma. Animals were monitored for 7 days. Animals treated with CCP had detectable levels of antiviral antibodies after infusion. In comparison to the control animals, they had similar levels of virus replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract, but had significantly reduced interstitial pneumonia, as measured by comprehensive lung histology. By highlighting strengths and weaknesses, data of this study can help to further optimize nonhuman primate models to provide proof-of-concept of intervention strategies, and guide the future use of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other newly emerging respiratory viruses. AUTHOR SUMMARY: The results of treating SARS-CoV-2 infected hospitalized patients with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), collected from survivors of natural infection, have been disappointing. The available data from various studies indicate at best moderate clinical benefits only when CCP with high titer of neutralizing antibodies was infused early in infection. The macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection can be useful to gain further insights in the value of CCP therapy. In this study, animals were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the next day, were infused with pooled human convalescent plasma, selected to have a very high titer of neutralizing antibodies. While administration of CCP did not result in a detectable reduction in virus replication in the respiratory tract, it significantly reduced lung inflammation. These data, combined with the results of monoclonal antibody studies, emphasize the need to use products with high titers of neutralizing antibodies, and guide the future development of CCP-based therapies.

10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The host receptor for SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is highly expressed in small intestine. Our aim was to study colonic ACE2 expression in Crohn's disease (CD) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) controls. We hypothesized that the colonic expression levels of ACE2 impacts CD course. METHODS: We examined the expression of colon ACE2 using RNA-seq and quantitative (q) RT-PCR from 69 adult CD and 14 NIBD control patients. In a subset of this cohort we validated ACE2 protein expression and localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded matched colon and ileal tissues using immunohistochemistry. The impact of increased ACE2 expression in CD for the risk of surgery was evaluated by a multivariate regression analysis and a Kaplan-Meier estimator. To provide critical support for the generality of our findings, we analyzed previously published RNA-seq data from two large independent cohorts of CD patients. RESULTS: Colonic ACE2 expression was significantly higher in a subset of adult CD patients (ACE2-high CD). IHC in a sampling of ACE2-high CD patients confirmed high ACE2 protein expression in the colon and ileum compared to ACE2-low CD and NIBD patients. Notably, we found that ACE2-high CD patients are significantly more likely to undergo surgery within 5 years of diagnosis, with a Cox regression analysis finding that high ACE2 levels is an independent risk factor (OR 2.18;95%CI, 1.05-4.55;p=0.037). CONCLUSION: Increased intestinal expression of ACE2 is associated with deteriorated clinical outcomes in CD patients. These data point to the need for molecular stratification that may impact CD disease-related outcomes.

11.
Surfactants from Renewable Raw Materials ; : 1-260, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1793732

ABSTRACT

Surfactants are often completely invisible to us and yet they are present in almost every chemical that we use in our daily life. They are found in toothpastes, cosmetics, sunscreens, mayonnaise, detergents, and an array of cleaning products. Traditional surfactants are known to have adverse environmental impacts spurring research into eco-friendly and cost-effective surfactants from renewable resources. Surfactants from Renewable Raw Materials examines the class of surfactants synthesized using plant-based raw materials detailing their properties, applications, bioavailability, and biodegradability. The concluding chapter reviews patent activity over the last decade. Additional features include: Addresses the tremendous variation found in the raw materials used to synthesize commercially available surfactants. Explores the selection of raw materials based upon the desired hydrophobic group or hydrophilic group to be incorporated into the product. Examines the characteristics and medicinal applications of pulmonary surfactants in preterm babies as well as their probable contribution in COVID-19 Discusses the biodegradability of surfactants to assist with the determination of truly green surfactants. This comprehensive reference will prove indispensable for professional and academic researchers creating or working with bio-based surfactants. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Divya Bajpai Tripathy, Anjali Gupta, Arvind Kumar Jain, Anuradha Mishra. All rights reserved.

12.
2022 International Conference for Advancement in Technology, ICONAT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788715

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus(COVID-19) has created havoc for humanity by causing millions of deaths, adverse effects on physical and mental health and disastrous economic destruction. To aid with fast and efficient detection of the virus which allows for timely treatment of the patients, we have conducted this research work. In this work we have experimented and analyzed all the pre-trained and well known models. The performance of these various models in the detection of COVID-19 from Chest X-Ray images and their comparative study is depicted in this work. The best performing models were InceptionV3 (99.78%), InceptionResNetV2 (99.56%), DenseNet121 (99.34%), DensetNet169 (99.24%), DenseNet201 (99.34%) and Xception (99.12%). © 2022 IEEE.

13.
1st International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Health Informatics, TEHI 2021 ; 376:377-388, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1787777

ABSTRACT

Entire world is passing through the corona virus disease (COVID-19) outbreak badly. According to the WHO, corona virus affects respiratory system. This corona virus majorly spreads when someone comes in contact with an infected person and respiratory droplets that generates by coughing or sneezing play major role in spreading the infection. These respiratory droplets can spread infection when inhaled by someone or contaminate hands and surfaces in contact. During the treatment of such infectious disease, the safety of healthcare workers becomes the matter of primary concern as they are directly involved during the process of diagnosis as well as treatment and care of COVID‐19 patients;hence, they are always open to infection, and their chances of getting infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 virus become very high. A lot of challenges hospitals and staff are facing, and few of them need to be addressed technologically. In present work, in this paper, we have proposed a Bluetooth and IOT-based wireless healthcare monitoring system. The proposed system can be utilized to get real-time online physiological conditions of a patient. Doctors can monitor their COVID-19 patients remotely. A robotic trolley could be pressed into service (serve or fulfill the patient need) in hospital in order to remove direct connection and minimize the risk of spreading infection between healthcare workers who are directly involved in treating COVID-19 patients. This system continuously monitors the real-time temperature and pulse rate of the patient and send data remotely to the doctors. A medicine reminder system also reminds the patient about the medicine with date and time through voice system. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
British Journal of Surgery ; 109(SUPPL 1):i30-i31, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1769160

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Day Case Arthroplasty has been validated as a safe strategy for reducing length of stay for patients undergoing elective arthroplasty. With the ongoing recovery of elective activities following the COVID pandemic and long waiting lists;day case arthroplasty offers a solution for both hospitals and patients. Reducing length of stay will reduce the cost of day case arthroplasty which benefits hospitals, whilst the faster discharge reduces unnecessary exposure to an increased risk of COVID for patients. This study aims to establish the patient perspective on day case arthroplasty to inform the set-up of a patient cantered day case arthroplasty service. Method: Data was collected at routine preoperative assessment clinics via a structured questionnaire which combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. The questionnaire covered patient demographics, issues pertaining to same-day discharge, level of concern related to common problems faced by patients after joint replacement surgery and patient preference for same day discharge versus more traditional rehabilitation methods. Results: The study included 79 patients with 43% preferring same day discharge. Postoperative pain, surgical complications and wound healing were the most significant concerns elicited. Patients who preferred same day discharge were statistically younger. The majority of patients felt that their rehabilitation could be completed at home. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the demand for day case arthroplasty in this cohort of patients with younger patients preferring same day discharge. Identifying significant concerns will be important to formulate effective perioperative protocols to ensure successful implementation of a patient cantered day case arthroplasty service.

15.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):3417, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1768659

ABSTRACT

Background: The occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) with coronary vessel occlusion in an otherwise young, healthy adult with a mechanical aortic valve is rare. Case: A 25-year-old male with a history of congenital AS status-post mechanical aortic valve replacement presented to the hospital with an acute MI due to thromboembolism due to subtherapeutic INR. The patient developed ventricular fibrillation en route to the emergency department. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved after one round of CPR with synchronized cardioversion. On admission, labs were significant for high sensitivity troponin >27,000 x 3, BNP 23, INR 1.8. The patient was positive for COVID-19 but was asymptomatic. EKG showed ST elevations in leads I, AVL with reciprocal depressions in leads II, III and AVF. The patient underwent an emergent left heart catheterization which showed a normally functioning mechanical aortic valve and 100% occlusion of the mid LAD. After several rounds of balloon angioplasty, a thrombus was aspirated, mechanical thrombectomy was performed and a drug-eluding stent was deployed under IVUS guidance with restoration of TIMI 3 flow. A transthoracic echocardiogram following PCI showed an ejection fraction of 40% with anterior wall hypokinesis and mean aortic valve gradient of 10mmHg. The patient followed up in clinic two months later and was doing well. Decision-making: The effect of valvular heart disease on heart failure and cardiogenic shock is well studied. However, the occurrence of myocardial infarction due to thromboembolism in young patients with a subtherapeutic INR in the setting of mechanical aortic valve is not well described in literature. Conclusion: This case highlights both the importance of compliance with anticoagulation in patients with mechanical valves and a rare cause of myocardial infarction;i.e., non-compliance with anticoagulation in the setting of mechanical aortic valve. In addition, COVID-19 has been well established as a prothrombotic disease process, adding to the plot of this unusual case.

18.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine ; 28(12), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1749744

ABSTRACT

Context • A healthy lifestyle has been the need of the hour during the COVID 19 pandemic. Analyzing the current lifestyle patterns of many individuals can be the basis for finding solutions toward building a healthy future for India. Objectives • The study intended to evaluate the current lifestyles of adults in an urban setting in the midst of a pandemic and to examine the diseases that people could face with respect to their current lifestyles. Design • The research team performed a cross-sectional study. Setting • The survey was conducted in an urban setting in the Pimpri Chinchwad area of Pune, India. Participants • Participants were 500 men and women between the ages of 18 and 25. Outcome Measures • The research team created a survey with 13 multiple-choice questions. Results • The pandemic has taken a toll on people’s mental and physical health. Social distancing and staying indoors for long periods are factors that have affected people’s mental health. Conclusions • Efforts need to be made by individuals to focus not only on their physical health but also on their mental health. (Altern Ther Health Med. [E-pub ahead of print.]). © 2022, InnoVision Communications. All rights reserved.

19.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S59-S60, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734471

ABSTRACT

Background:Across the world, health care workers (HCWs’) are at a higher risk of infection by corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the nature of their work. HCWs’ include those who are working with patients or their sample as well as those who do not work with patients like office workers. Due to asymptomatic and oligo symptomatic infections, testing only symptomatic individuals can lead to a significant underestimation of the SARS -CoV-2 seroprevalence. This study was to determine presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG) in serum samples of HCWs’ engaged in manage- ment of COVID-19 patients. The prevalence of antibody positivity will make an indicator of exposure in HCWs’. Methods: 500 HCWs’ of the King George's Medical University India were recruited in this prospective observational study. All HCWs, including consultant, resident, nursing staff, lab worker, ward boy, guard and others were enrolled in this study. Participants were grouped depending on the COVID-19 test result. (i) HCWs’ with COVID 19 positive history (ii) HCWs’ with COVID 19 negative history. The period of sampling was first week of September 2020 which coincides with high positivity of the city. Results:The prevalence of COVID-19 was found to be 8% in front-line HCWs’ of our hospital.195 HCW had past history of COVID-19 positivity and 305 were negative for COVID-19. Out of 195,116 HCW were reactive for anti-SARS COV-2 IgG antibody, 5were equivocal and 74were nonreactive for anti -SARS COV-2 IgG antibody. The highest reactivity rates for SARS COV-2 IgG antibody were reported in 26 to35 year’s age of HCW followed by 15-25 years age group of HCW. Out of 116 seropositive HCWs’ 74 were males and 42 were females. Conclusions: We reported 8% COVID-19 seropositivity among HCWs. The prevalence is in concordance with our city infection positivity in month of September i.e around 8-12%.

20.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S55, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1734456

ABSTRACT

Background:The first case of COVID-19 was reported in India on 30th January 2020 with origin from China (PIB 2020, ‘https:// pib.gov.in/pressreleaseiframepage.aspx?prid=1601095’). As on 6th May 2020 the total cases reported in India are 35,043, with 8,889 recoveries and 1,147 deaths (https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ accessed on 6th may at 12:54 PM). However, the rate of infection is lower as compared to other countries. Since the Covid-19 pandemic started spreading in world outside China including India and large scale testing for Covid-19 became available, all the focus suddenly shifted to Covid-19. Other respiratory viruses, which were in existence for many years and testing and management of these infection was always standard of care, started getting neglected. Hence, we analysed the retrospective laboratory results from cases of acute respiratory infection, tested in the month of February 2020, when Covid-19 cases in India were close to negligible. This is to focus on need of testing for other respiratory viruses along with Covid-19 so that these infections can be managed as per standard protocol and do not get neglected in the wake of pandemic. Methods:The Virus research and diagnostic laboratory at Department of Microbiology, King George’s Medical University (VRDL) start- ed testing for Covid-19 on 3rd February 2020. This laboratory routinely tests all patients presenting as Severe Acute Respiratory Ill- ness (SARI) for 12 respiratory viruses including Influenza (Inf) A (both H1N1 and H3N2) and B, Adenovirus (ADV), Respiratory syntitial virus (RSV), Parainfluenza (Parainf) viruses 1, 2, 3 and 4, Measles virus (MEV), Bocavirus, Human metapneumo virus (HMPV) and Rhi- noviruses (Rhino). All patients presenting as Influenza like illness (ILI) are routinely tested for Influenza A and B viruses. If they test negative, other viruses are tested depending on clinical suspicion. The testing is routinely done as per methods described earlier (Singh A.K., Jain A., Jain B., Singh K.P., Dangi T., Mohan M. Viral aetiology of acute lower respiratory tract illness in hospitalised paedi- atric patients of a tertiary hospital: one year prospective study Indian J Med Microbial. 2014;32:13–18). Results:During February 2020, we tested 316 cases of SARI/ ILI for covid-19. None of them tested positive for Covid-19. Samples from these cases were also tested for other respiratory viruses as mentioned above. Total 10 (3.2%, 8 H1N1 (2.5%) and 2 H3N2 (0.6%)) samples tested positive for Influenza A, 2 each tested positive for Influenza B, HMPV and Adenoviruses. One sample each tested posi- tive for RSV and Rhinoviruses. Total 5 samples tested positive for parainfluenza viruses;3 for parainfluenza 1, and 1 each for parain- fluenza 1 and 4 Conclusions :( table). The positivity for covid-19 in India in pandemic time remains less than 4% (https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ ac- cessed on 06 May 2020, 08:00 IST), while the positivity for rest of the respiratory viruses as shown in present analysis is 7.3%. It is essential to see that infection with other respiratory viruses does not get neglected and add to the Covid-19 misery.

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