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Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):DC12-DC17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067199

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bharat Biotech International Ltd in partnership with National Institute of Virology (NIV), has developed an indigenous whole virion inactivated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral vaccine BBV-152 (Covaxin), formulated with Toll Like Receptors 7/8 agonist Imidazoquinoline (IMDG) molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel). Variety of factors other than environmental ones can affect vaccines efficiency outside the strict setting of clinical trials, like how the vaccine is stored or transported, and even how patients are vaccinated. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine which is determined by sex, genetic factors, age, psychological stress, nutrition and other diseases are also likely to have an impact. Aim(s): To determine the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the inactivated whole virus vaccine (Covaxin) amongst hospital-based population groups. Material(s) and Method(s): The prospective analytical study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, from January 2021 to March 2021.The study primarily included Healthcare Workers (HCWs) employed at SMS Medical college and attached hospitals. In-vitro quantitative IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) were measured using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) based Advia centaur SARS-CoV-2 IgG, manufactured by Siemens Pvt Ltd, Munich, Germany, as per manufacture's instructions. Result(s): Out of total 223 individuals, 61.88 % (138/223) showed neutralising antibody titre of >1 index value by CLIA, rest 38.12% (85/223) were non reactive i.e., titre <1 index value, after four weeks of receiving first dose of Covaxin. After 2 to 4 weeks of receiving second dose 84.30% (188/223) showed neutralising antibody titre of >1 index value by CLIA, rest 15.70% (35/223) were non reactive i.e., titre <1 index value. After receiving first dose, 100% (223/223) of the participants developed localised pain and bodyache 33.63% (75/223). None of the participants showed any anaphylactic reaction or any emergency condition just after vaccination. Conclusion(s): Covaxin is a well-tolerated vaccine, and induces good humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 with a significant rise in the neutralising antibody titres. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(2):257-264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1777064

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona virus disease 2019 is a highly infectious disease which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted from person to person mainly by respiratory droplets and aerosols as well as by direct or indirect contact. Aims and objective: To compare different RNA extraction methods for detection of SARSCov-2 RNA from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs using three different methods which are based on different techniques. Material and methods: This analytical observational study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan from December 2020 to January 2021. We selected 200 confirmed positive (extracted by Easy Mag automated system) (remnant) samples showing a wide range of different Ct values and 20 confirmed negative samples stored in Viral Transport Media VTM for this study. In order to compare quality of three extractions methods, all samples were aliquoted separately for each extraction technique. (1) Extraction by manual method (spin column base): was done by as per manufacturer’s instructions. (2) Extraction by QIA cube HT (vaccum column base): was done by as per manufacturer’s instructions. (3) Extraction by Perkins Elmer chemagic 360: (magnetic beads based). Result: A panel consisting of 200 Covid-19 positive and 20 Covid-19 negative samples were extracted by three methods (i.e. Manual column based, automated column-based and automated magnetic beads-based method). The extracted material/elutes were put for realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection of SARS CoV-2 RNA. There was no major difference seen in individual samples’ ct values between three extraction system. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we recommended all three RNA extraction methods (i.e. magnetic beads & silica column-based) are interchangeable in a diagnostic workflow for the SARS CoV-2 by RTPCR and can be taken into account for SARS CoV-2 detection in possible future shortage of one kit or times of crisis in such pandemic time.

3.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(9):DC11-DC15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1700969

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been troublesome particularly for developing countries that lack infrastructure and capacities to produce the kits locally. Simplification of the method can increase diagnostic efficiency which can benefit patients and help in infection control, consequently saving time and lives. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of four methods (that omit extraction step) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 against the traditional extraction method. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis for evaluating diagnostic accuracy of four methods for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR), conducted in the Department of Microbiology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, in October 2020. Ninety four SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive samples and 20 negative samples were taken for this study. Automated extraction system was used for Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) extraction and four different approaches were compared to the traditional extraction method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Data was entered and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software version 24.0. Results: The automated RNA extraction method was compared to the method of direct addition of samples with (Heat processed Direct Viral transport medium Sample (HDVS)) and without heating (Direct Viral transport medium Sample (DVS)), directs addition of diluted (1:5) sample with (Heat processed diluted VTM sample (HdVS)) and without heating (Diluted VTM sample (dVS)) as well as after addition of Proteinse K (PK) to the diluted samples that came either negative/invalid. Out of four methods, the HdVS method gave the best results, considering extraction with Perkin Elmer as standard, this method showed sensitivity of 96.74%, specificity of 100%. Conclusion: In current pandemic, molecular testing is critically challenged by the limited supplies of reagents of nucleic acid extraction alternative method like diluting and heating of Viral Transport Media (VTM) samples and using them directly as elutes serve as an easy, fast and inexpensive alternative.

4.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 924:141-152, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1130705

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (COVID-19) is a disease which is spreading rapidly, and nearly 1,436,000 people have been infected in about 200 countries all over the world as of April 2020. It is essential to detect COVID-19 at the earliest stage to care for the infected patients and, moreover, to prevent spreading and protect uninfected people. Deep learning approach, namely, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), requires extensive training data. Due to the recent epidemic, collecting enormous radiographic images in a very short duration is a challenging task. The major issues toward the success of CNN approach is the smaller dataset. Training dataset is scaled, and the results of detecting COVID-19 are boosted by using the proposed 3D-ImpCNN approach. This paper introduces 3D_ImpCNN classification model to categorize the patient affected by COVID. The COVID-19 classification outcomes of the method introduced is analyzed which produced better results when compared against existing methods. Accuracy of 3D-ImpCNN classification method was 96.5%, and moreover this method assists in detecting COVID-19 in a rapid manner. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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