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1.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 68-75, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726288

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been an increase an alarming rise in invasive mycoses during COVID-19 pandemic, especially during the second wave. Aims: Compare the incidence of invasive mycoses in the last three years and study the risk factors, manifestations and outcomes of mycoses in the COVID era. Methodology: Multicentric study was conducted across 21 centres in a state of western India over 12-months. The clinico-radiological, laboratory and microbiological features, treatment and outcomes of patients were studied. We also analysed yearly incidence of rhino-orbito-cerebral mycosis. Results: There was more than five-times rise in the incidence of invasive mycoses compared to previous two-years. Of the 122 patients analysed, mucor, aspergillus and dual infection were seen in 86.9%, 4.1%, and 7.4% respectively. Fifty-nine percent had simultaneous mycosis and COVID-19 while rest had sequential infection. Common presenting features were headache (91%), facial pain (78.7%), diplopia (66.4%) and vison loss (56.6%). Rhino-orbito-sinusitis was present in 96.7%, meningitis in 6.6%, intracranial mass lesions in 15.6% and strokes in 14.8%. A total of 91.8% patients were diabetic, while 90.2% were treated with steroids during COVID-19 treatment. Mortality was 34.4%. Conclusion: Invasive fungal infections having high mortality and morbidity have increased burden on already overburdened healthcare system. Past illnesses, COVID-19 itself and its treatment and environmental factors seem responsible for the rise of fungal infection. Awareness and preventive strategies are the need of hours and larger studies are needed for better understanding of this deadly disease.

2.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 767493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526773

ABSTRACT

Abnormal accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and their aggregation causes inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. This promotes accumulation of toxic proteins in the body tissues especially brain leading to manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. The studies suggest that deregulation of proteostasis, particularly aberrant unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, may be a common morbific process in the development of neurodegeneration. Curcumin, the mixture of low molecular weight polyphenolic compounds from turmeric, Curcuma longa has shown promising response to prevents many diseases including current global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and neurodegenerative disorders. The UPR which correlates positively with neurodegenerative disorders were found affected by curcumin. In this review, we examine the evidence from many model systems illustrating how curcumin interacts with UPR and slows down the development of various neurodegenerative disorders (ND), e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The recent global increase in ND patients indicates that researchers and practitioners will need to develop a new pharmacological drug or treatment to manage and cure these neurodegenerative diseases.

3.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488495

ABSTRACT

The first quarter of the 21st century has remarkably been characterized by a multitude of challenges confronting human society as a whole in terms of several outbreaks of infectious viral diseases, such as the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), China; the 2009 influenza H1N1, Mexico; the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Saudi Arabia; and the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), China. COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, reportedly broke out in December 2019, Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and continues unabated, leading to considerable devastation and death worldwide. The most common target organ of SARS-CoV-2 is the lungs, especially the bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, culminating in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe patients. Nevertheless, other tissues and organs are also known to be critically affected following infection, thereby complicating the overall aetiology and prognosis. Excluding H1N1, the SARS-CoV (also referred as SARS-CoV-1), MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 are collectively referred to as coronaviruses, and taxonomically placed under the realm Riboviria, order Nidovirales, suborder Cornidovirineae, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, genus Betacoronavirus, and subgenus Sarbecovirus. As of 23 September 2021, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has globally resulted in around 229 million and 4.7 million reported infections and deaths, respectively, apart from causing huge psychosomatic debilitation, academic loss, and deep economic recession. Such an unprecedented pandemic has compelled researchers, especially epidemiologists and immunologists, to search for SARS-CoV-2-associated potential immunogenic molecules to develop a vaccine as an immediate prophylactic measure. Amongst multiple structural and non-structural proteins, the homotrimeric spike (S) glycoprotein has been empirically found as the most suitable candidate for vaccine development owing to its immense immunogenic potential, which makes it capable of eliciting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. As a consequence, it has become possible to design appropriate, safe, and effective vaccines, apart from related therapeutic agents, to reduce both morbidity and mortality. As of 23 September 2021, four vaccines, namely, Comirnaty, COVID-19 vaccine Janssen, Spikevax, and Vaxzevria, have received the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) approval, and around thirty are under the phase three clinical trial with emergency authorization by the vaccine-developing country-specific National Regulatory Authority (NRA). In addition, 100-150 vaccines are under various phases of pre-clinical and clinical trials. The mainstay of global vaccination is to introduce herd immunity, which would protect the majority of the population, including immunocompromised individuals, from infection and disease. Here, we primarily discuss category-wise vaccine development, their respective advantages and disadvantages, associated efficiency and potential safety aspects, antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and immune responses to them along with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOC, and the urgent need of achieving herd immunity to contain the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Vaccination
4.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408625

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the realm Riboviria, order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, genus Betacoronavirus and the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus. This viral disease is characterized by a myriad of varying symptoms, such as pyrexia, cough, hemoptysis, dyspnoea, diarrhea, muscle soreness, dysosmia, lymphopenia and dysgeusia amongst others. The virus mainly infects humans, various other mammals, avian species and some other companion livestock. SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry is primarily accomplished by molecular interaction between the virus's spike (S) protein and the host cell surface receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), although other host cell-associated receptors/factors, such as neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) and neuropilin 2 (NRP-2), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as well as proteases such as TMPRSS2 (transmembrane serine protease 2) and furin, might also play a crucial role in infection, tropism, pathogenesis and clinical outcome. Furthermore, several structural and non-structural proteins of the virus themselves are very critical in determining the clinical outcome following infection. Considering such critical role(s) of the abovementioned host cell receptors, associated proteases/factors and virus structural/non-structural proteins (NSPs), it may be quite prudent to therapeutically target them through a multipronged clinical regimen to combat the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Host Microbial Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems , Furin/chemistry , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/chemistry , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Neuropilins/chemistry , Neuropilins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178117

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus belongs to the family of Coronaviridae, comprising single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome (+ ssRNA) of around 26 to 32 kilobases, and has been known to cause infection to a myriad of mammalian hosts, such as humans, cats, bats, civets, dogs, and camels with varied consequences in terms of death and debilitation. Strikingly, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), later renamed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and found to be the causative agent of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), shows 88% of sequence identity with bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, 79% with SARS-CoV and 50% with MERS-CoV, respectively. Despite key amino acid residual variability, there is an incredible structural similarity between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. During infection, spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV displays 10-20 times greater affinity for its cognate host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), leading proteolytic cleavage of S protein by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Following cellular entry, the ORF-1a and ORF-1ab, located downstream to 5' end of + ssRNA genome, undergo translation, thereby forming two large polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab. These polyproteins, following protease-induced cleavage and molecular assembly, form functional viral RNA polymerase, also referred to as replicase. Thereafter, uninterrupted orchestrated replication-transcription molecular events lead to the synthesis of multiple nested sets of subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs), which are finally translated to several structural and accessory proteins participating in structure formation and various molecular functions of virus, respectively. These multiple structural proteins assemble and encapsulate genomic RNA (gRNA), resulting in numerous viral progenies, which eventually exit the host cell, and spread infection to rest of the body. In this review, we primarily focus on genomic organization, structural and non-structural protein components, and potential prospective molecular targets for development of therapeutic drugs, convalescent plasm therapy, and a myriad of potential vaccines to tackle SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Design , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
chemRxiv; 2020.
Preprint | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-33

ABSTRACT

This study belongs to identification of suitable COVID-19 inhibitors br br /Coronavirus became pandemic very soon and is a potential threat to human lives across the globe. No approved drug is currently available therefore an urgent need has been developed for any antiviral therapy for COVID-19. For the molecular docking study, ten herbal molecules have been included in the current study. The three-dimensional chemical structures of molecules were prepared through ChemSketch 2015 freeware. Molecular docking study was performed using AutoDock 4.2 simulator and Discovery studio 4.5 was employed to predict the active site of target enzyme. Result indicated that all-natural molecules found in the active site of enzyme after molecular docking. Oxyacanthine and Hypericin (-10.990 and -9.05 and kcal/mol respectively) have shown good binding efficacy among others but Oxyacanthine was the only natural product which made some of necessary interactions with residues in the enzyme require for target inhibition. Therefore Oxyacanthine may be considered to be potential inhibitor of main protease enzyme of virus but need to be explored for further drug development process. br /div

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727392

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic threat with more than 11.8 million confirmed cases and more than 0.5 million deaths as of 3 July 2020. Given the lack of definitive pharmaceutical interventions against SARS-CoV-2, multiple therapeutic strategies and personal protective applications are being used to reduce the risk of high mortality and community spread of this infection. Currently, more than a hundred vaccines and/or alternative therapeutic regimens are in clinical trials, and some of them have shown promising results in improving the immune cell environment and controlling the infection. In this review, we discussed high-performance multi-directory strategies describing the uncontrolled deregulation of the host immune landscape associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and treatment strategies using an anti-neoplastic regimen. We also followed selected current treatment plans and the most important on-going clinical trials and their respective outcomes for blocking SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis through regenerative medicine, such as stem cell therapy, chimeric antigen receptors, natural killer (NK) cells, extracellular vesicular-based therapy, and others including immunomodulatory regimens, anti-neoplastic therapy, and current clinical vaccine therapy.

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