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1.
Multimed Tools Appl ; : 1-24, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976837

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, which originated in Wuhan, developed into a severe public health problem worldwide. Immense stress in the society and health department was advanced due to the multiplying numbers of COVID carriers and deaths. This stress can be lowered by performing a high-speed diagnosis for the disease, which can be a crucial stride for opposing the deadly virus. A good large amount of time is consumed in the diagnosis. Some applications that use medical images like X-Rays or CT-Scans can pace up the time used in diagnosis. Hence, this paper aims to create a computer-aided-design system that will use the chest X-Ray as input and further classify it into one of the three classes, namely COVID-19, viral Pneumonia, and healthy. Since the COVID-19 positive chest X-Rays dataset was low, we have exploited four pre-trained deep neural networks (DNNs) to find the best for this system. The dataset consisted of 2905 images with 219 COVID-19 cases, 1341 healthy cases, and 1345 viral pneumonia cases. Out of these images, the models were evaluated on 30 images of each class for the testing, while the rest of them were used for training. It is observed that AlexNet attained an accuracy of 97.6% with an average precision, recall, and F1 score of 0.98, 0.97, and 0.98, respectively.

2.
The FASEB Journal ; 36(S1), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1853223

ABSTRACT

Introduction Recent research suggests that endothelial activation plays a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis by promoting a pro-coagulative and pro-inflammatory state. However, the mechanism by which the endothelium is activated in COVID-19 is unclear. Objective To investigate the mechanism by which COVID-19 activates the pulmonary endothelium. Hypothesis The pulmonary endothelium generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon exposure to the ?inflammatory load? of the systemic circulation. Methods COVID-19 was recreated in vitro and ex vivo, by exposing human lung endothelial cells (EC) or donor human lung slices (human precision-cut lung slices or huPCLS) to medium supplemented with serum from COVID-19 affected subjects. Sera were acquired from patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital at the University of Pennsylvania. ROS (fluorescent dye, CellROX) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) levels were assessed by fluorescence labeling and imaging. Results Both EC activation (as monitored by ROS production) and pro-inflammatory phenotype (as assessed by ICAM-1), were significantly higher with COVID-19 as compared to normal subjects. Conclusions The endothelium is activated with COVID-19 via ROS production;thus, the ROS produced drive a pro-inflammatory phenotype by inducing the expression of ICAM-1, a pivotal marker of endothelium inflammation. As ROS mediates EC activation and inflammation during COVID-19, ROS blockade could be a therapeutic target in maintaining vascular health.

3.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences ; 15(8), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1773016

ABSTRACT

Overall lockdown limitations toward the start of the year 2020 are credited to the annihilation and fatalities worldwide because of COVID-19. Most of the nations revealed rapid growth of COVID-19 cases and subsequently declared lockdown in several stages. Because of these lockdowns, industries had to stop producing goods other than the actual merchandise needed to survive. The air quality and natural water quality witnessed a noticeable improvement from limited human activity. This paper presents an investigation demonstrating this improvement under various lockdown periods, specifically for the Indian subcontinent. The rivers and atmosphere of Indian settings have been utilized here as a contextual analysis associated with industrial pollution. This work aims to study the associations and interrelationships between lockdowns during COVID-19 and their effect on air and water quality. The paper presents then and now an analysis of the Indian atmosphere based on various particulate matters and river health based on the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen. The study indicated a significant dip in air and water pollution levels and a significant improvement in the atmosphere and rivers’ quality during this period. Significant water bodies witnessed the pH level of 7.5 amidst lockdown, which is a good indicator of improved water health since the pH level of drinkable water is 7. The analysis carried out in this paper can also be mapped to other countries and landscapes of the world.

4.
J Control Release ; 338: 201-210, 2021 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364213

ABSTRACT

Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a next-generation vaccine platform, but like all nucleic acids, requires a delivery vehicle to promote cellular uptake and protect the saRNA from degradation. To date, delivery platforms for saRNA have included lipid nanoparticles (LNP), polyplexes and cationic nanoemulsions; of these LNP are the most clinically advanced with the recent FDA approval of COVID-19 based-modified mRNA vaccines. While the effect of RNA on vaccine immunogenicity is well studied, the role of biomaterials in saRNA vaccine effectiveness is under investigated. Here, we tested saRNA formulated with either pABOL, a bioreducible polymer, or LNP, and characterized the protein expression and vaccine immunogenicity of both platforms. We observed that pABOL-formulated saRNA resulted in a higher magnitude of protein expression, but that the LNP formulations were overall more immunogenic. Furthermore, we observed that both the helper phospholipid and route of administration (intramuscular versus intranasal) of LNP impacted the vaccine immunogenicity of two model antigens (influenza hemagglutinin and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein). We observed that LNP administered intramuscularly, but not pABOL or LNP administered intranasally, resulted in increased acute interleukin-6 expression after vaccination. Overall, these results indicate that delivery systems and routes of administration may fulfill different delivery niches within the field of saRNA genetic medicines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Nanoparticles , Humans , Lipids , Polymers , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
J Med Cases ; 11(6): 174-177, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227200

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has ravaged the global society as we know it. As almost a dozen pharmaceutical agents go into randomized controlled clinical trials, multiple studies have surfaced trying to associate a hypercoagulable state to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We report two COVID-19 cases who presented with occlusive pulmonary embolism (PE) strongly supporting a hypercoagulable state incurred by SARS-CoV-2. This is significant as it is one of the early reports of such an initial presentation of COVID-19 in the USA. Through our report, we invite the medical community to share a perspective about long-term management guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prompt future research.

6.
3 Biotech ; 11(4): 198, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157008

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of March 13, 2021, more than 118.9 million cases were infected with COVID-19 worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA beta-CoV. Most COVID-19 infected individuals recover within 1-3 weeks. Nevertheless, approximately 5% of patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and other systemic complications, leading to death. Structural genetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 have shown genomic resemblances but a low evolutionary correlation to SARS-CoV-1 responsible for the 2002-2004 outbreak. The S glycoprotein is critical for cell adhesion and the entrance of the virus into the host. The process of cell entry uses the cellular receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Recent evidence proposed that the CD147 as a SARS-CoV-2's potential receptor. The viral genome is mainly held by two non-structural proteins (NSPs), ORF1a and ORF1ab, along with structural proteins. Although NSPs are conserved among the ßCoVs, mutations in NSP2 and NSP3 may play critical roles in transmitting the virus and cell tropism. To date, no specific/targeted anti-viral treatments exist. Notably, more than 50 COVID-19 candidate vaccines in clinical trials, and a few being administered. Preventive precautions are the primary strategy to limit the viral load transmission and spread, emphasizing the urgent need for developing significant drug targets and vaccines against COVID-19. This review provides a cumulative overview of the genomic structure, transmission, phylogeny of SARS-CoV-2 from Indian clusters, treatment options, updated discoveries, and future standpoints for COVID-19. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02749-0.

7.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 144: 110708, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046533

ABSTRACT

At the dawn of the year 2020, the world was hit by a significant pandemic COVID-19, that traumatized the entire planet. The infectious spread grew in leaps and bounds and forced the policymakers and governments to move towards lockdown. The lockdown further compelled people to stay under house arrest, which further resulted in an outbreak of emotions on social media platforms. Perceiving people's emotional state during these times becomes critically and strategically important for the government and the policymakers. In this regard, a novel emotion care scheme has been proposed in this paper to analyze multimodal textual data contained in real-time tweets related to COVID-19. Moreover, this paper studies 8-scale emotions (Anger, Anticipation, Disgust, Fear, Joy, Sadness, Surprise, and Trust) over multiple categories such as nature, lockdown, health, education, market, and politics. This is the first of its kind linguistic analysis on multiple modes pertaining to the pandemic to the best of our understanding. Taking India as a case study, we inferred from this textual analysis that 'joy' has been lesser towards everything (~9-15%) but nature (~17%) due to the apparent fact of lessened pollution. The education system entailed more trust (~29%) due to teachers' fraternity's consistent efforts. The health sector witnessed sadness (~16%) and fear (~18%) as the dominant emotions among the masses as human lives were at stake. Additionally, the state-wise and emotion-wise depiction is also provided. An interactive internet application has also been developed for the same.

8.
Results Phys ; 21: 103813, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032742

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a pandemic that has become a concern for the whole world. This disease has stepped out to its greatest extent and is expanding day by day. Coronavirus, termed as a worldwide disease, has caused more than 8 lakh deaths worldwide. The foremost cause of the spread of coronavirus is SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which are part of the coronavirus family. Thus, predicting the patients suffering from such pandemic diseases would help to formulate the difference in inaccurate and infeasible time duration. This paper mainly focuses on the prediction of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 using the B-cells dataset. The paper also proposes different ensemble learning strategies that came out to be beneficial while making predictions. The predictions are made using various machine learning models. The numerous machine learning models, such as SVM, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbors, AdaBoost, Gradient boosting, XGBoost, Random forest, ensembles, and neural networks are used in predicting and analyzing the dataset. The most accurate result was obtained using the proposed algorithm with 0.919 AUC score and 87.248% validation accuracy for predicting SARS-CoV and 0.923 AUC and 87.7934% validation accuracy for predicting SARS-CoV-2 virus.

9.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937530

ABSTRACT

In the recent of years, the use of lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) for RNA delivery has gained considerable attention, with a large number in the clinical pipeline as vaccine candidates or to treat a wide range of diseases. Microfluidics offers considerable advantages for their manufacture due to its scalability, reproducibility and fast preparation. Thus, in this study, we have evaluated operating and formulation parameters to be considered when developing LNPs. Among them, the flow rate ratio (FRR) and the total flow rate (TFR) have been shown to significantly influence the physicochemical characteristics of the produced particles. In particular, increasing the TFR or increasing the FRR decreased the particle size. The amino lipid choice (cationic-DOTAP and DDAB; ionisable-MC3), buffer choice (citrate buffer pH 6 or TRIS pH 7.4) and type of nucleic acid payload (PolyA, ssDNA or mRNA) have also been shown to have an impact on the characteristics of these LNPs. LNPs were shown to have a high (>90%) loading in all cases and were below 100 nm with a low polydispersity index (≤0.25). The results within this paper could be used as a guide for the development and scalable manufacture of LNP systems using microfluidics.

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