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J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(4): 7-13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081653

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a life-threatening condition associated with elevated inflammatory markers and multiple organ injury. A diagnosis of exclusion, it has been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) in children and adults; recently it has been described in some post-COVID-19 vaccinated individuals. The prognosis with supportive care and immunomodulatory therapy is good, although some individuals may require treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here we report a case of a 58-year-old man who developed multi-organ failure after receiving the second dose of the Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. He required critical organ support in the ICU. An extensive workup was done to rule out alternative infectious and inflammatory processes. Following a period of gradual in-hospital convalescence, our patient made a full recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensively described case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in an adult over 50 years of age.

2.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 495-503, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To date, only corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitors have been shown to reduce mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In this literature review, we aimed to summarize infection risk of IL inhibitors, with or without the use of corticosteroids, used to treat hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the following evidence-based medicine reviews: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Embase; Ovid Medline; and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process, In-Data-Review & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions 1946 to April 28, 2021. All relevant articles were identified using the search terms COVID-19 or SARS-coronavirus-2, infections, interleukins, inpatients, adults, and i ncidence. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies of which 2 were meta-analyses, 5 were randomized controlled trials, 9 were prospective studies, and 20 were retrospective studies. When anakinra was compared with control, 2 studies reported an increased risk of infection, and 3 studies reported a similar or decreased incidence of infection. Canakinumab had a lower associated incidence of infection compared with placebo in one study. When sarilumab was compared with placebo, one study reported an increased risk of infection. Nine studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported decreased or no difference in infection risk (odds ratio [OR] for the studies ranged from 0.39-1.21). Fourteen studies comparing tocilizumab with placebo reported an increased risk of infection, ranging from 9.1% to 63.0% (OR for the studies ranged from 1.85-5.04). Infection most commonly presented as bacteremia. Of the 6 studies comparing tocilizumab and corticosteroid use with placebo, 4 reported a nonsignificant increase toward corticosteroids being associated with bacterial infections (OR ranged from 2.76-3.8), and 2 studies reported no increased association with a higher infection risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our literature review showed mixed results with variable significance for the association of IL-6 inhibitors with risk of infections in patients with COVID-19.

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