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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(33): 1052-1056, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994636

ABSTRACT

Work-related factors can contribute to risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and subsequent COVID-19-attributable outcomes, including death. Comparing COVID-19 metrics across industries can help identify workers at highest risk. Elevated COVID-19 mortality rates have been reported among all transportation workers, as well as specifically in public transportation industries (1-3). The California Department of Public Health (CDPH) calculated public transportation industry-specific COVID-19 outbreak incidence during January 2020-May 2022 and analyzed all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 deaths among working-age adults in California to calculate public transportation industry-specific mortality rates during the same period. Overall, 340 confirmed COVID-19 outbreaks, 5,641 outbreak-associated cases, and 537 COVID-19-associated deaths were identified among California public transportation industries. Outbreak incidence was 5.2 times as high (129.1 outbreaks per 1,000 establishments) in the bus and urban transit industry and 3.6 times as high in the air transportation industry (87.7) as in all California industries combined (24.7). Mortality rates were 2.1 times as high (237.4 deaths per 100,000 workers) in transportation support services and 1.8 times as high (211.5) in the bus and urban transit industry as in all industries combined (114.4). Workers in public transportation industries are at higher risk for COVID-19 workplace outbreaks and mortality than the general worker population in California and should be prioritized for COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination and enhanced workplace protection measures.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac246, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948420

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies from vaccination and/or prior infection is critical to the public health response to the pandemic. CalScope is a population-based serosurvey in 7 counties in California. Methods: We invited 200 000 randomly sampled households to enroll up to 1 adult and 1 child between April 20, 2021 and June 16, 2021. We tested all specimens for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins, and each participant completed an online survey. We classified participants into categories: seronegative, antibodies from infection only, antibodies from infection and vaccination, and antibodies from vaccination only. Results: A total of 11 161 households enrolled (5.6%), with 7483 adults and 1375 children completing antibody testing. As of June 2021, 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-37%) of adults and 57% (95% CI, 48%-66%) of children were seronegative; 18% (95% CI, 14%-22%) of adults and 26% (95% CI, 19%-32%) of children had antibodies from infection alone; 9% (95% CI, 6%-11%) of adults and 5% (95% CI, 1%-8%) of children had antibodies from infection and vaccination; and 41% (95% CI, 37%-45%) of adults and 13% (95% CI, 7%-18%) of children had antibodies from vaccination alone. Conclusions: As of June 2021, one third of adults and most children in California were seronegative. Serostatus varied regionally and by demographic group.

3.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1180-1190, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1940013

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To describe which industries have the highest burden of COVID-19 outbreaks in California. Methods. We assigned US census industry codes to COVID-19 outbreaks reported to the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2021, and determined numbers of outbreaks, numbers of outbreak-associated cases, and outbreak incidence levels by industry. We determined characteristics of outbreak-associated cases using individual case data linked to COVID-19 outbreaks. Results. Local health departments reported 19 893 COVID-19 outbreaks and 300 379 outbreak-associated cases to CDPH. The most outbreaks (47.8%) and outbreak-associated cases (54.8%) occurred in the health care and social assistance sector, where outbreak incidence levels were highest in skilled nursing facilities and residential care facilities (1306 and 544 outbreaks per 1000 establishments, respectively). High proportions of outbreaks also occurred in the retail trade (8.6%) and manufacturing (7.9%) sectors. Demographics of outbreak-associated cases varied across industries. Conclusions. Certain California industries, particularly in the health care, manufacturing, and retail sectors, have experienced a high burden of COVID-19 outbreaks during the pandemic. Public Health Implications. Tracking COVID-19 outbreaks by industry may help target prevention efforts, including workforce vaccination. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(8):1180–1190. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306862)

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Spring 2021, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) became the predominant variant in the U.S. Research suggests that Alpha has increased transmissibility compared to non-Alpha lineages. We estimated household secondary infection risk (SIR), assessed characteristics associated with transmission, and compared symptoms of persons with Alpha and non-Alpha infections. METHODS: We followed households with SARS-CoV-2 infection for two weeks in San Diego County and metropolitan Denver, January to April 2021. We collected epidemiologic information and biospecimens for serology, RT-PCR, and whole genome sequencing. We stratified SIR and symptoms by lineage, and identified characteristics associated with transmission using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: We investigated 127 households with 322 household contacts; 72 households (56.7%) had member(s) with secondary infections. SIRs were not significantly higher for Alpha (61.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52.4-69.0%]) than non-Alpha (55.6% [CI 44.7-65.9%], P = 0.49). In households with Alpha, persons who identified as Asian or Hispanic/Latino had significantly higher SIRs than those who identified as White (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Close contact (e.g., kissing, hugging) with primary cases was associated with increased transmission for all lineages. Persons with Alpha infection were more likely to report constitutional symptoms than persons with non-Alpha (86.9% vs. 76.8%, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Household SIRs were similar for Alpha and non-Alpha. Comparable SIRs may be due to saturation of transmission risk in households owing to extensive close contact, or true lack of difference in transmission rates. Avoiding close contact within households may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission for all lineages among household members.

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1864007

ABSTRACT

Background Understanding the distribution of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from vaccination and/or prior infection is critical to the public health response to the pandemic. CalScope is a population-based serosurvey in 7 counties in California. Methods We invited 200,000 randomly sampled households to enroll up to 1 adult and 1 child between April 20, 2021 and June 16, 2021. We tested all specimen for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins, and each participant completed an online survey. We classified participants into categories: seronegative, antibodies from infection only, antibodies from infection and vaccination, and antibodies from vaccination only. Results 11,161 households enrolled (5.6%), with 7,483 adults and 1,375 children completing antibody testing. As of June 2021, 33% (95%CI [28%, 37%]) of adults and 57% (95%CI[48%, 66%]) of children were seronegative;18% (95%CI[14%, 22%]) of adults and 26% (95%CI[19%, 32%]) of children had antibodies from infection alone;9% (95%CI[6%,11%]) of adults and 5% (95%CI[1%, 8%]) of children had antibodies from infection and vaccination;and 41% (95%CI[37%, 45%]) of adults and 13% (95%CI [7%, 18%]) of children had antibodies from vaccination alone. Conclusions As of June 2021, a third of adults and most children in California were seronegative. Serostatus varied regionally and by demographic group.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266058, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on U.S. COVID-19 mortality rates by occupation is limited. We aimed to characterize 2020 COVID-19 fatalities among working Californians to inform preventive strategies. METHODS: We identified laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 fatalities with dates of death in 2020 by matching death certificates to the state's COVID-19 case registry. Working status for decedents aged 18-64 years was determined from state employment records, death certificates, and case registry data and classified as "confirmed working," "likely working," or "not working." We calculated age-adjusted overall and occupation-specific COVID-19 mortality rates using 2019 American Community Survey denominators. RESULTS: COVID-19 accounted for 8,050 (9.9%) of 81,468 fatalities among Californians 18-64 years old. Of these decedents, 2,486 (30.9%) were matched to state employment records and classified as "confirmed working." The remainder were classified as "likely working" (n = 4,121 [51.2%]) or "not working" (n = 1,443 [17.9%]) using death certificate and case registry data. Confirmed and likely working COVID-19 decedents were predominantly male (76.3%), Latino (68.7%), and foreign-born (59.6%), with high school or less education (67.9%); 7.8% were Black. The overall age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality rate was 30.0 per 100,000 workers (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.3-30.8). Workers in nine occupational groups had age-adjusted mortality rates higher than this overall rate, including those in farming (78.0; 95% CI, 68.7-88.2); material moving (77.8; 95% CI, 70.2-85.9); construction (62.4; 95% CI, 57.7-67.4); production (60.2; 95% CI, 55.7-65.0); and transportation (57.2; 95% CI, 52.2-62.5) occupations. While occupational differences in mortality were evident across demographic groups, mortality rates were three-fold higher for male compared with female workers and three- to seven-fold higher for Latino and Black workers compared with Asian and White workers. CONCLUSION: Californians in manual labor and in-person service occupations experienced disproportionate COVID-19 mortality, with the highest rates observed among male, Latino, and Black workers; these occupational group should be prioritized for prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Young Adult
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1382-1389, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions, and understanding of barriers to uptake, are necessary to inform vaccine rollout. METHODS: We enrolled cases (testing positive) and controls (testing negative) from among the population whose SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic test results from 24 February to 29 April 2021 were reported to the California Department of Public Health. Participants were matched on age, sex, and geographic region. We assessed participants' self-reported history of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine receipt (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273). Participants were considered fully vaccinated 2 weeks after second dose receipt. Among unvaccinated participants, we assessed willingness to receive vaccination. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) via the matched odds ratio of prior vaccination, comparing cases with controls. RESULTS: We enrolled 1023 eligible participants aged ≥18 years. Among 525 cases, 71 (13.5%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 20 (3.8%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among 498 controls, 185 (37.1%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 86 (16.3%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Two weeks after second dose receipt, VE was 87.0% (95% confidence interval: 68.6-94.6%) and 86.2% (68.4-93.9%) for BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively. Fully vaccinated participants receiving either product experienced 91.3% (79.3-96.3%) and 68.3% (27.9-85.7%) VE against symptomatic and asymptomatic infection, respectively. Among unvaccinated participants, 42.4% (159/375) residing in rural regions and 23.8% (67/281) residing in urban regions reported hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Authorized mRNA-based vaccines are effective at reducing documented SARS-CoV-2 infections within the general population of California. Vaccine hesitancy presents a barrier to reaching coverage levels needed for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are recommended for COVID-19 prevention. However, the effectiveness of NPIs in preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains poorly quantified. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative design case-control study enrolling cases (testing positive for SARS-CoV-2) and controls (testing negative) with molecular SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test results reported to California Department of Public Health between 24 February-12 November, 2021. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of case status among participants who reported contact with an individual known or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 ("high-risk exposure") ≤14 days before testing. RESULTS: 751 of 1448 cases (52%) and 255 of 1443 controls (18%) reported high-risk exposures ≤14 days before testing. Adjusted odds of case status were 3.02-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.22) higher when high-risk exposures occurred with household members (vs. other contacts), 2.10-fold (1.05-4.21) higher when exposures occurred indoors (vs. outdoors only), and 2.15-fold (1.27-3.67) higher when exposures lasted ≥3 hours (vs. shorter durations) among unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated individuals; excess risk associated with such exposures was mitigated among fully-vaccinated individuals. Cases were less likely than controls to report mask usage during high-risk exposures (aOR=0.50 [0.29-0.85]). The adjusted odds of case status was lower for fully-vaccinated (aOR=0.25 [0.15-0.43]) participants compared to unvaccinated participants. Benefits of mask usage were greatest among unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated participants, and in interactions involving non-household contacts or interactions occurring without physical contact. CONCLUSIONS: NPIs reduced the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection following high-risk exposure. Vaccine effectiveness was substantial for partially and fully vaccinated persons.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(6): 212-216, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687589

ABSTRACT

The use of face masks or respirators (N95/KN95) is recommended to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Well-fitting face masks and respirators effectively filter virus-sized particles in laboratory conditions (2,3), though few studies have assessed their real-world effectiveness in preventing acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). A test-negative design case-control study enrolled randomly selected California residents who had received a test result for SARS-CoV-2 during February 18-December 1, 2021. Face mask or respirator use was assessed among 652 case-participants (residents who had received positive test results for SARS-CoV-2) and 1,176 matched control-participants (residents who had received negative test results for SARS-CoV-2) who self-reported being in indoor public settings during the 2 weeks preceding testing and who reported no known contact with anyone with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection during this time. Always using a face mask or respirator in indoor public settings was associated with lower adjusted odds of a positive test result compared with never wearing a face mask or respirator in these settings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.24-0.82). Among 534 participants who specified the type of face covering they typically used, wearing N95/KN95 respirators (aOR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.05-0.64) or surgical masks (aOR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.13-0.90) was associated with significantly lower adjusted odds of a positive test result compared with not wearing any face mask or respirator. These findings reinforce that in addition to being up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, consistently wearing a face mask or respirator in indoor public settings reduces the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using a respirator offers the highest level of personal protection against acquiring infection, although it is most important to wear a mask or respirator that is comfortable and can be used consistently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Masks , N95 Respirators , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , California/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Natl Med J India ; 34(4): 238-239, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675559

ABSTRACT

It is well-documented that during a war, a natural disaster or a pandemic, women bear the worse brunt of the crisis. Worldwide, mental stress, domestic violence and cybercrime against women are widespread and under-reported during Covid-19. Creating boundaries in such situations is extremely important. It is imperative that policy-makers adopt a gender perspective to understand and analyse the effects of the pandemic and the lockdown on the economy, livelihoods and social structures. United Nations has called for urgent action and for governments to put women's safety first as they respond to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 9-19, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581410

ABSTRACT

State and local health departments established the California Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Respiratory Virus Sentinel Surveillance System to conduct enhanced surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens at sentinel outpatient testing sites in 10 counties throughout California, USA. We describe results obtained during May 10, 2020‒June 12, 2021, and compare persons with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR results by using Poisson regression. We detected SARS-CoV-2 in 1,696 (19.6%) of 8,662 specimens. Among 7,851 specimens tested by respiratory panel, rhinovirus/enterovirus was detected in 906 (11.5%) specimens and other respiratory pathogens in 136 (1.7%) specimens. We also detected 23 co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and another pathogen. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with male participants, an age of 35-49 years, Latino race/ethnicity, obesity, and work in transportation occupations. Sentinel surveillance can provide useful virologic and epidemiologic data to supplement other disease monitoring activities and might become increasingly useful as routine testing decreases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296842

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Importance Understanding how SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence varies regionally across California is critical to the public health response to the pandemic. Objective To estimate how many Californians have antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from prior infection or vaccination. Design Wave 1 of CalScope: a repeated cross-sectional serosurvey of adults and children enrolled between April 20, 2021 and June 16, 2021. Setting A population-based random sample of households in seven counties in California (Alameda, El Dorado, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey, San Diego, and Shasta) were invited to complete an at-home SARS-CoV-2 antibody test and survey instrument. Participants Invitations were sent to 200,000 randomly selected households in the seven counties. From each household, 1 adult (18 years and older) and 1 child (aged 6 months to 17 years) could enroll in the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Main Outcome(s) and Measures All specimens were tested for antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The primary outcome was serostatus category, which was determined based on antibody test results and self-reported vaccination status: seronegative, antibodies from infection only, antibodies from infection and vaccination, and antibodies from vaccination alone. We used inverse probability of selection weights and iterative proportional fitting to account for non-response. Results 11,161 households enrolled in wave 1 of CalScope, with 7,483 adults and 1,375 children completing antibody testing. As of June 2021, 27% (95%CI [23%, 31%]) of adults and 30% (95%CI [24%, 36%]) of children had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection;33% (95%CI [28%, 37%]) of adults and 57% (95%CI [48%, 66%]) of children were seronegative. Serostatus varied regionally. Californians 65 years or older were most likely to have antibodies from vaccine alone (59%;95%CI [48%, 69%]) and children between 5-11 years old were most likely to have antibodies from prior infection alone (36%;95%CI [21%, 52%]). Conclusions and Relevance As of June 2021, a third of adults in California and most children under 18 remained seronegative. Seroprevalence varied regionally and by demographic group, suggesting that some regions or populations might remain more vulnerable to subsequent surges than others. Key Points Question What is the prevalence of vaccine and infection derived antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in adults and children in California? Findings In this population-based serosurvey that included 11,161 households, as of June 2021, 33% of adults and 57% of children were seronegative;18% of adults and 26% of children had antibodies from infection alone;9% of adults and 5% of children had antibodies from both infection and vaccination;and 41% of adults and 13% of children had antibodies from vaccination alone. Meaning Serostatus varied considerably across geographic regions, suggesting that certain areas might be at increased risk for future COVID-19 surges.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are recommended for COVID-19 mitigation. However, the effectiveness of NPIs in preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission remains poorly quantified. Methods We conducted a test-negative design case-control study enrolling cases (testing positive for SARS-CoV-2) and controls (testing negative) with molecular SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test results reported to California Department of Public Health between 24 February-26 September, 2021. We used conditional logistic regression to assess predictors of case status among participants who reported contact with an individual known or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 (“high-risk exposure”) within ≤14 days of testing. Results 643 of 1280 cases (50.2%) and 204 of 1263 controls (16.2%) reported high-risk exposures ≤14 days before testing. Adjusted odds of case status were 2.94-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.66-5.25) higher when high-risk exposures occurred with household members (vs. other contacts), 2.06-fold (1.03-4.21) higher when exposures occurred indoors (vs. not indoors), and 2.58-fold (1.50-4.49) higher when exposures lasted ≥3 hours (vs. shorter durations) among unvaccinated and partially-vaccinated individuals;excess risk associated with such exposures was mitigated among fully-vaccinated individuals. Mask usage by participants or their contacts during high-risk exposures reduced adjusted odds of case status by 48% (8-72%). Adjusted odds of case status were 68% (32-84%) and 77% (59-87%) lower for partially- and fully-vaccinated participants, respectively, than for unvaccinated participants. Benefits of mask usage were greatest when exposures lasted ≥3 hours, occurred indoors, or involved non-household contacts. Conclusions NPIs reduced the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection following high-risk exposure. Vaccine effectiveness was substantial for partially and fully vaccinated persons. KEY POINTS SARS-CoV-2 infection risk was greatest for unvaccinated participants when exposures to known or suspected cases occurred indoors or lasted ≥3 hours. Face mask usage when participants were exposed to a known or suspect case reduced odds of infection by 48%.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294101

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Estimates of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions, and understanding of barriers to uptake, are necessary to inform vaccine rollout. Methods We enrolled cases (testing positive) and controls (testing negative) from among the population whose SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic test results from 24 February-29 April 2021 were reported to the California Department of Public Health. Participants were matched on age, sex, and geographic region. We assessed participants’ self-reported history of COVID-19 vaccine receipt (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273). Participants were considered fully vaccinated two weeks after second dose receipt. Among unvaccinated participants, we assessed willingness to receive vaccination, when eligible. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) via the matched odds ratio of prior vaccination, comparing cases with controls. Results We enrolled 1023 eligible participants aged ≥18 years. Among 525 cases, 71 (13.5%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273;20 (3.8%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among 498 controls, 185 (37.1%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273;86 (16.3%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Two weeks after second dose receipt, VE was 86.8% (95% confidence interval: 68.6-94.7%) and 85.6% (69.1-93.9%) for BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively. Fully vaccinated participants receiving either product experienced 91.3% (79.7-96.3%) and 68.3% (28.5-86.0%) VE against symptomatic and asymptomatic infection, respectively. Among unvaccinated participants, 42.4% (159/375) residing in rural regions and 23.8% (67/281) residing in urban regions reported hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions Authorized mRNA vaccines are effective at reducing documented SARS-CoV-2 infections within the general population of California. Vaccine hesitancy presents a barrier to reaching coverage levels needed for herd immunity. Brief points Vaccination is preventing documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in California, with 68% and 91% effectiveness against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was equivalent for BNT126b2 and mRNA-1273. Only 66% of unvaccinated participants were willing to receive the vaccine when eligible.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2136853, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549152

ABSTRACT

Importance: Tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 are respiratory diseases that disproportionately occur among medically underserved populations; little is known about their epidemiologic intersection. Objective: To characterize persons diagnosed with TB and COVID-19 in California. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of population-based public health surveillance data assessed the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of California residents who were diagnosed with TB (including cases diagnosed and reported between September 3, 2019, and December 31, 2020) and COVID-19 (including confirmed cases based on positive results on polymerase chain reaction tests and probable cases based on positive results on antigen assays reported through February 2, 2021) in close succession compared with those who were diagnosed with TB before the COVID-19 pandemic (between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019) or diagnosed with COVID-19 alone (through February 2, 2021). This analysis included 3 402 713 California residents with COVID-19 alone, 6280 with TB before the pandemic, and 91 with confirmed or probable COVID-19 diagnosed within 120 days of a TB diagnosis (ie, TB/COVID-19). Exposures: Sociodemographic characteristics, medical risk factors, factors associated with TB severity, and health equity index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of reported successive TB and COVID-19 (TB/COVID-19) diagnoses within 120 days, frequency of deaths, and age-adjusted mortality rates. Results: Among the 91 persons with TB/COVID-19, the median age was 58.0 years (range, 3.0-95.0 years; IQR, 41.0-73.0 years); 52 persons (57.1%) were male; 81 (89.0%) were born outside the US; and 28 (30.8%) were Asian or Pacific Islander, 4 (4.4%) were Black, 55 (60.4%) were Hispanic or Latino, 4 (4.4%) were White. The frequency of reported COVID-19 among those who received a TB diagnosis between September 3, 2019, and December 31, 2020, was 225 of 2210 persons (10.2%), which was similar to that of the general population (3 402 804 of 39 538 223 persons [8.6%]). Compared with persons with TB before the pandemic, those with TB/COVID-19 were more likely to be Hispanic or Latino (2285 of 6279 persons [36.4%; 95% CI, 35.2%-37.6%] vs 55 of 91 persons [60.4%; 95% CI, 49.6%-70.5%], respectively; P < .001), reside in low health equity census tracts (1984 of 6027 persons [32.9%; 95% CI, 31.7%-34.1%] vs 40 of 89 persons [44.9%; 95% CI, 34.4%-55.9%]; P = .003), live in the US longer before receiving a TB diagnosis (median, 19.7 years [IQR, 7.2-32.3 years] vs 23.1 years [IQR, 15.2-31.5 years]; P = .03), and have diabetes (1734 of 6280 persons [27.6%; 95% CI, 26.5%-28.7%] vs 42 of 91 persons [46.2%; 95% CI, 35.6%-56.9%]; P < .001). The frequency of deaths among those with TB/COVID-19 successively diagnosed within 30 days (8 of 34 persons [23.5%; 95% CI, 10.8%-41.2%]) was more than twice that of persons with TB before the pandemic (631 of 5545 persons [11.4%; 95% CI, 10.6%-12.2%]; P = .05) and 20 times that of persons with COVID-19 alone (42 171 of 3 402 713 persons [1.2%; 95% CI, 1.2%-1.3%]; P < .001). Persons with TB/COVID-19 who died were older (median, 81.0 years; IQR, 75.0-85.0 years) than those who survived (median, 54.0 years; IQR, 37.5-68.5 years; P < .001). The age-adjusted mortality rate remained higher among persons with TB/COVID-19 (74.2 deaths per 1000 persons; 95% CI, 26.2-122.1 deaths per 1000 persons) compared with either disease alone (TB before the pandemic: 56.3 deaths per 1000 persons [95% CI, 51.2-61.4 deaths per 1000 persons]; COVID-19 only: 17.1 deaths per 1000 persons [95% CI, 16.9-17.2 deaths per 1000 persons]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis, TB/COVID-19 was disproportionately diagnosed among California residents who were Hispanic or Latino, had diabetes, or were living in low health equity census tracts. These results suggest that tuberculosis and COVID-19 occurring together may be associated with increases in mortality compared with either disease alone, especially among older adults. Addressing health inequities and integrating prevention efforts could avert the occurrence of concurrent COVID-19 and TB and potentially reduce deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Mortality/trends , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/mortality
16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab379, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: California has reported the largest number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases of any US state, with more than 3.5 million confirmed as of March 2021. However, the full breadth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in California is unknown as reported cases only represent a fraction of all infections. METHODS: We conducted a population-based serosurvey, utilizing mailed, home-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing along with a demographic and behavioral survey. We weighted data from a random sample to represent the adult California population and estimated period seroprevalence overall and by participant characteristics. Seroprevalence estimates were adjusted for waning antibodies to produce statewide estimates of cumulative incidence, the infection fatality ratio (IFR), and the reported fraction. RESULTS: California's SARS-CoV-2 weighted seroprevalence during August-December 2020 was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.8%-7.4%). Estimated cumulative incidence as of November 2, 2020, was 8.7% (95% CrI, 6.4%-11.5%), indicating that 2 660 441 adults (95% CrI, 1 959 218-3 532 380) had been infected. The estimated IFR was 0.8% (95% CrI, 0.6%-1.0%), and the estimated percentage of infections reported to the California Department of Public Health was 31%. Disparately high risk for infection was observed among persons of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity and people with no health insurance and who reported working outside the home. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first statewide SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence estimate among adults in California. As of November 2020, ~1 in 3 SARS-CoV-2 infections in California adults had been identified by public health surveillance. When accounting for unreported SARS-CoV-2 infections, disparities by race/ethnicity seen in case-based surveillance persist.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2923-2926, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504649

ABSTRACT

During September 1, 2020-April 30, 2021, the California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA, received 255 positive influenza molecular test results that matched with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 molecular test results; 58 (23%) persons were co-infected. Influenza activity was minimal in California, and co-infections were sporadic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2923-2926, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444020

ABSTRACT

During September 1, 2020-April 30, 2021, the California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, USA, received 255 positive influenza molecular test results that matched with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 molecular test results; 58 (23%) persons were co-infected. Influenza activity was minimal in California, and co-infections were sporadic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab415, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405050

ABSTRACT

Vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduce transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, but their effectiveness depends on coverage and adherence levels. We used scenario modeling to evaluate their effects on cases and deaths averted and herd immunity. NPIs and vaccines worked synergistically in different parts of the pandemic to reduce disease burden.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(8): 1382-1389, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine effectiveness under real-world conditions, and understanding of barriers to uptake, are necessary to inform vaccine rollout. METHODS: We enrolled cases (testing positive) and controls (testing negative) from among the population whose SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic test results from 24 February to 29 April 2021 were reported to the California Department of Public Health. Participants were matched on age, sex, and geographic region. We assessed participants' self-reported history of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine receipt (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273). Participants were considered fully vaccinated 2 weeks after second dose receipt. Among unvaccinated participants, we assessed willingness to receive vaccination. We measured vaccine effectiveness (VE) via the matched odds ratio of prior vaccination, comparing cases with controls. RESULTS: We enrolled 1023 eligible participants aged ≥18 years. Among 525 cases, 71 (13.5%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 20 (3.8%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Among 498 controls, 185 (37.1%) received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273; 86 (16.3%) were fully vaccinated with either product. Two weeks after second dose receipt, VE was 87.0% (95% confidence interval: 68.6-94.6%) and 86.2% (68.4-93.9%) for BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively. Fully vaccinated participants receiving either product experienced 91.3% (79.3-96.3%) and 68.3% (27.9-85.7%) VE against symptomatic and asymptomatic infection, respectively. Among unvaccinated participants, 42.4% (159/375) residing in rural regions and 23.8% (67/281) residing in urban regions reported hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Authorized mRNA-based vaccines are effective at reducing documented SARS-CoV-2 infections within the general population of California. Vaccine hesitancy presents a barrier to reaching coverage levels needed for herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
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