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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac064, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948416

ABSTRACT

Profoundly B-cell-depleted patients can have prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections with evidence of active viral replication, due to inability to mount an adequate humoral response to clear the virus. We present 3 B-cell-depleted patients with prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 infection who were successfully treated with a combination of casirivimab/imdevimab and remdesivir.

2.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1268, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on newer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies (remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma) in solid organ transplant recipients; concerns had been raised regarding possible adverse impact on allograft function or secondary infections. METHODS: We studied 77 solid organ transplant inpatients with COVID-19 during 2 therapeutic eras (Era 1: March-May 2020, 21 patients; and Era 2: June-November 2020, 56 patients) and 52 solid organ transplant outpatients. RESULTS: In Era 1, no patients received remdesivir or dexamethasone, and 4 of 21 (19.4%) received convalescent plasma, whereas in Era 2, remdesivir (24/56, 42.9%), dexamethasone (24/56, 42.9%), and convalescent plasma (40/56, 71.4%) were commonly used. Mortality was low across both eras, 4 of 77 (5.6%), and rejection occurred in only 2 of 77 (2.8%) inpatients; infections were similar in hypoxemic patients with or without dexamethasone. Preexisting graft dysfunction was associated with greater need for hospitalization, higher severity score, and lower survival. Acute kidney injury was present in 37.3% of inpatients; renal function improved more rapidly in patients who received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Post-COVID-19 renal and liver function were comparable between eras, out to 90 d. CONCLUSIONS: Newer COVID-19 therapies did not appear to have a deleterious effect on allograft function, and infectious complications were comparable.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6656-6667, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.METHODSWe retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.RESULTSWe identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.CONCLUSIONIn this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.FUNDINGNIH grant P01 CA23766 and NIH/National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA008748.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Autografts , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa598, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is currently no single treatment that mitigates all harms caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 antagonist, may have a role as an adjunctive immune-modulating therapy. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The intervention group comprised patients who received tocilizumab; the comparator arm was drawn from patients who did not receive tocilizumab. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality censored at 28 days; secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality at discharge, time to clinical improvement, and rates of secondary infections. Marginal structural Cox models via inverse probability treatment weights were applied to estimate the effect of tocilizumab. A time-dependent propensity score-matching method was used to generate a 1:1 match for tocilizumab recipients; infectious diseases experts then manually reviewed these matched charts to identify secondary infections. RESULTS: This analysis included 90 tocilizumab recipients and 1669 controls. Under the marginal structural Cox model, tocilizumab was associated with a 62% reduced hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.70) and no change in time to clinical improvement (aHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.87). The 1:1 matched data set also showed a lower mortality rate (27.8% vs 34.4%) and reduced hazards of death (aHR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.88). Elevated inflammatory markers were associated with reduced hazards of death among tocilizumab recipients compared with controls. Secondary infection rates were similar between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab may provide benefit in a subgroup of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who have elevated biomarkers of hyperinflammation, without increasing the risk of secondary infection.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 20(8): 2254-2259, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155106

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and rapidly spreading disease. There are limited published data on the epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 infection among organ transplant recipients. After initial flulike symptoms, progression to an inflammatory phase may occur, characterized by cytokine release rapidly leading to respiratory and multiorgan failure. We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab. We also highlight the role of lung ultrasonography in early diagnosis of the inflammatory phase of COVID-19. Future investigation of the effects of immunomodulators among transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection will be important.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Dialysis , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/surgery , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome
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