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1.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humans can be infected with various coronaviruses that cause serious illness and death. One such pandemic strain of coronavirus was recently identified in December 2019 and lead to a devastating outbreak in Wuhan city of China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is highly contagious which causes symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to highlight the current understanding, research and therapeutic updates of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted for research papers and patents in context to COVID-19. All articles with respect to this subject was taken from various public repositories such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect (Elsevier), Springer, Web of Science, etc. Results: The present analysis showed that key areas of the inventions were the vaccines and diagnostic kits apart from the composition for the treatment of CoV. It was also observed that no specific vaccine treatments are available for the treatment of 2019-nCov; however, developing novel chemical or biological drugs and kits for early diagnosis, prevention, and disease management is the primary governing topic among the patented inventions. The present study also indicates potential research opportunities for the future, particularly to combat 2019-nCoV. The current focus of the researches has turned towards developing four potential treatments including development of candidate vaccine, development of novel potential drugs, repurposing of existing drugs and development of convalescent plasma therapy. The PCR based diagnosis is the gold standard for the COVID-19 testing but it require resource time, expertise and high associated cost hence the researchers are also developing different diagnosis methods for the COVID-19. Although vaccines are being developed by various companies and have passed the pre-clinical stages but still there exists no guarantee for these to become the effective vaccine. The current treatments which are being used for COVID-19 patients are not well established and have limited success. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has challenged the medical, economic and public health infrastructure across globe. There is urgent need to explore all available and possible methods/approaches to study this disease for drug and vaccine development at the earliest.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 832106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809389

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most devastating pandemic of the century, which is still far from over. The remarkable success of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines is the working hope, but the evolving variants are the huge concern that can turn the tide. Potential immune escape mutations (PIEMs) in the past and circulating variants were not studied at large scale (all available data). Hence, the conservation of antigenic determinants (epitopes) was analyzed in all available sequences of SARS-CoV-2 according to time (months), proteins, hosts, and variants. Numerous highly conserved B- and T-cell epitopes were identified in 24 proteins of SARS-CoV-2. A decrease in the conservation of epitopes with time was observed in almost all proteins, which was more rapid in neutralizing epitopes. Delta variant still has the highest PIEM in the circulating strains, which pose threat to the effectiveness of current vaccines. The inclusion of identified, highly conserved, and important epitopes in subunit vaccines can increase vaccine effectiveness against evolving variants. Trends in the conservation of epitopes in different proteins, hosts, and variants with time may also help to inspire the counter measure against the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
3.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humans can be infected with various coronaviruses that cause serious illness and death. One such pandemic strain of coronavirus was recently identified in December 2019 and lead to a devastating outbreak in Wuhan city of China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is highly contagious which causes symptoms such as fever, cough and shortness of breath. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to highlight the current understanding, research and therapeutic updates of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted for research papers and patents in context to COVID-19. All articles with respect to this subject was taken from various public repositories such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect (Elsevier), Springer, Web of Science, etc. Results: The present analysis showed that key areas of the inventions were the vaccines and diagnostic kits apart from the composition for the treatment of CoV. It was also observed that no specific vaccine treatments are available for the treatment of 2019-nCov; however, developing novel chemical or biological drugs and kits for early diagnosis, prevention, and disease management is the primary governing topic among the patented inventions. The present study also indicates potential research opportunities for the future, particularly to combat 2019-nCoV. The current focus of the researches has turned towards developing four potential treatments including development of candidate vaccine, development of novel potential drugs, repurposing of existing drugs and development of convalescent plasma therapy. The PCR based diagnosis is the gold standard for the COVID-19 testing but it require resource time, expertise and high associated cost hence the researchers are also developing different diagnosis methods for the COVID-19. Although vaccines are being developed by various companies and have passed the pre-clinical stages but still there exists no guarantee for these to become the effective vaccine. The current treatments which are being used for COVID-19 patients are not well established and have limited success. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has challenged the medical, economic and public health infrastructure across globe. There is urgent need to explore all available and possible methods/approaches to study this disease for drug and vaccine development at the earliest.

4.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 184, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808195

ABSTRACT

Background: India first detected SARS-CoV-2, causal agent of COVID-19 in late January 2020, imported from Wuhan, China. From March 2020 onwards, the importation of cases from countries in the rest of the world followed by seeding of local transmission triggered further outbreaks in India. Methods: We used ARTIC protocol-based tiling amplicon sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 (n=104) from different states of India using a combination of MinION and MinIT sequencing from Oxford Nanopore Technology to understand how introduction and local transmission occurred. Results: The analyses revealed multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 genomes, including the A2a cluster from Europe and the USA, A3 cluster from Middle East and A4 cluster (haplotype redefined) from Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia) and Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan). The local transmission and persistence of genomes A4, A2a and A3 was also observed in the studied locations. The most prevalent genomes with patterns of variance (confined in a cluster) remain unclassified, and are here proposed as A4-clade based on its divergence within the A cluster. Conclusions: The viral haplotypes may link their persistence to geo-climatic conditions and host response. Multipronged strategies including molecular surveillance based on real-time viral genomic data is of paramount importance for a timely management of the pandemic.

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