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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0143, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical outcome of mechanically ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome, who received corticosteroid with those who did not. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Intensive care setting. PATIENTS: All adult mechanically ventilated patients, who were admitted to the ICU between March 20, 2020, and May 10, 2020, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cohort was divided into two groups based on corticosteroid administration. The primary outcome variable was ventilator-free days at day 28. Secondary outcome variable was ICU-free days at day 30, and hospital-free days at day 30. Consecutive 61 mechanically ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome were analyzed. Patient in corticosteroid group as compared with noncorticosteroid group have higher 28-day ventilator-free days (mean, 10.2; median, 7 [interquartile range, 0-22.3] vs mean, 4.7; median, 0 [interquartile range, 0-11]; p = 0.01).There was no significant difference noted in secondary outcomes (ICU-free days at day 30 and hospital-free days at day 30). CONCLUSIONS: Among mechanically ventilated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, corticosteroids use was associated with significant improvement in 28-day ventilator-free days at day 28, but no significant improvement in ICU-free days at day 30, and hospital-free days at day 30.

2.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715131

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 patients present a clinical and laboratory overlap with other hyperinflammatory conditions such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). However, the underlying mechanisms of these conditions remain to be explored. Here, we investigated the transcriptome of 1596 individuals, including patients with COVID-19 in comparison to healthy controls, other acute inflammatory states (HLH, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children [MIS-C], Kawasaki disease [KD]), and different respiratory infections (seasonal coronavirus, influenza, bacterial pneumonia). We observed that COVID-19 and HLH share immunological pathways (cytokine/chemokine signaling and neutrophil-mediated immune responses), including gene signatures that stratify COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and COVID-19_nonICU patients. Of note, among the common differentially expressed genes (DEG), there is a cluster of neutrophil-associated genes that reflects a generalized hyperinflammatory state since it is also dysregulated in patients with KD and bacterial pneumonia. These genes are dysregulated at the protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins that point to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Neutrophil Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295929

ABSTRACT

Clinical and hyperinflammatory overlap between COVID-19 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has been reported. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that COVID-19 and HLH have an overlap of signaling pathways and gene signatures commonly dysregulated, which were defined by investigating the transcriptomes of 1253 subjects (controls, COVID-19, and HLH patients) using microarray, bulk RNA-sequencing (RNAseq), and single-cell RNAseq (scRNAseq). COVID-19 and HLH share pathways involved in cytokine and chemokine signaling as well as neutrophil-mediated immune responses that associate with COVID-19 severity. These genes are dysregulated at protein level across several COVID-19 studies and form an interconnected network with differentially expressed plasma proteins which converge to neutrophil hyperactivation in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. scRNAseq analysis indicated that these genes are specifically upregulated across different leukocyte populations, including lymphocyte subsets and immature neutrophils. Artificial intelligence modeling confirmed the strong association of these genes with COVID-19 severity. Thus, our work indicates putative therapeutic pathways for intervention.<br><br>Funding: We acknowledge the Latin American Society of Immunodeficiencies (LASID) for providing the research funding of LFS (LASID Fellowship award 2020), and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP grants 2018/18886-9, 2020/01688-0, and 2020/07069-0 to OCM) for financial support. Computational analysis was supported by FAPESP and partially by the grants from Ontario Research Fund (#34876), Natural Sciences Research Council (NSERC #203475), Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI #29272, #225404, #33536), and IBM granted to IJ, the National Institutes of Health (NHLBI) through award HL130704 granted to AJ, as well as the NIH P4 GM108538 granted to KAO and JJC. This study was financed in part by the coordination for the improvement of higher education personnel – Brazil (CAPES) – finance code 001.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. METHODS: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). FINDINGS: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. INTERPRETATION: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 69: 103439, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been associated with Interstitial Lung Disease features. The immune transcriptomic overlap between Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) and COVID-19 has not been investigated. METHODS: we analyzed blood transcript levels of 50 genes known to predict IPF mortality in three COVID-19 and two IPF cohorts. The Scoring Algorithm of Molecular Subphenotypes (SAMS) was applied to distinguish high versus low-risk profiles in all cohorts. SAMS cutoffs derived from the COVID-19 Discovery cohort were used to predict intensive care unit (ICU) status, need for mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality in the COVID-19 Validation cohort. A COVID-19 Single-cell RNA-sequencing cohort was used to identify the cellular sources of the 50-gene risk profiles. The same COVID-19 SAMS cutoffs were used to predict mortality in the IPF cohorts. FINDINGS: 50-gene risk profiles discriminated severe from mild COVID-19 in the Discovery cohort (P = 0·015) and predicted ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality (AUC: 0·77, 0·75, and 0·74, respectively, P < 0·001) in the COVID-19 Validation cohort. In COVID-19, 50-gene expressing cells with a high-risk profile included monocytes, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, while low-risk profile-expressing cells included CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, IgG producing plasmablasts, B cells, NK, and gamma/delta T cells. Same COVID-19 SAMS cutoffs were also predictive of mortality in the University of Chicago (HR:5·26, 95%CI:1·81-15·27, P = 0·0013) and Imperial College of London (HR:4·31, 95%CI:1·81-10·23, P = 0·0016) IPF cohorts. INTERPRETATION: 50-gene risk profiles in peripheral blood predict COVID-19 and IPF outcomes. The cellular sources of these gene expression changes suggest common innate and adaptive immune responses in both diseases. FUNDING: This work was supported in part by National Institute for Health Research Clinician Scientist Fellowship NIHR: CS-2013-13-017 (TMM); Action for Pulmonary Fibrosis Mike Bray fellowship (PLM); The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) through award K01-HL-130704 (AJ); The University of South Florida (USF) Academic Support Fund and the USF Foundation, Ubben Fibrosis Fund (JHM).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis
6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 118, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no prior reports that compare differentially methylated regions of DNA in blood samples from COVID-19 patients to samples collected before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic using a shared epigenotyping platform. We performed a genome-wide analysis of circulating blood DNA CpG methylation using the Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip on 124 blood samples from hospitalized COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients and compared these data with previously reported data from 39 healthy individuals collected before the pandemic. Prospective outcome measures such as COVID-19-GRAM risk-score and mortality were combined with methylation data. RESULTS: Global mean methylation levels did not differ between COVID-19 patients and healthy pre-pandemic controls. About 75% of acute illness-associated differentially methylated regions were located near gene promoter regions and were hypo-methylated in comparison with healthy pre-pandemic controls. Gene ontology analyses revealed terms associated with the immune response to viral infections and leukocyte activation; and disease ontology analyses revealed a predominance of autoimmune disorders. Among COVID-19-positive patients, worse outcomes were associated with a prevailing hyper-methylated status. Recursive feature elimination identified 77 differentially methylated positions predictive of COVID-19 severity measured by the GRAM-risk score. CONCLUSION: Our data contribute to the awareness that DNA methylation may influence the expression of genes that regulate COVID-19 progression and represent a targetable process in that setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , DNA Methylation/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 320(3): R250-R257, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024272

ABSTRACT

The COVID19 pandemic has caused more than a million of deaths worldwide, primarily due to complications from COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Controversy surrounds the circulating cytokine/chemokine profile of COVID19-associated ARDS, with some groups suggesting that it is similar to patients without COVID19 ARDS and others observing substantial differences. Moreover, although a hyperinflammatory phenotype associates with higher mortality in non-COVID19 ARDS, there is little information on the inflammatory landscape's association with mortality in patients with COVID19 ARDS. Even though the circulating leukocytes' transcriptomic signature has been associated with distinct phenotypes and outcomes in critical illness including ARDS, it is unclear whether the mortality-associated inflammatory mediators from patients with COVID19 are transcriptionally regulated in the leukocyte compartment. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 41 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID19 infection using highly calibrated methods to define the levels of plasma cytokines/chemokines and their gene expressions in circulating leukocytes. Plasma IL1RA and IL8 were found positively associated with mortality, whereas RANTES and EGF negatively associated with that outcome. However, the leukocyte gene expression of these proteins had no statistically significant correlation with mortality. These data suggest a unique inflammatory signature associated with severe COVID19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Cell Syst ; 12(1): 23-40.e7, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837999

ABSTRACT

We performed RNA-seq and high-resolution mass spectrometry on 128 blood samples from COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients with diverse disease severities and outcomes. Quantified transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and lipids were associated with clinical outcomes in a curated relational database, uniquely enabling systems analysis and cross-ome correlations to molecules and patient prognoses. We mapped 219 molecular features with high significance to COVID-19 status and severity, many of which were involved in complement activation, dysregulated lipid transport, and neutrophil activation. We identified sets of covarying molecules, e.g., protein gelsolin and metabolite citrate or plasmalogens and apolipoproteins, offering pathophysiological insights and therapeutic suggestions. The observed dysregulation of platelet function, blood coagulation, acute phase response, and endotheliopathy further illuminated the unique COVID-19 phenotype. We present a web-based tool (covid-omics.app) enabling interactive exploration of our compendium and illustrate its utility through a machine learning approach for prediction of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Machine Learning , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Gelsolin/blood , Gelsolin/genetics , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Principal Component Analysis/methods
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