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J Neurosurg ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304575


Herein, the authors present the case of a 54-year-old male diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during a screening test. The patient was asked to self-isolate at home and report with any exacerbations of symptoms. He presented later with pneumonia complicated by encephalopathy at days 14 and 15 from initial diagnosis, respectively. MRI of the brain showed bithalamic and gangliocapsular FLAIR signal abnormality with mild right-sided thalamic and periventricular diffusion restriction. A CT venogram was obtained given the distribution of edema and demonstrated deep venous thrombosis involving the bilateral internal cerebral veins and the vein of Galen. CSF workup was negative for encephalitis, as the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and bacterial cultures were negative. A complete hypercoagulable workup was negative, and the venous thrombosis was attributed to a hypercoagulable state induced by COVID-19. The mental decline was attributed to bithalamic and gangliocapsular venous infarction secondary to deep venous thrombosis. Unfortunately, the patient's condition continued to decline, and care was withdrawn.

J Clin Med Res ; 13(3): 184-190, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175792


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality has waned significantly over time; however, factors contributing towards this reduction largely remain unidentified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trend in mortality at our large tertiary academic health system and factors contributing to this trend. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of intensive care unit (ICU) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and August 2020 admitted across 14 hospitals in the Philadelphia area. Collected data included demographics, comorbidities, admission risk of mortality score, laboratory values, medical interventions, survival outcomes, hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition. Chi-square (χ2) test, Fisher exact test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, multinomial logistic regression models, independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. RESULTS: A total of 1,204 patients were included. Overall mortality was 39%. Mortality declined significantly from 46% in March to 14% in August 2020 (P < 0.05). The most common underlying comorbidities were hypertension (60.2%), diabetes mellitus (44.7%), dyslipidemia (31.6%) and congestive heart failure (14.7%). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use was more commonly associated with the patients who died, while the use of remdesivir, tocilizumab, steroids and duration of these medications were not significantly different. Peak values of ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients who died (P < 0.05). The mean hospital LOS was significantly longer in the patients who survived compared to the patients who died (18 vs. 12, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mortality of patients admitted to our ICU system significantly decreased over time. Factors that may have contributed to this may be the result of a better understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology and treatments. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors contributing to a reduction in the mortality rate for this patient population.

Am J Med Sci ; 361(2): 208-215, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064783


IMPORTANCE: Pneumonia due to COVID-19 can lead to respiratory failure and death due to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 receptor, is being administered off-label to some patients with COVID-19, and although early small studies suggested a benefit, there are no conclusive data proving its usefulness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with or without treatment with Tocilizumab. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective study of 1938 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to hospitals within the Jefferson Health system in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between March 25, 2020 and June 17, 2020, of which 307 received Tocilizumab. EXPOSURES: Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes data related to length of stay, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), requirement of mechanical ventilation, and mortality were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The average age was 65.2, with 47% women; 36.4% were African-American. The average length of stay was 22 days with 26.3% of patients requiring admission to the ICU and 14.9% requiring mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 15.3%. Older age, admission to an ICU, and requirement for mechanical ventilation were associated with higher mortality. Treatment with Tocilizumab was also associated with higher mortality, which was mainly observed in subjects not requiring care in an ICU with estimated odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 (p = 0.0004). Tocilizumab treatment was also associated with higher likelihood of admission to an ICU (OR = 4.8, p < 0.0001), progression to requiring mechanical ventilation (OR = 6.6, p < 0.0001), and increased length of stay (OR = 16.2, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Our retrospective analysis revealed an association between Tocilizumab administration and increased mortality, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay in subjects with COVID-19. Prospective trials are needed to evaluate the true effect of Tocilizumab in this condition.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disease Management , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies