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Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742343


Viruses are one of the most important concerns for human health, and overcoming viral infections is a worldwide challenge. However, researchers have been trying to manipulate viral genomes to overcome various disorders, including cancer, for vaccine development purposes. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is becoming one of the most functional and widely used tools for RNA and DNA manipulation in multiple organisms. This approach has provided an unprecedented opportunity for creating simple, inexpensive, specific, targeted, accurate, and practical manipulations of viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), and vaccinia virus. Furthermore, this method can be used to make an effective and precise diagnosis of viral infections. Nevertheless, a valid and scientifically designed CRISPR system is critical to make more effective and accurate changes in viruses. In this review, we have focused on the best and the most effective ways to design sgRNA, gene knock-in(s), and gene knock-out(s) for virus-targeted manipulation. Furthermore, we have emphasized the application of CRISPR technology in virus diagnosis and in finding significant genes involved in virus-host interactions.

COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Viruses , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics , DNA Viruses , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/genetics , Viruses/genetics
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568934


The best and most effective way to combat pandemics is to use effective vaccines and live attenuated vaccines are among the most effective vaccines. However, one of the major problems is the length of time it takes to get the attenuated vaccines. Today, the CRISPR toolkit (Clustered Regularly Inerspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) has made it possible to make changes with high efficiency and speed. Using this toolkit to make point mutations on the RNA virus's genome in a coculture of permissive and nonpermissive cells and under controlled conditions can accelerate changes in the genome and accelerate natural selection to obtain live attenuated vaccines.

COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Endonucleases/genetics , Endonucleases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Proteins/immunology