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1.
biorxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.01.26.577395

ABSTRACT

Vaccines and first-generation antiviral therapeutics have provided important protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there remains a need for additional therapeutic options that provide enhanced efficacy and protection against potential viral resistance. The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) is one of two essential cysteine proteases involved in viral replication. While inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) have demonstrated clinical efficacy, known PLpro inhibitors have to date lacked the inhibitory potency and requisite pharmacokinetics to demonstrate that targeting PLpro translates to in vivo efficacy in a preclinical setting. Herein, we report the machine learning-driven discovery of potent, selective, and orally available SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors, with lead compound PF-07957472 (4) providing robust efficacy in a mouse-adapted model of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections
2.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.09.22.23295541

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of the quality of cellular and humoral immunity conferred by COVID-19 vaccination alone versus vaccination plus SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough (BT) infection remains incomplete. While the current (2023) SARS-CoV-2 immune landscape of Canadians is complex, in late 2021 most Canadians had either just received a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine, or had received their two dose primary series and then experienced an Omicron BT. Herein we took advantage of this coincident timing to contrast cellular and humoral immunity conferred by three doses of vaccine versus two doses plus BT. Our results show that mild BT infection induces cell-mediated immune responses to variants comparable to an intramuscular vaccine booster dose. In contrast, BT subjects had higher salivary IgG and IgA levels against the Omicron Spike and enhanced reactivity to the ancestral Spike for the IgA isotype, which also reacted with SARS-CoV-1. Serum neutralizing antibody levels against the ancestral strain and the variants were also higher after BT infection. Our results support the need for mucosal vaccines to emulate the enhanced mucosal and humoral immunity induced by Omicron without exposing individuals to the risks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Breakthrough Pain
3.
Am Surg ; : 31348231180919, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted older adults admitted to the hospital with fall-related injuries. This research sought to determine if there was a difference in patient characteristics and hospital outcomes among older adults with fall-related injuries during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to a non-pandemic period. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients 65 years or older admitted for traumatic falls before and during COVID-19 was undertaken. Data abstracted included demographics, fall details, injury data, and hospital course. RESULTS: Of 1598 patients, 50.5% presented during COVID-19 (cases), and 49.5% presented pre-pandemic (controls). Fewer cases fell in rural areas (28.6% vs 34.1%, P = .018) and were transferred from outside hospitals (32.1% vs 38.2%, P = .011). More cases experienced alcohol (4.6% vs 2.4%, P = .017) and substance use disorders (1.4% vs .4%, P = .029). Fewer cases had subdural hemorrhages (11.8% vs 16.4%, P = .007), and more had pneumothoraxes (3.5% vs 1.8%, P = .032). More patients admitted during COVID-19 experienced acute respiratory failure (2.0% vs .0%, P < .001), hypoxia (1.5% vs .3%, P = .005), and delirium (6.3% vs 1.0%, P < .001). Fewer cases were discharged to skilled nursing facilities (50.8% vs 57.3%, P = .009) and more to home with services (13.1% vs 8.3%, P = .002). DISCUSSION: This study suggested there was a similar frequency of presentation for falls among older adults during the two study periods. Older adults with fall-related injuries experienced differences in presenting comorbidities, injury patterns, complications, and discharge locations during the study periods.

4.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 43(4): 313-319, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated public health measures have shifted the way people access health care. We aimed to study the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychotropic medication adherence. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy Manitoba Population Research Data Repository was conducted. Outpatients who received at least 1 prescription for an antidepressant, antipsychotic, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotic, cannabinoid, lithium, or stimulants from 2015 to 2020 in Manitoba, Canada, were included. Adherence was measured using the proportion of individuals with a mean possession ratio of ≥0.8 over each quarter. Each quarter of 2020 after COVID-19-related health measures were implemented was compared with the expected trend using autoregression models for time series data plus indicator variables. Odds ratio of drug discontinuation among those previously adherent in 2020 was compared with each respective quarter of 2019. RESULTS: There were 1,394,885 individuals in the study population in the first quarter of 2020 (mean [SD] age, 38.9 [23.4] years; 50.3% female), with 36.1% having a psychiatric diagnosis in the preceding 5 years. Compared with the expected trend, increases in the proportions of individuals adherent to antidepressants and stimulants were observed in the fourth quarter (October-December) of 2020 (both P < 0.001). Increases in the proportions of individuals with anxiolytic and cannabinoid adherence were observed in the third quarter (July-September) of 2020 (both P < 0.05), whereas a decrease was seen with stimulants in the same quarter ( P < 0.0001). No significant changes were observed for antipsychotics. All drug classes except lithium had decreases in drug discontinuation in previously adherent patients during the pandemic compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Improved adherence to most psychotropic medications in the 9 months after public health restrictions were enacted was observed. Patients who were already adherent to their psychotropic medications were less likely to discontinue them during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Retrospective Studies , Lithium , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence
5.
J Neurotrauma ; 2023 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235466

ABSTRACT

Riluzole is a sodium-glutamate antagonist that attenuates neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has shown favorable results in promoting recovery in pre-clinical models of traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) and in early phase clinical trials. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of riluzole in acute cervical tSCI. An international, multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, adaptive, Phase III trial (NCT01597518) was undertaken. Patients with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A-C, cervical (C4-C8) tSCI, and <12 h from injury were randomized to receive either riluzole, at an oral dose of 100 mg twice per day (BID) for the first 24 h followed by 50 mg BID for the following 13 days, or placebo. The primary efficacy end-point was change in Upper Extremity Motor (UEM) scores at 180 days. The primary efficacy analyses were conducted on an intention to treat (ITT) and completed cases (CC) basis. The study was powered at a planned enrolment of 351 patients. The trial began in October 2013 and was halted by the sponsor on May 2020 (and terminated in April 2021) in the face of the global COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred ninety-three patients (54.9% of the pre-planned enrolment) were randomized with a follow-up rate of 82.7% at 180 days. At 180 days, in the CC population the riluzole-treated patients compared with placebo had a mean gain of 1.76 UEM scores (95% confidence interval: -2.54-6.06) and 2.86 total motor scores (CI: -6.79-12.52). No drug-related serious adverse events were associated with the use of riluzole. Additional pre-planned sensitivity analyses revealed that in the AIS C population, riluzole was associated with significant improvement in total motor scores (estimate: standard error [SE] 8.0; CI 1.5-14.4) and upper extremity motor scores (SE 13.8; CI 3.1-24.5) at 6 months. AIS B patients had higher reported independence, measured by the Spinal Cord Independence Measure score (45.3 vs. 27.3; d: 18.0 CI: -1.7-38.0) and change in mental health scores, measured by the Short Form 36 mental health domain (2.01 vs. -11.58; d: 13.2 CI: 1.2-24.8) at 180 days. AIS A patients who received riluzole had a higher average gain in neurological levels at 6 months compared with placebo (mean 0.50 levels gained vs. 0.12 in placebo; d: 0.38, CI: -0.2-0.9). The primary analysis did not achieve the predetermined end-point of efficacy for riluzole, likely related to insufficient power. However, on pre-planned secondary analyses, all subgroups of cervical SCI subjects (AIS grades A, B and C) treated with riluzole showed significant gains in functional recovery. The results of this trial may warrant further investigation to extend these findings. Moreover, guideline development groups may wish to assess the possible clinical relevance of the secondary outcome analyses, in light of the fact that SCI is an uncommon orphan disorder without an accepted neuroprotective treatment.

6.
Ann Surg ; 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected care for patients undergoing thoracic surgery for cancer. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of telemedicine. METHODS: Characteristics and outcomes of new patients seen between March 1 and June 30, 2019, and the same period in 2020 were compared. Patients who did not undergo surgery were excluded. Patients who had a telemedicine visit (new and established) in the 2020 period were asked to complete a survey. RESULTS: In total, 624 new patients were seen in 2019 versus 299 in 2020 (52% reduction); 45% of patients (n=136) in 2020 were seen via telemedicine. There was no statistically significant difference in time to surgery, pathological upstaging, or postsurgical complications between 2019 and 2020. In total, 1085 patients (new and established) had a telemedicine visit in 2020; 239 (22%) completed the survey. A majority replied that telemedicine was equivalent to in-person care (77%), did not impair care quality (84%), resulted in less stress (69%) and shorter waits (86%), was more convenient (92%), saved money and commuting time (93%), and expanded who could attend visits (91%). Some patients regretted the loss of human interaction (71%). Most would opt for telemedicine after the pandemic (60%), although some would prefer in-person format for initial visits (55%) and visits with complex discussions (49%). Only 21% were uncomfortable with the telemedicine technology. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine enabled cancer care to continue during the COVID-19 pandemic without delays in surgery, cancer progression, or worsened postoperative morbidity and was generally well received.

7.
Front Health Serv ; 3: 1030396, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241545

ABSTRACT

Background: Winnipeg, Canada operates a 16-bed subacute unit, the Crisis Stabilization Unit (CSU), for voluntary patients in crisis not requiring hospital admission. The virtual CSU (vCSU) launched in March 2020 as an adjunct to the in-person CSU during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing the same resources virtually, allowing patients to remain at home. Methods: Program data were collected for vCSU admissions between April 1, 2020 and April 7, 2021 (n = 266) to examine patient characteristics and discharge outcomes. Data were retrieved from the electronic patient record (EPR) for both in-person and vCSU admissions during the same period for comparison (n = 712). vCSU admissions (n = 191) were summarized by patient demographics, clinical factors/outcomes, and compared on the same measures to in-person CSU admissions (n = 521) using binary logistic regression. Results: 30.1% of patients admitted to the vCSU received initial mental health assessment virtually (phone/videoconference), therefore receiving all care at home. Clinical symptoms at assessment included depression/anxiety (39.0%), psychosis/mania (2.7%), suicidal behaviour/self-harm (27.4%), psychosocial event/stressor (19.8%). Average stay was 4.9 days. Compared to the in-person CSU, vCSU referrals were associated with the absence of psychosis [odds ratio (OR).40, 95% confidence interval (CI).18-0.89] and no prior 1-year contact with referral site (OR.43, 95% CI.28-0.64). Those living farther away from the referral site were more likely to receive a vCSU referral. Conclusion: The vCSU model is feasible for a diverse group of patients experiencing mental health crises. Future work is needed to better determine who the model is right for and examine longer term outcomes.

8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8763, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240051

ABSTRACT

As of January 2021, Australia had effectively controlled local transmission of COVID-19 despite a steady influx of imported cases and several local, but contained, outbreaks in 2020. Throughout 2020, state and territory public health responses were informed by weekly situational reports that included an ensemble forecast of daily COVID-19 cases for each jurisdiction. We present here an analysis of one forecasting model included in this ensemble across the variety of scenarios experienced by each jurisdiction from May to October 2020. We examine how successfully the forecasts characterised future case incidence, subject to variations in data timeliness and completeness, showcase how we adapted these forecasts to support decisions of public health priority in rapidly-evolving situations, evaluate the impact of key model features on forecast skill, and demonstrate how to assess forecast skill in real-time before the ground truth is known. Conditioning the model on the most recent, but incomplete, data improved the forecast skill, emphasising the importance of developing strong quantitative models of surveillance system characteristics, such as ascertainment delay distributions. Forecast skill was highest when there were at least 10 reported cases per day, the circumstances in which authorities were most in need of forecasts to aid in planning and response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Public Health , Incidence , Forecasting
9.
Soc Work Health Care ; 62(6-7): 243-262, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238580

ABSTRACT

Medical social workers are essential members of healthcare teams, especially during a pandemic. Their scope of practice includes conducting psychological assessments, coordinating social services, connecting patients to resources that address social determinants of health, discharge planning, and patient advocacy. Social workers' experiences of psychological distress were unique even before the COVID-19 pandemic; their work demands a high amount of emotional investment as they frequently witness others' pain and suffering and navigate various daily challenges and crises. This study explores psychological distress experienced by medical social workers and the coping strategies used by these professionals during the pandemic prior to the COVID-19 vaccine rollout. Faced with conflicting information from state and federal agencies, social workers dealt with resource shortages, took on additional roles and responsibilities, and contended with regular value conflicts and ethical dilemmas. Our findings indicate that medical social workers are not sufficiently protected or prioritized in their workplaces and that infrastructure to support social workers' emotional wellbeing is lacking. Distinct themes that emerged from the data under the umbrella of psychological distress include feeling unprotected, overburdened, and undervalued. We discuss a need for targeted policy and sustainability-oriented solutions to improve coping and resilience, mitigate psychological distress, and prevent burnout among medical social workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Workers , COVID-19 Vaccines , Adaptation, Psychological , Health Personnel/psychology
10.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286295, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on essential primary healthcare services at public primary healthcare facilities. METHODS: The number of weekly consultations for antenatal care (ANC), outpatient (OPD), immunisations (EPI), family planning (FP) and HIV services, between January 2018 and December 2020, were collected from 25 facilities in Masaka district, Uganda, 21 in Goma, and 29 in Kambia district, Sierra Leone. Negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering and season were used to analyse changes in activity levels between 2018, 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In Goma, we found no change in OPD, EPI or ANC consultations, FP was 17% lower in March-July 2020 compared to 2019, but this recovered by December 2020. New diagnoses of HIV were 34% lower throughout 2020 compared to 2019. In Sierra Leone, compared to the same periods in 2019, facilities had 18-29% fewer OPD consultations throughout 2020, and 27% fewer DTP3 doses in March-July 2020. There was no evidence of differences in other services. In Uganda there were 20-35% fewer under-5 OPD consultations, 21-66% fewer MCV1 doses, and 48-51% fewer new diagnoses of HIV throughout 2020, compared to 2019. There was no difference in the number of HPV doses delivered. CONCLUSIONS: The level of disruption varied across the different settings and qualitatively appeared to correlate with the strength of lockdown measures and reported attitudes towards the risk posed by COVID-19. Mitigation strategies such as health communications campaigns and outreach services may be important to limit the impact of lockdowns on primary healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Prenatal Care , Primary Health Care
11.
Industrial Marketing Management ; 113:58-73, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-20231319

ABSTRACT

This study's objective is to investigate the extent to which coopetition (collaboration with rivals) and competitor-oriented practices (knowledge of and acting upon competitors' strengths and weaknesses) helped facilitate the development of owners' capabilities over the pre- through to the immediate post pandemic (COVID-19) period. A retrospective, longitudinal instrumental case study features the under-researched 3-year timescale up to the end of ‘lockdowns' across most countries. Interviews (and secondary data collection) took place with owners of 40 Canadian restaurants associated with different cuisines and possessing respective weak and strong network ties in a single city. New findings highlight how coopetition and competitor-oriented practices facilitated the development and/or enhancement of ‘psychological contracts.' In turn, knowledge of with whom to engage in coopetition activities and the extent of involvement, helped owners to avoid failure, maintain family employment, and sustain other local businesses. Additionally, strategic flexibility enabled owners to pivot aspects of their business models, develop foresight, plus resilience. Unique insights contribute to theory and practice, highlighting that coopetition and competitor-oriented practices changed during the evolving conditions of COVID-19. Owners rapidly transformed certain ‘operational' capabilities into those of a higher level (namely, capabilities of a ‘threshold' and potentially ‘dynamic' nature) to meet changing objectives.

12.
J Mol Struct ; 1290: 135871, 2023 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328011

ABSTRACT

Quantum mechanical second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory and density functional theory (DFT) Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) and Minnesota 2006 local functional (M06L) calculations were performed to optimize structure of nirmatrelvir and compute the Merz-Kollman electrostatic potential (MK ESP), natural population analysis (NPA), Hirshfeld, charge model 5 (CM5), and mulliken partial charges. The mulliken partial charge distribution of nirmatrelvir exhibits a poor correlation with the MK ESP charges in MP2, B3LYP, and M06L calculations respectively. The NPA, Hirshfeld, and CM5 partial charge scheme of nirmatrelvir indicate a reasonable correlation with MK ESP charge assignments in B3LYP and M06L calculations. The above correlations were not improved by the inclusion of implicit solvation model. The MK ESP and CM5 partial charges show a strong correlation between the results of MP2 and two DFT methods. The three optimized structures present a certain degree of differences from the crystal bioactive conformation of nirmatrelvir, suggesting the nirmatrelvir-enzyme complex is formed in the induced-fit model. The Reactivity of warhead electrophilic nitrile is justified by the relatively weaker strength of π bonds in the MP2 calculations. The nirmatrelvir hydrogen bond acceptors consistently show strong delocalization of lone pair electrons in three calculations, whereas hydrogen bond donors are found to have high polarization on the heavy nitrogen atoms in MP2 computations. This work helps to parametrize the force field of nirmatrelvir and improve accuracy of molecular docking and rational inhibitor design.

13.
arxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2306.01224v1

ABSTRACT

To support the ongoing management of viral respiratory diseases, many countries are moving towards an integrated model of surveillance for SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and other respiratory pathogens. While many surveillance approaches catalysed by the COVID-19 pandemic provide novel epidemiological insight, continuing them as implemented during the pandemic is unlikely to be feasible for non-emergency surveillance, and many have already been scaled back. Furthermore, given anticipated co-circulation of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, surveillance activities in place prior to the pandemic require review and adjustment to ensure their ongoing value for public health. In this perspective, we highlight key challenges for the development of integrated models of surveillance. We discuss the relative strengths and limitations of different surveillance practices and studies, their contribution to epidemiological assessment, forecasting, and public health decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Diseases
14.
Physician Leadership Journal ; 10(3):24-29, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2323597

ABSTRACT

Postoperative respiratory failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Early identification of patients at moderate to high risk of postoperative respiratory failure is critical to effective prevention strategies. A multi-disciplinary team developed a robust process for the early identification of at-risk patients and the prevention of respiratory failure in the perioperative setting.

15.
Physician Leadership Journal ; 10(3):16-23, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2323596

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, many institutions saw an overall increase in central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) events. CLABSI events can be prevented by decreasing central line utilization, improving practices during central line insertion and maintenance phases, and daily surveillance for necessity. A belief that zero harm to patients is possible and development of a supportive organizational culture with visible leadership were key to reducing CLABSI events and creating long-lasting change, even during the pandemic.

16.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076231173220, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322819

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a variety of digital technologies have been leveraged for public health surveillance worldwide. However, concerns remain around the rapid development and deployment of digital technologies, how these technologies have been used, and their efficacy in supporting public health goals. Following the five-stage scoping review framework, we conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify the types and nature of digital technologies used for surveillance during the COVID-19 pandemic and the success of these measures. We conducted a search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 1 December 2019 and 31 December 2020 to provide a snapshot of questions, concerns, discussions, and findings emerging at this pivotal time. A total of 147 peer-reviewed and 79 grey literature publications reporting on digital technology use for surveillance across 90 countries and regions were retained for analysis. The most frequently used technologies included mobile phone devices and applications, location tracking technologies, drones, temperature scanning technologies, and wearable devices. The utility of digital technologies for public health surveillance was impacted by factors including uptake of digital technologies across targeted populations, technological capacity and errors, scope, validity and accuracy of data, guiding legal frameworks, and infrastructure to support technology use. Our findings raise important questions around the value of digital surveillance for public health and how to ensure successful use of technologies while mitigating potential harms not only in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, but also during other infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics.

17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Available evidence is mixed concerning associations between smoking status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes. Effects of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and vaccination status on COVID-19 outcomes in smokers are unknown. METHODS: Electronic health record data from 104 590 COVID-19 patients hospitalized February 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021 in 21 U.S. health systems were analyzed to assess associations of smoking status, in-hospital NRT prescription, and vaccination status with in-hospital death and ICU admission. RESULTS: Current (n = 7764) and never smokers (n = 57 454) did not differ on outcomes after adjustment for age, sex, race, ethnicity, insurance, body mass index, and comorbidities. Former (vs never) smokers (n = 33 101) had higher adjusted odds of death (aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.06-1.17) and ICU admission (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11). Among current smokers, NRT prescription was associated with reduced mortality (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.82). Vaccination effects were significantly moderated by smoking status; vaccination was more strongly associated with reduced mortality among current (aOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16-0.66) and former smokers (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.39-0.57) than for never smokers (aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57, 0.79). Vaccination was associated with reduced ICU admission more strongly among former (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.66-0.83) than never smokers (aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Former but not current smokers hospitalized with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with better hospital outcomes in COVID-19 patients, especially current and former smokers. NRT during COVID-19 hospitalization may reduce mortality for current smokers. IMPLICATIONS: Prior findings regarding associations between smoking and severe COVID-19 disease outcomes have been inconsistent. This large cohort study suggests potential beneficial effects of nicotine replacement therapy on COVID-19 outcomes in current smokers and outsized benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in current and former smokers. Such findings may influence clinical practice and prevention efforts and motivate additional research that explores mechanisms for these effects.

18.
Navigating students' mental health in the wake of COVID-19: Using public health crises to inform research and practice ; : 1-19, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2317041

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the world changed in significant ways. The emergence and spread of the virus SARS-CoV-2, more commonly known as COVID-19 to note the year of its development into a pandemic, altered social and economic conditions everywhere. All nations of the world had to contend with the virus and its effects. This chapter draws on ecological systems theory to highlight the ways in which various systems were able to/unable to address children and adolescents' social, emotional, behavioral, and mental health needs during the pandemic. It lays out the assumptions that underlie ecological systems theory, a developmental theory that explores human development as the result of interacting and intertwined ecological contexts. The chapter provides an illustration of how the social, emotional, behavioral, and mental health needs of children and adolescents have been and continue to be shaped by interactions across these various ecological contexts. It considers next steps and outlines how research, policy, and practice might take up ecological systems theory in seeking to address the persistent and pervasive problems of children and adolescents' well-being in the context of intertwined and overlapping systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
Navigating students' mental health in the wake of COVID-19: Using public health crises to inform research and practice ; : 155-160, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2315948

ABSTRACT

The year 2022 is a particularly troubled time for the concept of truth, fact, and veracity. Some try to parse the difference between truth and fact, holding fast to a belief that truth never changes, although facts might, yet being uncomfortable with or contemptuous of the idea that scientific fact may change with new information or with a change in circumstance. In the stew of reliable information, misinformation, and disinformation about COVID-19, concern for the mental health of children and adolescents is likely to get lost. Among the things we don't know are the long-term effects of the disease, not only on learning but also on mental wellness and physical health. Clearly, mental health services were inadequate prior to the pandemic, and one effect of the pandemic has been the exposure the widespread need for more accessible mental health services for families, both adults and children. We know that the COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the mental health of the world's population, including children and adolescents. We know that anxiety, anger, uncertainty, disruption of routines, social isolation, and deterioration of family relationships contribute to the mental/emotional distress of children and adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

20.
Navigating students' mental health in the wake of COVID-19: Using public health crises to inform research and practice ; : xviii, 168, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2315947

ABSTRACT

This book highlights the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health needs of children and adolescents in order to shed light on future practice and reform needed to better deal with the aftermath of such devastating events. The book identifies the conditions during any public health crisis that heighten the mental health needs of children and adolescents and suggests the reforms of mental health services needed to better meet the needs during pandemics and public health crises. It will be of equal use to both students and researchers in the fields of mental health, well-being, and education as well as teachers, educational psychologists, social workers, and practitioners working in schools and communities to address students' mental health needs. The book will help readers better understand how and why COVID-19 was a negative influence on students' mental health and unpack how best to deal with the aftermath of pandemic. This research-focused series consist of titles that consider key issues affecting young people's mental health and well-being, exploring preventative measures, promoting positive behavior, and sharing research to develop effective and efficient treatment. The book was written at a time when the whole of humanity has been under the influence of coronavirus pandemic. The impact of this global crisis has increased stress and anxiety levels for everyone, but especially for children and their families, which has highlighted the importance of supporting and facilitating the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents. The authors of the chapters help us better understand the effects of COVID-19 on the mental health of children and adolescents, the nature and international scope of the problem, what can be done to mitigate the pandemic's ill effects, what we need to know more about, and how we might best prepare for future crises in public health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

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