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1.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2: 36, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860433

ABSTRACT

Background: Evaluation of susceptibility to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) requires rapid screening tests for neutralising antibodies which provide protection. Methods: Firstly, we developed a receptor-binding domain-specific haemagglutination test (HAT) to Wuhan and VOC (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and compared to pseudotype, microneutralisation and virus neutralisation assays in 835 convalescent sera. Secondly, we investigated the antibody response using the HAT after two doses of mRNA (BNT162b2) vaccination. Sera were collected at baseline, three weeks after the first and second vaccinations from older (80-99 years, n = 89) and younger adults (23-77 years, n = 310) and compared to convalescent sera from naturally infected individuals (1-89 years, n = 307). Results: Here we show that HAT antibodies highly correlated with neutralising antibodies (R = 0.72-0.88) in convalescent sera. Home-dwelling older individuals have significantly lower antibodies to the Wuhan strain after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine than younger adult vaccinees and naturally infected individuals. Moverover, a second vaccine dose boosts and broadens the antibody repertoire to VOC in naïve, not previously infected older and younger adults. Most (72-76%) older adults respond after two vaccinations to alpha and delta, but only 58-62% to beta and gamma, compared to 96-97% of younger vaccinees and 68-76% of infected individuals. Previously infected older individuals have, similarly to younger adults, high antibody titres after one vaccination. Conclusions: Overall, HAT provides a surrogate marker for neutralising antibodies, which can be used as a simple inexpensive, rapid test. HAT can be rapidly adaptable to emerging VOC for large-scale evaluation of potentially decreasing vaccine effectiveness.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322827

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is normally controlled by effective host immunity including innate, humoral and cellular responses. However, the trajectories and correlates of acquired immunity, and the capacity of memory responses months after infection to neutralise variants of concern - which has important public health implications - is not fully understood. To address this, we studied a cohort of 78 UK healthcare workers who presented in April to June 2020 with symptomatic PCR-confirmed infection or who tested positive during an asymptomatic screening programme and tracked virus-specific B and T cell responses longitudinally at 5-6 time points each over 6 months, prior to vaccination. We observed a highly variable range of responses, some of which - T cell interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ELISpot, N-specific antibody waned over time across the cohort, while others (spike-specific antibody, B cell memory ELISpot) were stable. In such cohorts, antiviral antibody has been linked to protection against re-infection. We used integrative analysis and a machine-learning approach (SIMON - Sequential Iterative Modeling Over Night) to explore this heterogeneity and to identify predictors of sustained immune responses. Hierarchical clustering defined a group of high and low antibody responders, which showed stability over time regardless of clinical presentation. These antibody responses correlated with IFN-γ ELISpot measures of T cell immunity and represent a subgroup of patients with a robust trajectory for longer term immunity. Importantly, this immune-phenotype associates with higher levels of neutralising antibodies not only against the infecting (Victoria) strain but also against variants B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta). Overall memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 show distinct trajectories following early priming, that may define subsequent protection against infection and severe disease from novel variants.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5061, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361634

ABSTRACT

The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from natural infection in early 2020. We show that neutralization of the VOC compared to a reference isolate of the original circulating lineage, B, is reduced: more profoundly against B.1.351 than for B.1.1.7, and in responses to infection or a single dose of vaccine than to a second dose of vaccine. Importantly, high magnitude T cell responses are generated after two vaccine doses, with the majority of the T cell response directed against epitopes that are conserved between the prototype isolate B and the VOC. Vaccination is required to generate high potency immune responses to protect against these and other emergent variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Carrier Proteins , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
FEBS J ; 288(12): 3715-3726, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-923390

ABSTRACT

In response to viral infections, the innate immune system rapidly activates expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), whose protein and metabolic products are believed to directly interfere with the viral life cycle. Here, we argue that biochemical reactions performed by two specific protein products of ISGs modulate central carbon metabolism to support a broad-spectrum antiviral response. We demonstrate that the metabolites generated by metalloenzymes nitric oxide synthase and the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) enzyme RSAD2 inhibit the activity of the housekeeping and glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We discuss that this inhibition is likely to stimulate a range of metabolic and signalling processes to support a broad-spectrum immune response. Based on these analyses, we propose that inhibiting GAPDH in individuals with deteriorated cellular innate immune response like elderly might help in treating viral diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Models, Biological , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors , Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
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