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1.
Eur J Med Chem ; 235: 114295, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763709

ABSTRACT

Niclosamide, a widely-used anthelmintic drug, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 virus entry through TMEM16F inhibition and replication through autophagy induction, but the relatively high cytotoxicity and poor oral bioavailability limited its application. We synthesized 22 niclosamide analogues of which compound 5 was found to exhibit the best anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy (IC50 = 0.057 µ M) and compounds 6, 10, and 11 (IC50 = 0.39, 0.38, and 0.49 µ M, respectively) showed comparable efficacy to niclosamide. On the other hand, compounds 5, 6, 11 contained higher stability in human plasma and liver S9 enzymes assay than niclosamide, which could improve bioavailability and half-life when administered orally. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that compound 5 exhibited better activity in the reduction of phosphatidylserine externalization compared to niclosamide, which was related to TMEM16F inhibition. The AI-predicted protein structure of human TMEM16F protein was applied for molecular docking, revealing that 4'-NO2 of 5 formed hydrogen bonding with Arg809, which was blocked by 2'-Cl in the case of niclosamide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Niclosamide/pharmacology
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(639): eabm0899, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714341

ABSTRACT

A major challenge to end the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is to develop a broadly protective vaccine that elicits long-term immunity. As the key immunogen, the viral surface spike (S) protein is frequently mutated, and conserved epitopes are shielded by glycans. Here, we revealed that S protein glycosylation has site-differential effects on viral infectivity. We found that S protein generated by lung epithelial cells has glycoforms associated with increased infectivity. Compared to the fully glycosylated S protein, immunization of S protein with N-glycans trimmed to the mono-GlcNAc-decorated state (SMG) elicited stronger immune responses and better protection for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice against variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was identified from SMG-immunized mice that could neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs with subpicomolar potency. Together, these results demonstrate that removal of glycan shields to better expose the conserved sequences has the potential to be an effective and simple approach for developing a broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684242

ABSTRACT

Development of the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine has emerged as an effective and speedy strategy to control the spread of new pathogens. After vaccination, the mRNA is translated into the real protein vaccine, and there is no need to manufacture the protein in vitro. However, the fate of mRNA and its posttranslational modification inside the cell may affect immune response. Here, we showed that the mRNA vaccine of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein with deletion of glycosites in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or especially the subunit 2 (S2) domain to expose more conserved epitopes elicited stronger antibody and CD8+ T cell responses with broader protection against the alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron variants, compared to the unmodified mRNA. Immunization of such mRNA resulted in accumulation of misfolded spike protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, causing the up-regulation of BiP/GRP78, XBP1, and p-eIF2α to induce cell apoptosis and strong CD8+ T cell response. In addition, dendritic cells (DCs) incubated with S2-glysosite deleted mRNA vaccine increased class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC I) expression. This study provides a direction for the development of broad-spectrum mRNA vaccines which may not be achieved with the use of expressed proteins as antigens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Unfolded Protein Response , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294970

ABSTRACT

A major challenge to end the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is to develop a broadly protective vaccine. As the key immunogen, the spike protein is frequently mutated with conserved epitopes shielded by glycans. Here, we reveal that spike glycosylation has site-differential effects on viral infectivity and lung epithelial cells generate spike with more infective glycoforms. Compared to the fully glycosylated spike, immunization of spike protein with N-glycans trimmed to the monoglycosylated state (S mg ) elicits stronger immune responses and better protection for hACE2 transgenic mice against variants of concern. In addition, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was identified from the S mg immunized mice, demonstrating that removal of glycan shields to better expose the conserved sequences is an effective and simple approach to broad-spectrum vaccine development. One-Sentence Summary Removing glycan shields to expose conserved epitopes is an effective approach to develop a broad-spectrum SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

7.
J Biomed Sci ; 28(1): 80, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus with a high mutation rate. Importantly, several currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants are associated with loss of efficacy for both vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. METHODS: We analyzed the binding activity of six highly potent antibodies to the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants, assessed their neutralizing abilities with pseudovirus and authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants and evaluate efficacy of antibody cocktail in Delta SARS-CoV-2-infected hamster models as prophylactic and post-infection treatments. RESULTS: The tested RBD-chAbs, except RBD-chAb-25, maintained binding ability to spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, only RBD-chAb-45 and -51 retained neutralizing activities; RBD-chAb-1, -15, -25 and -28 exhibited diminished neutralization for all SARS-CoV-2 variants. Notably, several cocktails of our antibodies showed low IC50 values (3.35-27.06 ng/ml) against the SARS-CoV-2 variant pseudoviruses including United Kingdom variant B.1.1.7 (Alpha), South Africa variant B.1.351 (Beta), Brazil variant P1 (Gamma), California variant B.1.429 (Epsilon), New York variant B.1.526 (Iota), and India variants, B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). RBD-chAb-45, and -51 showed PRNT50 values 4.93-37.54 ng/ml when used as single treatments or in combination with RBD-chAb-15 or -28, according to plaque assays with authentic Alpha, Gamma and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants. Furthermore, the antibody cocktail of RBD-chAb-15 and -45 exhibited potent prophylactic and therapeutic effects in Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant-infected hamsters. CONCLUSIONS: The cocktail of RBD-chAbs exhibited potent neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These antibody cocktails are highly promising candidate tools for controlling new SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009704, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484866

ABSTRACT

Development of effective therapeutics for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing global need. Neutralizing antibodies are known to be effective antivirals, as they can be rapidly deployed to prevent disease progression and can accelerate patient recovery without the need for fully developed host immunity. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a series of chimeric antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Some of these antibodies exhibit exceptionally potent neutralization activities in vitro and in vivo, and the most potent of our antibodies target three distinct non-overlapping epitopes within the RBD. Cryo-electron microscopy analyses of two highly potent antibodies in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein suggested they may be particularly useful when combined in a cocktail therapy. The efficacy of this antibody cocktail was confirmed in SARS-CoV-2-infected mouse and hamster models as prophylactic and post-infection treatments. With the emergence of more contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2, cocktail antibody therapies hold great promise to control disease and prevent drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Male , Mice
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Female , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(8): e1009758, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352713

ABSTRACT

Since the pandemic of COVID-19 has intensely struck human society, small animal model for this infectious disease is in urgent need for basic and pharmaceutical research. Although several COVID-19 animal models have been identified, many of them show either minimal or inadequate pathophysiology after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Here, we describe a new and versatile strategy to rapidly establish a mouse model for emerging infectious diseases in one month by multi-route, multi-serotype transduction with recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing viral receptor. In this study, the proposed approach enables profound and enduring systemic expression of SARS-CoV-2-receptor hACE2 in wild-type mice and renders them vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Upon virus challenge, generated AAV/hACE2 mice showed pathophysiology closely mimicking the patients with severe COVID-19. The efficacy of a novel therapeutic antibody cocktail RBD-chAbs for COVID-19 was tested and confirmed by using this AAV/hACE2 mouse model, further demonstrating its successful application in drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disease Models, Animal , 3T3 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dependovirus/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Transduction, Genetic , Vero Cells
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8761, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199318

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge to global public health. Rapid development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines are imperative to control the pandemic. In the current study, we applied our adjuvanted stable prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P)-based vaccine, MVC-COV1901, to hamster models to demonstrate immunogenicity and protection from virus challenge. Golden Syrian hamsters immunized intramuscularly with two injections of 1 µg or 5 µg of S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) were challenged intranasally with SARS-CoV-2. Prior to virus challenge, the vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies with 10,000-fold higher IgG level and an average of 50-fold higher pseudovirus neutralizing titers in either dose groups than vehicle or adjuvant control groups. Six days after infection, vaccinated hamsters did not display any weight loss associated with infection and had significantly reduced lung pathology and most importantly, lung viral load levels were reduced to lower than detection limit compared to unvaccinated animals. Vaccination with either 1 µg or 5 µg of adjuvanted S-2P produced comparable immunogenicity and protection from infection. This study builds upon our previous results to support the clinical development of MVC-COV1901 as a safe, highly immunogenic, and protective COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aluminum Hydroxide/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Immunization , Injections, Intramuscular , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load/drug effects
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009352, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105835

ABSTRACT

Serological and plasmablast responses and plasmablast-derived IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been analysed in three COVID-19 patients with different clinical severities. Potent humoral responses were detected within 3 weeks of onset of illness in all patients and the serological titre was elicited soon after or concomitantly with peripheral plasmablast response. An average of 13.7% and 3.5% of plasmablast-derived MAbs were reactive with virus spike glycoprotein or nucleocapsid, respectively. A subset of anti-spike (10 of 32) antibodies cross-reacted with other betacoronaviruses tested and harboured extensive somatic mutations, indicative of an expansion of memory B cells upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fourteen of 32 anti-spike MAbs, including five anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD), three anti-non-RBD S1 and six anti-S2, neutralised wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in independent assays. Anti-RBD MAbs were further grouped into four cross-inhibiting clusters, of which six antibodies from three separate clusters blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 and five were neutralising. All ACE2-blocking anti-RBD antibodies were isolated from two recovered patients with prolonged fever, which is compatible with substantial ACE2-blocking response in their sera. Finally, the identification of non-competing pairs of neutralising antibodies would offer potential templates for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody-Producing Cells/immunology , Binding Sites , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111037, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059801

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic, with over 50 million confirmed cases and 1.2 million deaths as of November 11, 2020. No therapies or vaccines so far are recommended to treat or prevent the new coronavirus. A novel traditional Chinese medicine formula, Taiwan Chingguan Yihau (NRICM101), has been administered to patients with COVID-19 in Taiwan since April 2020. Its clinical outcomes and pharmacology have been evaluated. Among 33 patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted in two medical centers, those (n = 12) who were older, sicker, with more co-existing conditions and showing no improvement after 21 days of hospitalization were given NRICM101. They achieved 3 consecutive negative results within a median of 9 days and reported no adverse events. Pharmacological assays demonstrated the effects of the formula in inhibiting the spike protein/ACE2 interaction, 3CL protease activity, viral plaque formation, and production of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This bedside-to-bench study suggests that NRICM101 may disrupt disease progression through its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, offering promise as a multi-target agent for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/drug effects , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Plaque Assay , Young Adult
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033603

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in more than 50 million confirmed cases and over 1 million deaths worldwide as of November 2020. Currently, there are no effective antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration to contain this pandemic except the antiviral agent remdesivir. In addition, the trimeric spike protein on the viral surface is highly glycosylated and almost 200,000 variants with mutations at more than 1,000 positions in its 1,273 amino acid sequence were reported, posing a major challenge in the development of antibodies and vaccines. It is therefore urgently needed to have alternative and timely treatments for the disease. In this study, we used a cell-based infection assay to screen more than 3,000 agents used in humans and animals, including 2,855 small molecules and 190 traditional herbal medicines, and identified 15 active small molecules in concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 50 µM. Two enzymatic assays, along with molecular modeling, were then developed to confirm those targeting the virus 3CL protease and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Several water extracts of herbal medicines were active in the cell-based assay and could be further developed as plant-derived anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents. Some of the active compounds identified in the screen were further tested in vivo, and it was found that mefloquine, nelfinavir, and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum (RF3), Perilla frutescens, and Mentha haplocalyx were effective in a challenge study using hamsters as disease model.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Repositioning/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 606097, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004688

ABSTRACT

Tylophorine-based compounds and natural cardiotonic steroids (cardenolides and bufadienolides) are two classes of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus inhibitors, targeting viral RNA and host cell factors, respectively. We tested both types of compounds against two types of coronaviruses, to compare and contrast their antiviral properties, and with view to their further therapeutic development. Examples of both types of compounds potently inhibited the replication of both feline infectious peritonitis virus and human coronavirus OC43 with EC50 values of up to 8 and 16 nM, respectively. Strikingly, the tylophorine-based compounds tested inhibited viral yields of HCoV-OC43 to a much greater extent (7-8 log magnitudes of p.f.u./ml) than the cardiotonic steroids (about 2-3 log magnitudes of p.f.u./ml), as determined by end point assays. Based on these results, three tylophorine-based compounds were further examined for their anti-viral activities on two other human coronaviruses, HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2. These three tylophorine-based compounds inhibited HCoV-229E with EC50 values of up to 6.5 nM, inhibited viral yields of HCoV-229E by 6-7 log magnitudes of p.f.u./ml, and were also found to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of up to 2.5-14 nM. In conclusion, tylophorine-based compounds are potent, broad-spectrum inhibitors of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2, and could be used for the treatment of COVID-19.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(3): 654-655, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-801647

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine candidate is urgently needed for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein immunization in mice is able to elicit a strong antibody response and potent neutralizing capability as measured using live or pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Cell Rep ; 32(6): 108016, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670926

ABSTRACT

The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and coronavirus spike (S) protein mediate virus entry. HA and S proteins are heavily glycosylated, making them potential targets for carbohydrate binding agents such as lectins. Here, we show that the lectin FRIL, isolated from hyacinth beans (Lablab purpureus), has anti-influenza and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. FRIL can neutralize 11 representative human and avian influenza strains at low nanomolar concentrations, and intranasal administration of FRIL is protective against lethal H1N1 infection in mice. FRIL binds preferentially to complex-type N-glycans and neutralizes viruses that possess complex-type N-glycans on their envelopes. As a homotetramer, FRIL is capable of aggregating influenza particles through multivalent binding and trapping influenza virions in cytoplasmic late endosomes, preventing their nuclear entry. Remarkably, FRIL also effectively neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, preventing viral protein production and cytopathic effect in host cells. These findings suggest a potential application of FRIL for the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fabaceae/chemistry , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , A549 Cells , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Chick Embryo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Plant Lectins/administration & dosage , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
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