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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):288, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2315900

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunocompromised patients with COVID-19 tend to shed viable virus for a prolonged period. Therefore, for moderately or severely immunocompromised patients with COVID-19, CDC recommends an isolation period of at least 20 days and ending isolation in conjunction with serial testing and consultation with an infectious disease specialist. However, data on viral kinetics and risk factors for prolonged viral shedding in these patients are limited. Method(s): From February 1, 2022 to April 1, 2022, we collected weekly saliva samples from immunocompromised patients with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Genomic and subgenomic RNAs were measured, and virus culture was performed. Result(s): A total of 41 patients were enrolled;29 (70%) were receiving chemotherapy against hematologic malignancies and the remaining 12 (30%) had undergone solid organ transplantation. Of the 41 patients, 14 (34%) had received 3 doses or more of COVID-19 vaccines. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that 7 (17%) were infected with Omicron BA.1, and 33 (80%) with Omicron BA.2. The median duration of viable virus shedding was 4 weeks (IQR 3-6). Patients undergoing B-cell depleting therapy shed viable virus for longer than the comparator (p=0.01). Multivariable analysis showed that 3-dose or more vaccination (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12 - 0.93, p = 0.04) and B-cell depleting therapy (HR 12.50, 95% CI 2.44 - 100.00, p = 0.003) independently affected viable virus shedding of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion(s): Immunocompromised patients with COVID-19 shed viable virus for median 4 weeks. B-cell depleting therapy increases the risk of prolonged viable viral shedding, while completion of a primary vaccine series reduces this risk. Overall distribution of samples according to genomic viral copy number and culture positivity. Red dot indicates positive culture results, whereas blue dot indicated negative culture results. (Figure Presented).

2.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration ; 28(4):460-470, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2264407

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the nursing management experience of Korean nurse managers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This exploratory qualitative study used individual semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from 10 nurse managers working in tertiary general hospitals in Korea from October 2020 to September 2021. Thematic analysis methods were employed to analyze interview transcripts. Results: The following four themes were derived: difficulty due to an unexpected and sudden disaster, being the center with a sense of calling and responding resolutely, gratitude toward health workers who work and endure together, and striving and rising to the challenge of preparing for future infection. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean nurse managers made an effort to overcome the crisis based on the sense of calling, despite many changes and challenges. Furthermore, managers expressed their gratitude to the department members working together, and they confirmed the need for system improvement to prepare for upcoming epidemics. © 2022 Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.

3.
Asian Education and Development Studies ; 12(1):15-27, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241771

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The rapid proliferation of digital devices, population aging, and acceleration of digital technology adoption due to the COVID-19 pandemic have increased the need for information education for older adults to prevent inter-generational conflicts and digital alienation. This study aims to analyze the information technology (IT) education programs provided to older adults by age group, considering their heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach: This study identifies IT education programs provided by public institutions in Seoul and target age groups (50 and above) through a survey using triangulation, which were then sorted and summarized into 27 keywords. Correspondence analysis was conducted using the keywords derived for the programs and age groups. Findings: IT education programs in the age group 60 and above accounted for 75.2% of the programs offered, which increased to 90% when including those aged 55 and above. Particularly, the perceptual map created based on relationship correlations indicates which IT education program keywords matched each age group. The Seoul Metropolitan Government primarily offered these programs for older adults aged 60 and above, with 5–7.5 times more education programs for those aged 60 and above than for those aged 50 and above or 55 and above. Therefore, IT education must be more evenly provided to more diverse age groups among older adults to reflect the current situation. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature by proposing a future direction for IT education of older adults. Moreover, it has implications for the direction of IT education to target various age groups in IT education programs, thus enabling older adults to effectively enhance their digital literacy skills during the rapid digitalization caused by COVID-19. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

4.
JHEP Reports ; 5(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2239870

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Liver injury with autoimmune features after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is increasingly reported. We investigated a large international cohort of individuals with acute hepatitis arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on histological and serological features. Methods: Individuals without known pre-existing liver diseases and transaminase levels ≥5x the upper limit of normal within 3 months after any anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and available liver biopsy were included. Fifty-nine patients were recruited;35 females;median age 54 years. They were exposed to various combinations of mRNA, vectorial, inactivated and protein-based vaccines. Results: Liver histology showed predominantly lobular hepatitis in 45 (76%), predominantly portal hepatitis in 10 (17%), and other patterns in four (7%) cases;seven had fibrosis Ishak stage ≥3, associated with more severe interface hepatitis. Autoimmune serology, centrally tested in 31 cases, showed anti-antinuclear antibody in 23 (74%), anti-smooth muscle antibody in 19 (61%), anti-gastric parietal cells in eight (26%), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody in four (13%), and anti-mitochondrial antibody in four (13%) cases. Ninety-one percent were treated with steroids ± azathioprine. Serum transaminase levels improved in all cases and were normal in 24/58 (41%) after 3 months, and in 30/46 (65%) after 6 months. One patient required liver transplantation. Of 15 patients re-exposed to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, three relapsed. Conclusion: Acute liver injury arising after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is frequently associated with lobular hepatitis and positive autoantibodies. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. A close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcomes of this condition. Impact and implications: Cases of liver injury after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been published. We investigated a large international cohort of individuals with acute hepatitis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, focusing on liver biopsy findings and autoantibodies: liver biopsy frequently shows inflammation of the lobule, which is typical of recent injury, and autoantibodies are frequently positive. Whether there is a causal relationship between liver damage and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains to be established. Close follow-up is warranted to assess the long-term outcome of this condition. © 2022 The Author(s)

5.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; 454, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2232352

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, biomedical sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which reveals unique spectral features corresponding to individual molecular vibrational states, have attracted intensive attention. However, the lack of a system for precisely guiding biomolecules to active hotspot regions has impeded the broad application of SERS techniques. Herein, we demonstrate the irreversible active engineering of three-dimensional (3D) interior organo-hotspots via electrochemical (EC) deposition onto metal nanodimple (ECOMD) platforms with viral lysates. This approach enables organic seed-programmable Au growth and the spontaneous bottom-up formation of 3D interior organo-hotspots simultaneously. Because of the net charge effect on the participation rate of viral lysates, the number of interior organo-hotspots in the ECOMDs increases with increasingly positive polarity. The viral lysates embedded in the ECOMDs function as both a dielectric medium for field confinement and an analyte, enabling the highly specific and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 lysates (SLs) at concentrations as low as 10-2 plaque forming unit/mL. The ECOMD platform was used to trace and detect the SLs in human saliva and diagnose of the delta-type SARS-CoV-2 in clinical environments;the results indicate that the proposed platform can provide point-of-care diagnoses of infectious diseases.

6.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration ; 28(4):460-470, 2022.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2231383

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the nursing management experience of Korean nurse managers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: This exploratory qualitative study used individual semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from 10 nurse managers working in tertiary general hospitals in Korea from October 2020 to September 2021. Thematic analysis methods were employed to analyze interview transcripts. Results: The following four themes were derived: difficulty due to an unexpected and sudden disaster, being the center with a sense of calling and responding resolutely, gratitude toward health workers who work and endure together, and striving and rising to the challenge of preparing for future infection. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Korean nurse managers made an effort to overcome the crisis based on the sense of calling, despite many changes and challenges. Furthermore, managers expressed their gratitude to the department members working together, and they confirmed the need for system improvement to prepare for upcoming epidemics. © 2022 Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.

7.
Business, Industry, and Trade in the Tropics ; : 137-150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2163980

ABSTRACT

Prior to the outbreak of the coronavirus and its spread across China, then Asia and the world, the global economy was well placed to enter 2020 on a relatively strong footing. However, this promising start to the year was very quickly undermined by the rapid spread of COVID-19. Since then, the outbreak of COVID-19 has had a major economic impact on the ASEAN region and the wider global economy through its disruption to supply chains, impact on business and consumer confidence, rapid declines in tourism, trade, and investment, and most significantly through the very tight restrictions that governments have placed on the movement of people in order to contain its spread. This study provides an assessment of COVID-19's impact on the ASEAN region. As part of this, we examine the key literature in the trade and development space for Asia, and ASEAN in particular. We also outline the impact of the pandemic from an economic and social perspective, with a particular emphasis on the issue of poverty. Projections are then drawn as to where the future may lie for ASEAN and how it may engender maximal recovery. From our analysis, we highlight the important role that vaccine management and leadership will play in this process. Moreover, we also note the need for greater transparency in policymaking and improved customs procedures so as to make it easy for countries such as China and the US to make new overseas foreign direct investments in the region. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Jacob Wood, Taha Chaiechi and K Thirumaran;individual chapters, the contributors.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(28 Supplement):101, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2098609

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer clinical trial enrollment rates are low, with Black individuals especially underrepresented. We tested Partnering Around Cancer Clinical Trials (PACCT), a multi-level intervention designed to improve patient-physician communication and increase trial invitations among Black and White men with prostate cancer. This study reports only on PACCT Phase 1, the patient-focused intervention, because data collection for PACCT Phase 2, the physician-focused intervention, was halted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Method(s): Black and White men with prostate cancer and their physicians were invited to participate. Patients were tracked <two years for trial eligibility, with eligible patients randomized to usual care or intervention. Intervention patients received a brochure that included text promoting patient-physician partnerships and a trials-focused Question Prompt List to encourage them to participate actively in clinic visits, such as by asking questions or stating concerns. Patient-physician visits with eligible patients were video-recorded. After the visits, communication (i.e., patient active participation and physician patient-centered communication) was assessed via patient self-report and observer ratings of video-recordings. Medical chart ions determined trial invitations. Univariable logistic mixed-effects models nesting patients within physicians tested intervention effects by race on communication and trial invitation. Result(s): Among 199 participants (91 Black;108 White), 22% (n = 44;20 Black, 24 White) became eligible for a trial and received the intervention (n = 19) or usual care (n = 25). Regarding communication, Black intervention patients reported participating more actively than those in usual care (difference = 0.41, 95% CI -0.27-1.08), while White intervention patients reported participating less actively than those in usual care (difference = -0.34, 95% CI -0.72-0.05). No differences in observer ratings of active participation or self-report or observer ratings of physician communication were found. Regarding trial invitations, findings were nonsignificant, but showed more intervention patients (74%) than usual care patients (60%) received invitations (logOR = 1.97, 95% CI -0.30 to 4.24), with Black intervention patients having higher odds of receiving invitations (80%) than White intervention patients (67%) (logOR = 3.84, 95% CI -0.92 to 8.59 vs. logOR = -0.14, 95% CI -4.61 to 4.50). Conclusion(s): Few patients (22%, n = 44) were eligible for a trial during PACCT Phase 1. Despite this small sample, the PACCT intervention showed promise in increasing the level of active participation among Black patients and in increasing clinical trial invitations for Black and White patients. Future research should test this intervention in a larger sample and in combination with the physician-focused intervention.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005725

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer clinical trial enrollment rates are low, with Black individuals especially underrepresented. We tested Partnering Around Cancer Clinical Trials (PACCT), a multi-level intervention designed to improve patient-physician communication and increase trial invitations among Black and White men with prostate cancer. This study reports only on PACCT Phase 1, the patient-focused intervention, because data collection for PACCT Phase 2, the physician-focused intervention, was halted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Black and White men with prostate cancer and their physicians were invited to participate. Patients were tracked <two years for trial eligibility, with eligible patients randomized to usual care or intervention. Intervention patients received a brochure that included text promoting patient-physician partnerships and a trial-focused Question Prompt List to encourage them to participate actively in clinic visits, such as by asking questions or stating concerns. Patient-physician visits with eligible patients were video-recorded. After the visits, communication (i.e., patient active participation and physician patient-centered communication) was assessed via patient self-report and observer ratings of video-recordings. Medical chart ions determined trial invitations. Univariable logistic mixed-effects models nesting patients within physicians tested intervention effects by race on communication and trial invitation. Results: Among 199 participants (91 Black;108 White), 22% (n = 44;20 Black, 24 White) became eligible for a trial and received the intervention (n = 19) or usual care (n = 25). Regarding communication, Black intervention patients reported participating more actively than those in usual care (difference = 0.41, 95% CI -0.27-1.08), while White intervention patients reported participating less actively than those in usual care (difference = -0.34, 95% CI -0.72-0.05). No differences in observer ratings of active participation or self-report or observer ratings of physician communication were found. Regarding trial invitations, findings were nonsignificant, but showed more intervention patients (74%) than usual care patients (60%) received invitations (logOR = 1.97, 95% CI -0.30 to 4.24), with Black intervention patients having higher odds of receiving invitations (80%) than White intervention patients (67%) (logOR = 3.84, 95% CI -0.92 to 8.59 vs. logOR = -0.14, 95% CI -4.61 to 4.50). Conclusions: Few patients (22%, n = 44) became eligible for a trial during PACCT Phase 1. Despite this small sample, the PACCT intervention showed promise in increasing active participation among Black patients and in increasing clinical trial invitations for both Black and White patients. Future research should test this intervention in a larger sample and in combination with the physician-focused intervention.

10.
Hepatology International ; 16:S307-S308, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995897

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman developed acute hepatitis and morbilliform eruption arising ten days after the first dose of the mRNA BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Materials and Methods: The patient was asymptomatic apart from the skin rash. Liver function tests showed predmoninantly severe transaminitis (AST 523 U/L, ALT 1550 U/L, GGT 151 U/L, ALP 128 U/L, bilirubin 12 umol/L). Only the ANA 1:160 was abnormal. Other serology for autoimmune and infectious diseases were negative. Multiphase computed tomography of the abdomen was unremarkable. The SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG titre was 67.5 AU/mL (cut-off[15 AU/mL). The skin histology revealed spongiotic reaction pattern with focal interface lymphocytic inflammation. Multiple eosinophils and a few plasma cells were present. The epidermal lymphocytes were composed of CD2, CD3, C4, CD5, CD7 and CD8-positive T cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1:5. A small number stained positive with TIA1, PD1 and granzyme B. CD56 staining was negative. A liver biopsy was performed after 2 days of steroids. Liver histology showed mild steatosis and mild inflammatory portal infiltrate comprising mainly of small lymphocytes that were CD3 positive with retained staining for CD7 and CD8. Lobular architecture was preserved with inconspicuous interface hepatitis or piecemeal necrosis. Results: The patient was treated with intravenous hydrocortisone (400 mg/day) followed by prednisone (50 mg/day). There was rapid improvement in her liver function tests and cutaneous manifestations (Fig. 1). Conclusion: mRNA COVID-19 vaccine induced hepatitis is a rare phenomenon that is steroid-responsive and has associations with cutaneous eruptions. Our patient's lack of hepatic histological abnormalties is most likely due to early immunosuppression. She had epidermal lymphocytosis with predominance of CD8-positive T cells that were not of cytotoxic phenotype and we are uncertain as to their significance. There is limited guidance on the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in those who have had developed significant hepatic and cutaenous reactions. Further work is needed.

11.
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies ; 35(1):29-50, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1962963

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus has changed our daily lives dramatically, driving us to spend time in the virus-free digital world, providing an imagined community in which we can be reborn. In this study, I highlight an interesting intersection of three phenomena in virtual spaces: the culturally hybrid content of the Korean Wave, or Hallyu;participatory culture of fandom;and a new kind of public defined by emotion. I show how Hallyu fandom becomes a fandom public using digital media by exploring the voluntary practices of Chilean fans in the production of the 2018 KBS Music Bank World Tour in Chile. Chilean K-pop fans form a Latin American fandom community in a digital space where they act as a fandom public based on affective intimacy, thereby influencing wider society. This finding offers insights to determine the capabilities of Hallyu fandom as a public. © 2022 Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies.

12.
9th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications, RiTA 2021 ; 429 LNNS:191-200, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1802616

ABSTRACT

As the demand for social distancing increases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes hard to have close interaction between people in an office. Thus, this research aims to develop a contactless office assistant robot that offers interactive services using user differentiation. Our robot system utilizes various functions such as image recognition, user tracking, voice recognition, voice utterance, and secondary image output to enable natural interaction with human and configures a task manager to operate the functions as one integrated system at the required timing. For system evaluation, a video survey was conducted on the appearance of the robot, the robot’s functions, and the demonstration service scenario in which our robot plays an automated assistive service to people in a department office located on the university campus. As a result 92% (62 people) of the survey participants evaluated the robot positively. And 57% (40 people) of the survey participants rated this system as effective in preventing infectious diseases. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Journal of System and Management Sciences ; 11(3):41-57, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1524937

ABSTRACT

The development of new medical procedures and medical services in the environment that has been changed by COVID-19 is indispensable for the improvement of public health. This paper discusses how the concept of incentive systems and employees’ entrepreneurship can be applied to achieve innovation performance within a hospital sector in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among the incentive system, employees’ entrepreneurship and innovation performance. In addition, the study investigates the moderating effect of locus of control between all of model path. A confirmatory factor analysis validated the measurement model, and subsequently, a structural equation modeling tested the proposed model by using SPSS 26.0, while data were analyzed using AMOS 20.0 statistics software. The result of the paper shows the positive effects of the incentive system on employees’ entrepreneurship. Furthermore, employees’ entrepreneurship has a significant influence on the product innovation and process innovation. Finally, the moderating effect according to locus of control was partially adopted. The results of the study are expected to suggest academic and practical implications to the private hospital field. © 2021, Success Culture Press. All rights reserved.

14.
9th IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics, ISCHI 2021 ; : 73-82, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1501299

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused an enormous burden on healthcare facilities around the world. Cohorting patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) into 'bubbles' has been proposed as an infection-control mechanism. In this paper, we present a novel and flexible model for clustering patient care in healthcare facilities into bubbles in order to minimize infection spread. Our model aims to control a variety of costs to patients/residents and HCPs so as to avoid hidden, downstream adverse effects of clustering patient care. This model leads to a discrete optimization problem that we call the BUBBLECLUSTERING problem. This problem takes as input a temporal visit graph, representing HCP mobility, including visits by HCPs to patient/resident rooms. The output of the problem is a rewired visit graph, obtained by partitioning HCPs and patient rooms into bubbles and rewiring HCP visits to patient rooms so that patient-care is largely confined to the constructed bubbles. Even though the BUBBLECLUSTERING problem is intractable in general, we present an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation of the problem that can be solved optimally for problem instances that arise from typical hospital units and long-term-care facilities. We call our overall solution approach Cost-aware Rewiring of Networks (CoRN). We evaluate CoRN using fine-grained-movement data from a hospital-medical-intensive-care unit as well as two long-term-care facilities. These data were obtained using sensor systems we built and deployed. The main takeaway from our experimental results is that it is possible to use CoRN to substantially reduce infection spread by cohorting patients and HCPs without sacrificing patient-care, and with minimal excess costs to HCPs in terms of time and distances traveled during a shift. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Annals of Child Neurology ; 29(4):183-185, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1498323
16.
Ieee Sensors Journal ; 21(17):18706-18714, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1434594

ABSTRACT

Mitigating the spread of infectious diseases such as the one associated with the COVID-19 pandemic demands simple and effective disinfection techniques. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is one such method, in common use for decontamination of hospital rooms. Practical technologies designed to monitor UVGI ensure the delivery of sufficient doses for germicidal efficacy. Existing UVGI dosimeters rely on intermittent measurements of intensity as the basis for a numerical integration scheme that approximates dose. Traditional devices are ineffective, particularly with pulsed UVGI lamps that emit pulses of light with durations shorter than the interval of measurement. Here, we present a compact, accumulation mode dosimeter (AMD) that detects continuously, as opposed to intermittently, at single or multiple UVGI wavelengths. The AMD utilizes an array of photodiodes and supercapacitors to passively transduce and capture photocurrent generated by UVGI without the use of external power. The accumulated voltage across the supercapacitors then serves as a measure of UVGI dose. A key result is that sampling intervals of AMD do not constrain measurement accuracy. When implemented with a wireless transponder, AMD supports a light-adaptive sampling scheme designed to adjust the sampling interval to the intensity and period of UVGI exposure. Compared to time-based sampling schemes adopted by conventional sensors, light-adaptive approaches autonomously optimize battery life by minimizing current consumption during periods of low or no UVGI. Benchtop studies of the use of this technology with pulsed Xenon lamps (pulse similar to 5 ms) sampled at long intervals (>1s) highlight the key features of operation. Demonstration of AMD during UVGI of E. Coli cultures represents an example in dose dependent effects on disinfection.

17.
Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea ; 37(7):43-52, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1368008

ABSTRACT

As COVID 19 spreads rapidly around the world in December 2019, social discussions are actively underway in architecture and urban fields to respond to a changed society, and educational facilities are responding to the spread of sensitivity through space use and movement control. In order to conservatively control infectious diseases, controlling the use of physical space was the most reliable method, but the strength and limitations of non-face-to-face classes began to become clear in architecture education due to physical restrictions for one year. For the efficient use of architectural educational spaces in the post-COVID 19 era, it is necessary to prepare a plan for use according to the social distancing stage. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the areas suitable for online space and the areas in which physical spaces should be used in architectural education, and then derive a plan that can effectively utilize the physical education space according to the social distancing stage. Interviews and surveys were conducted with 99 students and instructors in the Department of Architecture at Chungbuk National University, and through IPA analysis, it was intended to derive problems and utilization plans for architectural education after the COVID 19. As a result of the study, the problem of communication was one of the biggest problems in the practical education, and in the use of the practice space, the satisfaction of the process requiring physical space was the lowest. Therefore, the computer-related architectural practice education can be converted into an online space and used, and the existing computer room is divided into partitions to form a space dedicated to design class critique. In addition, three desk arrangement plans were suggested to respond to the spread of COVID 19 while focusing on communication through the rearrangement of the desks in the design room. This study is limited to the practice space of the Department of Architecture, Chungbuk National University, and the research is limited to students and instructors. It will be a study. © 2021 Architectural Institute of Korea.

18.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1367249

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic demands simple and effective disinfection techniques. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is one such method in common use for decontamination of hospital rooms. Practical technologies designed to monitor UVGI ensure the delivery of effective dose for reliable germicide. Existing UVGI dosimeters rely on intermittent measurements of intensity as the basis for a numerical integration scheme that approximates dose. Traditional devices are ineffective particularly with pulsed UVGI lamps that emit ms pulses of duration shorter than the interval of measurement. Here, we present a compact, accumulation mode dosimeter (AMD) that detects continuously, as opposed to intermittently, at single or multiple UVGI wavelengths. AMD utilizes an array of photodiodes and supercapacitors to passively transduce and capture photocurrent generated by UVGI without the use of an external power. The accumulated voltage across the supercapacitors then serves as a measure of UVGI dose. A key result is that sampling intervals of AMD do not constrain measurement accuracy. When implemented with a wireless transponder, AMD supports light-adaptive sampling scheme designed to adjust sampling interval to intensity and period of UVGI exposure. Compared to time-based sampling adopted by conventional sensors, light-adaptive sampling autonomously optimizes expanded power by minimizing current consumption during periods of low or no UVGI. Benchtop studies of its use with pulsed Xenon lamps (pulse 5 ms) sampled at long intervals (>1s) highlights key feature. Demonstration of AMD during UVGI of E. Coli cultures represents an example in dose dependent effects on disinfection. IEEE

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