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1.
J Virol ; : JVI0179121, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594205

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are co-circulating in the human population. However, only a few cases of viral co-infection with these two viruses have been documented in humans with some people having severe disease and others mild disease. In order to examine this phenomenon, ferrets were co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and human seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) (H1N1 or H3N2) and were compared to animals that received each virus alone. Ferrets were either immunologically naïve to both viruses or vaccinated with the 2019-2020 split-inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Co-infected naive ferrets lost significantly more body weight than ferrets infected with each virus alone and induced more severe inflammation in both the nose and lungs than ferrets single-infected with each virus. Co-infected naïve animals had predominantly higher IAV titers than SARS-CoV-2 titers, and IAVs efficiently transmitted to the co-housed ferrets by direct contact. Comparatively, SARS-CoV-2 failed to transmit to the ferrets that co-housed with co-infected ferrets by direct contact. Moreover, vaccination significantly reduced IAVs virus titers and shortened the viral shedding, but did not completely block influenza virus direct contact transmission. Notably, vaccination significantly ameliorated the influenza associated disease by protecting vaccinated animals from severe morbidity after IAV single infection or IAV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection, suggesting that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is pivotal to prevent severe disease induced by IAVs and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importance Influenza A viruses cause severe morbidity and mortality during each influenza virus season. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human population offers the opportunity to potential co-infections of both viruses. The development of useful animal models to asses pathogenesis, transmission, and viral evolution of these viruses as the co-infect a host is of critical importance for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The ability to prevent the most severe effects of viral co-infections can be studied using effect co-infection ferret models described in this report.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538370

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the authorization of vaccines for emergency use has been crucial in slowing down the rate of infection and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. In order to investigate the longitudinal serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 natural infection and vaccination, a large-scale, multi-year serosurveillance program entitled SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence and Respiratory Tract Assessment) was initiated at 4 locations in the U.S. The serological assay presented here measuring IgG binding to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) detected antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination with a 95.5% sensitivity and a 95.9% specificity. We used this assay to screen more than 3100 participants and selected 20 previously infected pre-immune and 32 immunologically naïve participants to analyze their antibody binding to RBD and viral neutralization (VN) responses following vaccination with two doses of either the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine. Vaccination not only elicited a more robust immune reaction than natural infection, but the level of neutralizing and anti-RBD antibody binding after vaccination is also significantly higher in pre-immune participants compared to immunologically naïve participants (p<0.0033). Furthermore, the administration of the second vaccination did not further increase the neutralizing or binding antibody levels in pre-immune participants (p=0.69). However, ~46% of the immunologically naïve participants required both vaccinations to seroconvert.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468342

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the authorization of vaccines for emergency use has been crucial in slowing down the rate of infection and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. In order to investigate the longitudinal serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 natural infection and vaccination, a large-scale, multi-year serosurveillance program entitled SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence and Respiratory Tract Assessment) was initiated at 4 locations in the U.S. The serological assay presented here measuring IgG binding to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) detected antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination with a 95.5% sensitivity and a 95.9% specificity. We used this assay to screen more than 3100 participants and selected 20 previously infected pre-immune and 32 immunologically naïve participants to analyze their antibody binding to RBD and viral neutralization (VN) responses following vaccination with two doses of either the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine. Vaccination not only elicited a more robust immune reaction than natural infection, but the level of neutralizing and anti-RBD antibody binding after vaccination is also significantly higher in pre-immune participants compared to immunologically naïve participants (p<0.0033). Furthermore, the administration of the second vaccination did not further increase the neutralizing or binding antibody levels in pre-immune participants (p=0.69). However, ~46% of the immunologically naïve participants required both vaccinations to seroconvert.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
4.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5940-5953, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336992

ABSTRACT

The development of a safe and effective vaccine is a key requirement to overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic. Recombinant proteins represent the most reliable and safe vaccine approach but generally require a suitable adjuvant for robust and durable immunity. We used the SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequence and in silico structural modelling to design a recombinant spike protein vaccine (Covax-19™). A synthetic gene encoding the spike extracellular domain (ECD) was inserted into a baculovirus backbone to express the protein in insect cell cultures. The spike ECD was formulated with Advax-SM adjuvant and first tested for immunogenicity in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Covax-19 vaccine induced high spike protein binding antibody levels that neutralised the original lineage B.1.319 virus from which the vaccine spike protein was derived, as well as the variant B.1.1.7 lineage virus. Covax-19 vaccine also induced a high frequency of spike-specific CD4 + and CD8 + memory T-cells with a dominant Th1 phenotype associated with the ability to kill spike-labelled target cells in vivo. Ferrets immunised with Covax-19 vaccine intramuscularly twice 2 weeks apart made spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG and were protected against an intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 virus given two weeks after the last immunisation. Notably, ferrets that received the two higher doses of Covax-19 vaccine had no detectable virus in their lungs or in nasal washes at day 3 post-challenge, suggesting that in addition to lung protection, Covax-19 vaccine may have the potential to reduce virus transmission. This data supports advancement of Covax-19 vaccine into human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Ferrets , Humans , Immunization , Inulin/analogs & derivatives , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Cell ; 184(7): 1821-1835.e16, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095899

ABSTRACT

Human monoclonal antibodies are safe, preventive, and therapeutic tools that can be rapidly developed to help restore the massive health and economic disruption caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By single-cell sorting 4,277 SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific memory B cells from 14 COVID-19 survivors, 453 neutralizing antibodies were identified. The most potent neutralizing antibodies recognized the spike protein receptor-binding domain, followed in potency by antibodies that recognize the S1 domain, the spike protein trimer, and the S2 subunit. Only 1.4% of them neutralized the authentic virus with a potency of 1-10 ng/mL. The most potent monoclonal antibody, engineered to reduce the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement and prolong half-life, neutralized the authentic wild-type virus and emerging variants containing D614G, E484K, and N501Y substitutions. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in the hamster model was observed at 0.25 and 4 mg/kg respectively in absence of Fc functions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Convalescence , 3T3 Cells , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Male , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
6.
Cell ; 184(7): 1804-1820.e16, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084553

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although passively delivered neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 show promise in clinical trials, their mechanism of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we define correlates of protection of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. Whereas Fc effector functions are dispensable when representative neutralizing mAbs are administered as prophylaxis, they are required for optimal protection as therapy. When given after infection, intact mAbs reduce SARS-CoV-2 burden and lung disease in mice and hamsters better than loss-of-function Fc variant mAbs. Fc engagement of neutralizing antibodies mitigates inflammation and improves respiratory mechanics, and transcriptional profiling suggests these phenotypes are associated with diminished innate immune signaling and preserved tissue repair. Immune cell depletions establish that neutralizing mAbs require monocytes and CD8+ T cells for optimal clinical and virological benefit. Thus, potently neutralizing mAbs utilize Fc effector functions during therapy to mitigate lung infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108907, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065646

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a great concern on both public and veterinary health. Multiple studies showed that the SARS-CoV-2 can persist for few days in wet condition, but it has not been clear whether the virus can maintain the infectivity in dry condition. Thus, we measured the infectious titer of dried SARS-CoV-2 (104 pfu/25 µL droplet) at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 24, and 48 h. Strikingly, the dried SARS-CoV-2 virus did not lose the infectivity to Vero E6 cells for up to 48 h. Our findings warrants that the drying cannot replace the surface disinfection to prevent transmission via common vehicle or nosocomial infection. Future studies can apply our experimental setting to test the efficacy of diverse disinfecting procedures.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Glass , Microbial Viability , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
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