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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 12(3):878, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200433

ABSTRACT

Background: Oncology patients are a particularly vulnerable group to the severe course of COVID-19 due to, e.g., the suppression of the immune system. The study aimed to find links between parameters registered on admission to the hospital and the risk of later death in cancer patients with COVID-19. Methods: The study included patients with a reported history of malignant tumor (n = 151) and a control group with no history of cancer (n = 151) hospitalized due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and August 2021. The variables registered on admission were divided into categories for which we calculated the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were successfully obtained for the following categories: Patient data, Comorbidities, Signs recorded on admission, Medications used before hospitalization and Laboratory results recorded on admission. With the models developed for oncology patients, we identified the following variables that registered on patients' admission were linked to significantly increased risk of death. They are: male sex, presence of metastases in neoplastic disease, impaired consciousness (somnolence or confusion), wheezes/rhonchi, the levels of white blood cells and neutrophils. Conclusion: Early identification of the indicators of a poorer prognosis may serve clinicians in better tailoring surveillance or treatment among cancer patients with COVID-19.

2.
Biomedicines ; 11(1):71, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166235

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections (VRI) are the most prevalent type of infectious diseases and constitute one of the most common causes of contact with medical care. Regarding the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, VRI can not only exacerbate already existing chronic cardiovascular disease (such as coronary artery disease or heart failure) but also trigger new adverse events or complications (e.g., venous thromboembolism), the latter particularly in subjects with multimorbidity or disease-related immobilization. In the current paper, we provide a narrative review of diverse cardiovascular complications of VRI as well as summarize available data on the pathology of the circulatory system in the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-GRAM is a clinical risk rating score for predicting the prognosis of hospitalized COVID-19 infected patients. AIM: Our study aimed to evaluate the use of the COVID-GRAM score in patients with COVID-19 based on the data from the COronavirus in the LOwer Silesia (COLOS) registry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group (834 patients of Caucasian patients) was retrospectively divided into three arms according to the risk achieved on the COVID-GRAM score calculated at the time of hospital admission (between February 2020 and July 2021): low, medium, and high risk. The Omnibus chi-square test, Fisher test, and Welch ANOVA were used in the statistical analysis. Post-hoc analysis for continuous variables was performed using Tukey's correction with the Games-Howell test. Additionally, the ROC analysis was performed over time using inverse probability of censorship (IPCW) estimation. The GRAM-COVID score was estimated from the time-dependent area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Most patients (65%) had a low risk of complications on the COVID-GRAM scale. There were 113 patients in the high-risk group (13%). In the medium- and high-risk groups, comorbidities occurred statistically significantly more often, e.g., hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and flutter, heart failure, valvular disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), compared to low-risk tier subjects. These individuals were also patients with a higher incidence of neurological and cardiac complications in the past. Low saturation of oxygen values on admission, changes in C-reactive protein, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, and procalcitonin level were associated with an increased risk of death during hospitalization. The troponin level was an independent mortality factor. A change from low to medium category reduced the overall survival probability by more than 8 times and from low to high by 25 times. The factor with the strongest impact on survival was the absence of other diseases. The medium-risk patient group was more likely to require dialysis during hospitalization. The need for antibiotics was more significant in the high-risk group on the GRAM score. CONCLUSION: The COVID-GRAM score corresponds well with total mortality. The factor with the strongest impact on survival was the absence of other diseases. The worst prognosis was for patients who were unconscious during admission. Patients with higher COVID-GRAM score were significantly less likely to return to full health during follow-up. There is a continuing need to develop reliable, easy-to-adopt tools for stratifying the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Oxygen , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin
4.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043973

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence on the perinatal aspects of COVID-19, but available data are still insufficient. The reports on perinatal aspects of COVID-19 have been published on a small group of patients. Vertical transmission has been noted. The SARS-CoV-2 genome can be detected in umbilical cord blood and at-term placenta, and the infants demonstrate elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibody levels. In this work, the analysis of clinical characteristics of RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women and their infants, along with the placental pathology correlation results, including villous trophoblast immunoexpression status for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, is presented. RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 amniotic fluid testing was performed. Neonatal surveillance of infection status comprised RT-PCR testing of a nasopharyngeal swab and the measuring of levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 in blood serum. In the initial study group were 161 pregnant women with positive test results. From that group, women who delivered during the hospital stay were selected for further analysis. Clinical data, laboratory results, placental histomorphology results, and neonatal outcomes were compared in women with immunohistochemistry (IHC)-con SARS-CoV-2-positive and IHC SARS-CoV-2-negative placentas (26 cases). A positive placental immunoprofile was noted in 8% of cases (n = 2), whereas 92% of cases were negative (n = 24). Women with placental infection proven by IHC had significantly different pathological findings from those without. One infected neonate was noted (n = 1; 4%). Infection was confirmed in perinatal autopsy, as there was the intrauterine fetal demise. The potential course of the infection with the risk of vertical transmission and implications for fetal-neonatal condition is critical for proper clinical management, which will involve comprehensive, multidisciplinary perinatal care for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is among the most frequent comorbidities worsening COVID-19 outcome. Nevertheless, there are no data regarding the optimal risk stratification of patients with diabetes and COVID-19. Since individual C2HEST components reflect the comorbidities, we assumed that the score could predict COVID-19 outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2184 medical records of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at the medical university center were analyzed, including 473 diabetic patients and 1666 patients without any glucose or metabolic abnormalities. The variables of patients' baseline characteristics were retrieved to calculate the C2HEST score and subsequently the diabetic and non-diabetic subjects were assigned to the following categories: low-, medium- or high-risk. The measured outcomes included: in-hospital mortality; 3-month and 6-month all-cause mortality; non-fatal end of hospitalization (discharged home/sudden-deterioration/rehabilitation) and adverse in-hospital clinical events. RESULTS: A total of 194 deaths (41%) were reported in the diabetic cohort, including 115 in-hospital deaths (24.3%). The 3-month and 6-month in-hospital mortality was highest in the high-risk C2HEST stratum. The C2HEST score revealed to be more sensitive in non-diabetic-group. The estimated six-month survival probability for high-risk subjects reached 0.4 in both cohorts whereas for the low-risk group, the six-month survival probability was 0.7 in the diabetic vs. 0.85 in the non-diabetic group-levels which were maintained during whole observation period. In both cohorts, receiver operating characteristics revealed that C2HEST predicts the following: cardiogenic shock; acute heart failure; myocardial injury; and in-hospital acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the usefulness and performance of the C2HEST score in predicting the adverse COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized diabetic subjects.

6.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Even though coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered an independent risk factor of an unfavorable outcome of SARS-CoV-2-infection, the clinical course of COVID-19 in subjects with CAD is heterogeneous, ranging from clinically asymptomatic to fatal cases. Since the individual C2HEST components are similar to the COVID-19 risk factors, we evaluated its predictive value in CAD subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 2183 patients hospitalized due to confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled onto this study consecutively. Based on past medical history, subjects were assigned to one of two of the study arms (CAD vs. non-CAD) and allocated to different risk strata, based on the C2HEST score. RESULTS: The CAD cohort included 228 subjects, while the non-CAD cohort consisted of 1956 patients. In-hospital, 3-month and 6-month mortality was highest in the high-risk C2HEST stratum in the CAD cohort, reaching 43.06%, 56.25% and 65.89%, respectively, whereas in the non-CAD cohort in the high-risk stratum, it reached: 26.92%, 50.77% and 64.55%. Significant differences in mortality between the C2HEST stratum in the CAD arm were observed in post hoc analysis only for medium- vs. high-risk strata. The C2HEST score in the CAD cohort could predict hypovolemic shock, pneumonia and acute heart failure during hospitalization, whereas in the non-CAD cohort, it could predict cardiovascular events (myocardial injury, acute heart failure, myocardial infract, carcinogenic shock), pneumonia, acute liver dysfunction and renal injury as well as bleedings. CONCLUSIONS: The C2HEST score is a simple, easy-to-apply tool which might be useful in risk stratification, preferably in non-CAD subjects admitted to hospital due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969328

ABSTRACT

Deviations in laboratory tests assessing liver function in patients with COVID-19 are frequently observed. Their importance and pathogenesis are still debated. In our retrospective study, we analyzed liver-related parameters: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin, comorbidities and other selected potential risk factors in patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection to assess their prognostic value for intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation necessity and mortality. We compared the prognostic effectiveness of these parameters separately and in pairs to the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an independent risk factor of in-hospital mortality, using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Data were collected from 2109 included patients. We created models using a sample with complete laboratory tests n = 401 and then applied them to the whole studied group excluding patients with missing singular variables. We estimated that albumin may be a better predictor of the COVID-19-severity course compared to NLR, irrespective of comorbidities (p < 0.001). Additionally, we determined that hypoalbuminemia in combination with AST (OR 1.003, p = 0.008) or TBIL (OR 1.657, p = 0.001) creates excellent prediction models for in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, the early evaluation of albumin levels and liver-related parameters may be indispensable tools for the early assessment of the clinical course of patients with COVID-19.

8.
J Clin Med ; 11(12)2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure represent a vulnerable population for COVID-19 and are prone to having worse prognoses and higher fatality rates. Still, the clinical course of the infection is dynamic, and complication occurrence in particular in patients with heart failure is fairly unpredictable. Considering that individual components of the C2HEST (C2: Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD)/Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); H: Hypertension; E: Elderly (Age ≥ 75); S: Systolic HF; T: Thyroid disease) are parallel to COVID-19 mortality risk factors, we evaluate the predictive value of C2HEST score in patients with heart failure (HF) Material and Methods: The retrospective medical data analysis of 2184 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the University Hospital in Wroclaw between February 2020 and June 2021 was the basis of the study. The measured outcomes included: in-hospital mortality, 3-month and 6-month all-cause-mortality, non-fatal end of hospitalization, and adverse in-hospital clinical events. RESULTS: The heart failure cohort consists of 255 patients, while 1929 patients were assigned to the non-HF cohort. The in-hospital, 3-month, and 6-month mortality rates were highest in the HF cohort high-risk C2HEST stratum, reaching 38.61%, 53.96%, and 65.36%, respectively. In the non-HF cohort, in-hospital, 3-month, and 6-month mortalities were also highest in the high-risk C2HEST stratum and came to 26.39%, 52.78%, and 65.0%, respectively. An additional point in the C2HEST score increased the total death intensity in 10% of HF subjects (HR 1.100, 95% CI 0.968-1.250 p = 0.143) while in the non-HF cohort, the same value increased by 62.3% (HR 1.623, 95% CI 1.518-1.734 p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The C2HEST score risk in the HF cohort failed to show discriminatory performance in terms of mortality and other clinical adverse outcomes during hospitalization. C2HEST score in the non-HF cohort showed significantly better performance in terms of predicting in-hospital and 6-month mortality and other non-fatal clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events (myocardial injury, acute heart failure, myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock), pneumonia, sepsis, and acute renal injury.

10.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765955

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of evidence suggests that COVID-19 presents sex-dependent differences in clinical course and outcomes. Nevertheless, there is still an unmet need to stratify the risk for poor outcome at the beginning of hospitalization. Since individual C2HEST components are similar COVID-19 mortality risk factors, we evaluated sex-related predictive value of the score. Material and Methods: A total of 2183 medical records of consecutive patients hospitalized due to confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were analyzed. Subjects were assigned to one of two of the study arms (male vs. female) and afterward allocated to different stratum based on the C2HEST score result. The measured outcomes included: in-hospital-mortality, three-month- and six-month-all-cause-mortality and in-hospital non-fatal adverse clinical events. Results: The C2HEST score predicted the mortality with better sensitivity in female population regarding the short- and mid-term. Among secondary outcomes, C2HEST-score revealed predictive value in both genders for pneumonia, myocardial injury, myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and acute kidney injury. Additionally in the male cohort, the C2HEST value predicted acute liver dysfunction and all-cause bleeding, whereas in the female arm-stroke/TIA and SIRS. Conclusion: In the present study, we demonstrated the better C2HEST-score predictive value for mortality in women and illustrated sex-dependent differences predicting non-fatal secondary outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(7):1821, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762375

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal manifestations may accompany the respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Abdominal pain (AP) without nausea and vomiting is one of the most common. To date, its role and prognostic value in patients with COVID-19 is still debated. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis of 2184 individuals admitted to hospital due to COVID-19. We divided the patients into four groups according to presented symptoms: dyspnea, n = 871 (39.9%);AP, n = 97 (4.4%);AP with dyspnea together, n = 50 (2.3%);and patients without dyspnea and AP, n = 1166 (53.4%). The patients with AP showed tendency to be younger than these with dyspnea, but without AP (63.0 [38.0–70.0] vs. 65.0 [52.0–74.0] years, p = 0.061), and they were more often females as compared to patients with dyspnea (57.7% vs. 44.6%, p = 0.013, for females). Patients with AP as a separate sign of COVID-19 significantly less often developed pneumonia as compared to individuals with dyspnea or with dyspnea and AP together (p < 0.0001). Patients with AP or AP with dyspnea were significantly less frequently intubated or transferred to the intensive care unit (p = 0.003 and p = 0.031, respectively). Individuals with AP alone or with dyspnea had significantly lower rate of mortality as compared to patients with dyspnea (p = 0.003). AP as a separate symptom and also as a coexisting sign with dyspnea does not predispose the patients with COVID-19 to the worse clinical course and higher mortality.

12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
13.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690201

ABSTRACT

Senility has been identified among the strongest risk predictors for unfavorable COVID-19-outcome. However, even in the elderly population, the clinical course of infection in individual patients remains unpredictable. Hence, there is an urgent need for developing a simple tool predicting adverse COVID-19-outcomes. We assumed that the C2HEST-score could predict unfavorable clinical outcomes in the elderly subjects with COVID-19-subjects. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1047 medical records of patients at age > 65 years, hospitalized at the medical university center due to COVID-19. Subsequently, patients were divided into three categories depending on their C2HEST-score result. RESULTS: We noticed significant differences in the in-hospital and 3-month and 6-month mortality-which was the highest in high-risk-C2HEST-stratum reaching 35.7%, 54.4%, and 65.9%, respectively. The medium-risk-stratum mortalities reached 24.1% 43.4%, and 57.6% and for low-risk-stratum 14.4%, 25.8%, and 39.2% respectively. In the C2HEST-score model, a change from the low to the medium category increased the probability of death intensity approximately two-times. Subsequently, transfer from the low-risk to the high-risk-stratum raised all-cause-death-intensity 2.7-times. Analysis of the secondary outcomes revealed that the C2HEST-score has predictive value for acute kidney injury, acute heart failure, and cardiogenic shock. CONCLUSIONS: C2HEST-score analysis on admission to the hospital may predict the mortality, acute kidney injury, and acute heart failure in elderly subjects with COVID-19.

14.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(3)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687651

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic disease associated with increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk, excessive morbidity and mortality worldwide. The authors of the present consensus, clinicians representing medical specialties related to the treatment of obesity and its complications, reviewed a number of European and American guidelines, published mostly in 2019-2021, and summarized the principles of obesity management to provide a practical guidance considering the impact that increased adiposity poses to health. From a clinical perspective, the primary goal of obesity treatment is to prevent or slow down the progression of diseases associated with obesity, reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk, and improve the quality of life by achieving adequate and stable weight reduction. However, obesity should be not only considered a disease requiring treatment in an individual patient, but also a civilization disease requiring preventive measures at the populational level. Despite the evident benefits, obesity management within the health care system-whether through pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery-is only a symptomatic treatment, with all its limitations, and will not ultimately solve the problem of obesity. The important message is that available treatment options fail to correct the true drivers of the obesity pandemic. To this end, new solutions and efforts to prevent obesity in the populations are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Climate Change , Consensus , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , United States
15.
J Clin Med ; 11(2)2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636656

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows high incidence of thromboembolic events in humans. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate if anticoagulation prior to COVID-19 infection may impact clinical profile, as well as mortality rate among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The study was based on retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. After propensity score matching (PSM), a group of 236 patients receiving any anticoagulant treatment prior to COVID-19 infection (AT group) was compared to 236 patients without previous anticoagulation (no AT group). In 180 days, the observation we noted comparable mortality rate in AT and no AT groups (38.5% vs. 41.1%, p = 0.51). Similarly, we did not observe any statistically significant differences in admission in the intensive care unit (14.1% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.20), intubation and mechanical ventilation (15.0% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.38), catecholamines usage (14.3% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.86), and bleeding rate (6.3% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.37) in both groups. Our results suggest that antithrombotic treatment prior to COVID-19 infection is unlikely to be protective for morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

16.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) are at high risk of unfavorable courses of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with HF. METHODS: Data of patients hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in Poland between March 2020 and May 2021 with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. The study population was divided into a HF group (patients with a history of HF) and a non-HF group. RESULTS: Out of 2184 patients (65 ± 13 years old, 50% male), 12% had a history of HF. Patients from the HF group were older, more often males, had more comorbidities, more often dyspnea, pulmonary and peripheral congestion, inflammation, and end-organ damage biomarkers. HF patients had longer and more complicated hospital stay, with more frequent acute HF development as compared with non-HF. They had significantly higher mortality assessed in hospital (35% vs. 12%) at three (53% vs. 22%) and six months (72% vs. 47%). Of 76 (4%) patients who developed acute HF, 71% died during hospitalization, 79% at three, and 87% at six months. CONCLUSIONS: The history of HF identifies patients with COVID-19 who are at high risk of in-hospital complications and mortality up to six months of follow-up.

17.
Front Chem ; 9: 767448, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556194

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is heavily glycosylated, having 22 predicted N-glycosylation sites per monomer. It is also O-glycosylated, although the number of O-glycosites is less defined. Recent studies show that spike protein glycans play critical roles in viral entry and infection. The spike monomer has two subdomains, S1 and S2, and a receptor-binding domain (RBD) within the S1 domain. In this study, we have characterized the site-specific glycosylation patterns of the HEK293 recombinant spike RBD and S1 domains as well as the intact spike derived from the whole virus produced in Vero cells. The Vero cell-derived spike from the WA1 strain and a D614G variant was analyzed. All spike proteins, S1, and RBDs were analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and LC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Eclipse Tribrid mass spectrometer. N-glycans identified in HEK293-derived S1 were structurally diverse. Those found in the HEK293-derived RBD were highly similar to those in HEK293 S1 where N-glycosites were shared. Comparison of the whole cell-derived WA1 and D614G spike proteins revealed that N-glycosites local to the mutation site appeared to be more readily detected, hinting that these sites are more exposed to glycosylation machinery. Moreover, recombinant HEK293-derived S1 was occupied almost completely with complex glycan, while both WA1 and D614G derived from the Vero E6 cell whole virus were predominantly high-mannose glycans. This stands in stark contrast to glycosylation patterns seen in both CHO- and HEK cell-derived recombinant S1, S2, and the whole spike previously reported. Concerning O-glycosylation, our analyses revealed that HEK293 recombinant proteins possessed a range of O-glycosites with compositions consistent with Core type 1 and 2 glycans. The O-glycosites shared between the S1 and RBD constructs, sites T323 and T523, were occupied by a similar range of Core 1 and 2 type O-glycans. Overall, this study reveals that the sample nature and cell substrate used for production of these proteins can have a dramatic impact on the glycosylation profile. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycans are associated with host ACE2 receptor interaction efficiency. Therefore, understanding such differences will serve to better understand these host-pathogen interactions and inform the choice of cell substrates to suite downstream investigations.

18.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542606

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) can affect almost all organs of the human body, including kidneys. We conducted a one-center study to comprehensively analyze the effects of kidney involvement on the course and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, depending on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at admission. Out of the 1958 patients, 1342 (68.54%) had eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group A) and 616 (31.46%) had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (group B). Group B was additionally divided into subgroups B1, B2, and B3 based on eGFR. We found that mortality rates during hospitalization, as well as after 90 and 180 days, were much higher in group B than group A. The highest mortality was observed in the B2 subgroup with eGFR of 15-29. The mortality of B patients was associated with comorbidities, respiratory dysfunction, immunological impairment, and more frequent development of AKI. AKI had a negative impact on patients' survival, regardless of the initial renal function. At discharge, 7.4% of patients had serum creatinine levels 30% higher, or more, as compared to admission. The disease course and outcomes in COVID-19 patients are associated with baseline eGFR; however, AKI during hospitalization is a more significant predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the initial renal function.

19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(11): 1806-1818, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453574

ABSTRACT

Patients with heart failure (HF) who contract SARS-CoV-2 infection are at a higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regardless of therapeutic attempts in COVID-19, vaccination remains the most promising global approach at present for controlling this disease. There are several concerns and misconceptions regarding the clinical indications, optimal mode of delivery, safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with HF. This document provides guidance to all healthcare professionals regarding the implementation of a COVID-19 vaccination scheme in patients with HF. COVID-19 vaccination is indicated in all patients with HF, including those who are immunocompromised (e.g. after heart transplantation receiving immunosuppressive therapy) and with frailty syndrome. It is preferable to vaccinate against COVID-19 patients with HF in an optimal clinical state, which would include clinical stability, adequate hydration and nutrition, optimized treatment of HF and other comorbidities (including iron deficiency), but corrective measures should not be allowed to delay vaccination. Patients with HF who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 need to continue precautionary measures, including the use of facemasks, hand hygiene and social distancing. Knowledge on strategies preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (including the COVID-19 vaccination) should be included in the comprehensive educational programmes delivered to patients with HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology , Heart Failure , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Frail Elderly , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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