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1.
iScience ; : 105040, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004160

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has highly variable clinical courses. The search for prognostic host factors for COVID-19 outcome is a priority. Methods We performed logistic regression for ICU admission against a polygenic score (PGS) for Cystatin C (CyC) production in patients with COVID-19. We analyzed the predictive value of longitudinal plasma CyC levels in an independent cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Findings In four cohorts spanning European and African ancestry populations, we identified a significant association between CyC-production PGS and odds of critical illness (n cases=2,319), with the strongest association captured in the UKB cohort (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.58-2.87, p=7.12e-7). Plasma proteomics from an independent cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n cases = 131) demonstrated that CyC production was associated with COVID-specific mortality (p=0.0007). Interpretation Our findings suggest that CyC may be useful for stratification of patients and it has functional role in the host response to COVID-19.

2.
JCI Insight ; 7(14)2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962552

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a lethal condition with limited treatment options and currently a common global cause of death due to COVID-19. ARDS secondary to transfusion-related ALI (TRALI) has been recapitulated preclinically by anti-MHC-I antibody administration to LPS-primed mice. In this model, we demonstrate that inhibitors of PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates signaling pathways of fundamental importance to homeostasis and inflammation, prevented lung injury and increased survival. Treatment with PTP1B inhibitors attenuated the aberrant neutrophil function that drives ALI and was associated with release of myeloperoxidase, suppression of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and inhibition of neutrophil migration. Mechanistically, reduced signaling through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, particularly to the activation of PI3Kγ/AKT/mTOR, was essential for these effects, linking PTP1B inhibition to promoting an aged-neutrophil phenotype. Considering that dysregulated activation of neutrophils has been implicated in sepsis and causes collateral tissue damage, we demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors improved survival and ameliorated lung injury in an LPS-induced sepsis model and improved survival in the cecal ligation and puncture-induced (CLP-induced) sepsis model. Our data highlight the potential for PTP1B inhibition to prevent ALI and ARDS from multiple etiologies.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Neutrophils , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Sepsis/complications
3.
Gut ; 71(5): 879-888, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether famotidine improved inflammation and symptomatic recovery in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fully remote, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04724720) enrolling symptomatic unvaccinated adult outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 2021 and April 2021 from two US centres. Patients self-administered 80 mg famotidine (n=28) or placebo (n=27) orally three times a day for 14 consecutive days. Endpoints were time to (primary) or rate of (secondary) symptom resolution, and resolution of inflammation (exploratory). RESULTS: Of 55 patients in the intention-to-treat group (median age 35 years (IQR: 20); 35 women (64%); 18 African American (33%); 14 Hispanic (26%)), 52 (95%) completed the trial, submitting 1358 electronic symptom surveys. Time to symptom resolution was not statistically improved (p=0.4). Rate of symptom resolution was improved for patients taking famotidine (p<0.0001). Estimated 50% reduction of overall baseline symptom scores were achieved at 8.2 days (95% CI: 7 to 9.8 days) for famotidine and 11.4 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 12.6 days) for placebo treated patients. Differences were independent of patient sex, race or ethnicity. Five self-limiting adverse events occurred (famotidine, n=2 (40%); placebo, n=3 (60%)). On day 7, fewer patients on famotidine had detectable interferon alpha plasma levels (p=0.04). Plasma immunoglobulin type G levels to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid core protein were similar between both arms. CONCLUSIONS: Famotidine was safe and well tolerated in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Famotidine led to earlier resolution of symptoms and inflammation without reducing anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Additional randomised trials are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Famotidine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806475

ABSTRACT

Background Mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and digests DNA in mucoid sputum. Nebulized dornase alfa is FDA-approved for cystic fibrosis treatment. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributes to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions. NETs are found in the serum of patients with severe COVID-19, and targeting NETs reduces mortality in animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, dornase alfa may be beneficial to patients with severe COVID-19, acting as a mucolytic and targeting NETs. However, delivery of nebulized drugs can aerosolize SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, increasing the infection risk for staff. Here, we report a single center case series where dornase alfa was administered through an in-line nebulizer system to minimize risk of virus aerosolization. Methods Demographic, clinical data, and outcomes were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO), treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa co-administered with albuterol (used to increase delivery to the alveoli), between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and responses, including longitudinal values capturing respiratory function and inflammatory status, were analyzed. Results Following nebulized in-line administration of dornase alfa with albuterol, the fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients. All patients remain alive and two patients have been discharged from the intensive care unit. No drug associated toxicities were identified. Conclusions The results presented in this case series suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and two have recently been registered ( NCT04359654 and NCT04355364 ). With this case series, we hope to contribute to the development of management approaches for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

6.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 91, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 have a mortality of 24-53%, in part due to distal mucopurulent secretions interfering with ventilation. DNA from neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to the viscosity of mucopurulent secretions and NETs are found in the serum of COVID-19 patients. Dornase alfa is recombinant human DNase 1 and is used to digest DNA in mucoid sputum. Here, we report a single-center case series where dornase alfa was co-administered with albuterol through an in-line nebulizer system. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were collected from the electronic medical records of five mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-including three requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-treated with nebulized in-line endotracheal dornase alfa and albuterol, between March 31 and April 24, 2020. Data on tolerability and response were analyzed. RESULTS: The fraction of inspired oxygen requirements was reduced for all five patients after initiating dornase alfa administration. All patients were successfully extubated, discharged from hospital and remain alive. No drug-associated toxicities were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that dornase alfa will be well-tolerated by patients with severe COVID-19. Clinical trials are required to formally test the dosing, safety, and efficacy of dornase alfa in COVID-19, and several have been recently registered.


Subject(s)
Albuterol/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Deoxyribonuclease I/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use
7.
Gut ; 69(9): 1592-1597, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-536627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Treatment options for non-hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to reduce morbidity, mortality and spread of the disease are an urgent global need. The over-the-counter histamine-2 receptor antagonist famotidine is a putative therapy for COVID-19. We quantitively assessed longitudinal changes in patient reported outcome measures in non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who self-administered high-dose famotidine orally. DESIGN: Patients were enrolled consecutively after signing written informed consent. Data on demographics, COVID-19 diagnosis, famotidine use, drug-related side effects, temperature measurements, oxygen saturations and symptom scores were obtained using questionnaires and telephone interviews. Based on a National Institute of Health (NIH)-endorsed Protocol to research Patient Experience of COVID-19, we collected longitudinal severity scores of five symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, headaches and anosmia) and general unwellness on a four-point ordinal scale modelled on performance status scoring. All data are reported at the patient level. Longitudinal combined normalised symptom scores were statistically compared. RESULTS: Ten consecutive patients with COVID-19 who self-administered high-dose oral famotidine were identified. The most frequently used famotidine regimen was 80 mg three times daily (n=6) for a median of 11 days (range: 5-21 days). Famotidine was well tolerated. All patients reported marked improvements of disease related symptoms after starting famotidine. The combined symptom score improved significantly within 24 hours of starting famotidine and peripheral oxygen saturation (n=2) and device recorded activity (n=1) increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case series suggest that high-dose oral famotidine is well tolerated and associated with improved patient-reported outcomes in non-hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Drug Monitoring/methods , Famotidine/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Symptom Assessment/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Histamine H2 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry/methods , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Administration , Treatment Outcome
8.
Cancer Discov ; 10(7): 913-915, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260346

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has created a global pandemic that has killed more than a quarter million people since December 2019, halted commerce, and disrupted our ability to research cancer in the laboratory and clinic and care for our patients. A return to a functioning society can be facilitated by the active participation of cancer researchers to diagnose and treat SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, and the direct and indirect benefits of our involvement cannot be overstated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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