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Euro Surveill ; 26(23)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266639


We describe four secondary fungal infections caused by Mucorales species in COVID-19 patients. Three COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) occurred in ICU, one outside ICU. All were men aged > 50 years, three died. Clinical presentations included pulmonary, rhino-orbital cerebral and disseminated infection. Infections occurred in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. CAM is an emerging disease and our observations underscore the need to be aware of invasive mucormycosis, including in COVID-19 patients without (poorly controlled) diabetes mellitus and outside ICU.

COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1896-1901, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125541


The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires extra attention for immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. We report on a case of a 35-year-old renal transplant recipient who suffered from a severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy. The case is illustrative for dilemmas that transplant professionals may face in the absence of evidence-based COVID-19 therapy and concurrent pressure for exploration of experimental pharmacological treatment options. However, the risk-benefit balance of experimental or off-label therapy may be weighed differently in organ transplant recipients than in otherwise healthy COVID-19 patients, owing to their immunocompromised status and potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive therapy. With this case report, we aimed to achieve increased awareness and improved management of drug-drug interactions associated with the various treatment options for COVID-19 in renal transplant patients.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Everolimus/pharmacokinetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Everolimus/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacokinetics , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/pharmacokinetics , Male , Netherlands , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome